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From the "Guardian" 

"Miss Dunbar has accomplished in this first volume a really 
valuable portion of a most useful task. With the help of the Acta 
Sanctorum and a very considerable knowledge of later work, she 
has compiled an excellent summary of a vast number of lives of 
female saints. Her survey extends over the whole Church prior to 
the severance of East and West, the Western Church as a whole up 
to the Reformation, and the Roman Church afterwards. So far as 
we have been able to test the book, it is very well done, and from the 
best authorities." 

From the "Church Times" 

" The present compiler has gone to the best sources. . . . Un 
questionably, it will be found to be an exceedingly useful book of 

From the "Catholic Times" 

" The authoress of this book undertook a work which demanded 
ability and discrimination. In performing it she has displayed both. 
. . . The biographical sketches are well written, and the dictionary 
will be valuable both as a work for pious use, and a book of reference." 

From the "Expository Times " 

" It is a work of intense human interest, and at the same time of 
real scientific value. The best authorities have been used, and they 
have been used in the best way, the utmost care being taken to have 
all the references exact, and at the same time to let these holy women 
speak and act in their own tongue and in their own time. This is 
the way in which short dictionaries should be written. Every article 
should be made to touch some human sympathy, every date as exact 
as pains and patience can make it." 

From the "Tablet 9 

"This work is a useful collection of interesting lives of holy 
women . . . who in all ages of the Christian era have illustrated 
God s Church. . . . Much historical information concerning the 
Middles Ages will be found in the lives of saints of that period." 
















I \ Jc 


AA.SS. . . . . . Acta Sanctorum. 

A.R.M. . . . . . Appendix to Roman Martyrology. 

B Blessed. 

c. circa. 

M Martyr, martyred. 

Mart Martyrology. 

O.S.A. . . . . . . Order of St. Augustine. 

O.S.B Order of St. Benedict. 

O.S.D. . . . . . Order of St Dominic. 

O.S.F. . ... Order of St. Francis. 

Praeter Prtetermissi. 

R.M Roman Martyrology. 

Ven. . . . . . . Venerable. 

V. ...... Virgin. 

+ . . Died. 


Madrun : for " JEGIWG," read " TEGIWG." 
Margaret (8) : for " Zealand," read " Sealand." 
Syncletica (4) : for " PERPETUA (6)," read " PERPETUA (8). 
Victoria (5) : for " 18," read " 23." 
Victoria (19) : for " 19," read " 24." 
Victoria (20) : for " 20," read " 25." 


St. Mabe. A church and village in 
Cornwall are called by this name. Pro 
bably same as Mabena. 

St. Mabel or Mabille, ISABEL or 

St. Mabena, MABINA or MABY is 
represented on a window in St. German s 
church, in Cornwall, having on her lap 
a dead Christ crowned with thorns 
(Whitaker, Life of St. Neot). Daughter 
of Brychan (Smith and Wace). (See 

St. Macaona or MACHAONIA, Dec. 15, 
M. Guerin. 

St. Macaria ( 1 ) or MACARIUS, April 8, 
M. with SS. MAXIMA (3) and Januarius, at 
Carthage. EM. AA.SS. 

St. Macaria (2), April 6, M. at 
Alexandria. AA.SS. 

St. Macaria(3) or MADIARIA, April 7, 
M. with ST. MAXIMA at Antioch. AA.SS. 

St. Macaria (4) or MARCIA, April 14, 
M. at Terano in Umbria. AA.SS. 

St. Machaonia, MACAONA. 

St. Maches, M. First half of the 
6th century. Daughter of St. Gwynllyw 
and sister of St. Cattwg and several other 
saints. St. Maches gave alms to all who 
asked, and was stabbed by a heathen 
Saxon who came to her begging, at a 
place called afterwards Merthyr Maches 
or Llanfaches in Monmouthshire. Rees. 

St. Macra, Jan. (5 (MAGRA, MAKER), 
V. M. c. 303, at Times, near Eheims. 
Patron of Fimes. Rictiovarus was sent 
by Diocletian and Maximian to put 
down Christianity in Gaul. In this 
persecution Macra was stretched over 
burning coals, and so died. ELENARA (1) 

VOL. n. 

and SPONSARIA were her companions. 
Roman, German and Gallican Martyr- 
ologies. AA.SS. Tillemont. 
. St. Macrina (1), Jan. 14, + c. 340. 
Grandmother of SS. MACRINA (2), Basil 
the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, and Peter 
of Sebaste. Mother of St. Basil who 
married St. EMILY (1). Macrina was 
born at NeocsBsarea in Pontus, soon 
after the death of its famous bishop 
St. Gregory Thaumaturgus, and she was 
brought up to venerate his memory and 
follow his precepts. She married a 
Christian of good family and consider 
able property in Pontus and Cappadocia. 
During the persecution under Galerius 
and Maxirnianus they were compelled to 
leave their home and conceal themselves 
with a few devoted servants in a forest 
on the mountains of Pontus. Here they 
lived for seven years in great privation, 
sometimes only saved from starvation by 
the timely appearance of stags and the 
miraculous ease with which they were 
enabled to catch these wild animals. 
They returned home in 311, but when 
persecution was renewed, their possessions 
were confiscated and they suffered great 
distress. They, however, regained part 
of their property and, after her husband s 
death, Macrina lived in her own country 
house at Annesi on the Iris, and brought 
up her grandson St. Basil the Great. 
She is spoken of with praise in the writ 
ings of her famous grandsons and in the 
history of Macrina (2). EM. Baillet. 
Smith and Wace. 

St. Macrina (2), July 19, c. 327- 
379. Granddaughter of MACRINA (1). 


Eldest daughter of SS. Basil and 
EMILY (1). Sister of SS. Basil the 
Great, Gregory of Nyssa, and Peter of 
Sebaste. She was born at Caesarea in 
Cappadocia ; she was very carefully 
brought up by St. Emily, and before she 
was twelve years old she knew all the 
Psalms by heart, besides other portions 
of the Holy Scriptures. As she was 
rich and remarkably beautiful, she had 
many suitors and her father betrothed 
her to a young man of distinction ; but 
he died and she chose to remain single 
and lead a life of devotion with her 
mother, working with her hands that 
she might have the more to give to the 
poor. She exercised a powerful and salu 
tary influence over her family. On her 
father s death she relieved her mother of 
all care and trouble, managing the estate % 
and settling her four sisters in suitable 
marriages. In 357 she shared to the 
full her mother s grief for the death of 
Naucratius and comforted her with her 
sympathy and courage. (See EMILY (1).) 
She brought up her youngest brother, 
St. Peter of Sebaste, who was born after 
his father s death. She avoided teaching 
him profane knowledge useless to his 
salvation, and so regulated all his time 
that he had no leisure for vain or puerile 
occupations. He grew up wise and 
saintly and in 379 was found worthy 
to succeed his brother, St. Basil- the 
Great, in the government of the monas 
tery founded by their mother, St. Emily. 
Macrina ruled the sister house, instituted 
at the same time for women. A few 
months after the death of her brother 
Basil she fell ill. St. Gregory of Nyssa, 
who had been absent eight years, arrived 
to pay her a visit and found her in a 
raging fever, lying on two boards on the 
ground. Although she was at the point 
of death, they had a long conversation 
concerning their lately deceased brother 
Basil, the future life, the resurrection, 
and the purifying by fire after death. 
She thanked God for His many mercies 
to her, and that amid her greatest 
poverty she had never been compelled 
to refuse any one who begged of her, nor 
to beg of others for herself. She died 
that night and they found that she had 
a band round her neck from which hung 

a cross and a ring. Gregory gave the 
cross to Vestina, one of the nuns, but 
the ring, which contained a little piece 
of the cross of Christ, he kept for him 
self. Such was the poverty of the house, 
that nothing could be found to cover the 
corpse of its mistress on the way to the 
grave ; her saintly brother spread his 
episcopal mantle over it. R.M. Butler. 
Baillet, " St. Peter of Sebaste." Smith 
and Wace. 

There is a church dedicated to St. 
Macrina at Hassakeni, one of the curious 
subterranean villages in Cappadocia. The 
local tradition is that she came there 
with ten virgins from Caesarea and 
lived in one of the rock-hewn houses 
with which the ground is riddled ; they 
are of great antiquity, most of them 
are Christian, but some are older still. 
Each of the little hovels above ground 
has subterranean rooms under it, the 
passage to which is closed by a cheese- 
shaped stone that can only be opened 
from inside. The Athenseum, Aug. 5, 

St. Macrone, March 15, M. at 
Thessalonica, beaten to death. Mart. 
of Salisbury. 

St. Mactaflede, March 13, 7th cen 
first abbess of Habend. About 620 St. 
Eomaric and St. Amatus (Sept. 13) 
founded a double monastery on the hill 
of Habend in the Vosges. They chose 
Macteflede, a woman of great sanctity, 
to preside over the nuns, in seven bands 
of twelve each ; they were to succeed 
each other in singing psalms without 
cessation day and night. She ruled for 
two years and was succeeded by GEGO- 
BERGA, daughter of Komaric. The com 
munity was at first under the Columban 
rule and afterwards adopted that of St. 
Benedict. The monastery was destroyed 
by Huns in the 10th century and rebuilt, 
for nuns only, by the Emperor Louis III., 
on the other side of the river, where 
it became the nucleus of the town of 
Remiremont. The nuns gave place to 
canonesses before the final suppression 
of the establishment. AA.SS. O.S.B., 
" SS. Amatus and Komaric." Bouquet. 
Mactaflede is called Saint by Saussaye 


and in several calendars but her worship 
is not certain. 

St. Maddalena, Madeleine or 
Madeline, MAGDALKM:. 

St. Madelbert, Sept. 7, + c. 705 
MAUBERTE), succeeded her sister ADEL- 
TRUDE (1) as third abbess of Maubeuge, 
about 604. Daughter of B. Vincent and 
WALTRUDE. She was brought up by her 
aunt ALDEGUNDIS (2). AA.SS. Butler. 

St. Madeleine, MAGDALENE. 

St. Madeltrude, ADELTRUDE(!) 

St. Maderasma, MEDRYSIMK. 

St. Madern, MADRON. 

St. Madiaria, MACARIA (3). 

St. Madila or MADLA, MLADA. 

St. Madilama, Sept. 17, V. M. 
Mentioned in the Alexandrine-Ethiopian 
Calendar and Coptic Menology. AA.SS. 

St. Madron or MADERNE, perhaps 
MADRUN. A very ancient Cornish saint, 
whose well in Cornwall, though very 
cold, was, according to tradition, boiling 
hot to the hand of a traitor. Sick chil 
dren are taken to this well on the first 
Sunday in May and rags are tied to 
the surrounding bushes as offerings. 
C. F. Gordon Gumming. Blight, Cornish 

St. Madrona or MATRONA, patron 
of Badajos. Cahier. 

St. Madrun, + c. 500, daughter of 
Gwrthefyr or Vortimer. She married 
Ynyr Gwent, a Welsh chieftain and 
saint. They had a daughter ST. TEGIWG 
and sons SS. Cedro and Cynheiddion. 
With the assistance of Auhun, her maid, 
Madrun founded the church of Traws- 
fynydd, Merionethshire. Rees. She is 
perhaps the same as MATERIANA and 

St. Madruyna, Sept.^5, -f 006 or 
086, abbess of the Benedictine convent 
of St. Peter, at Barcelona. She was 
carried captive by the Moors, to the 
island of Majorca. A certain merchant 
planned her escape, and on the appointed 
day, she left her master s house and 
arrived safely in the merchant s ship. 
The Moor, however, soon discovered 
that she was gone, and guessed whither ; 
so he went to search the ship. When 
the merchant heard him coming, he hid 

the abbess in a sack of wool. The Moor 
suspecting this ruse, ran his dagger 
through every sack and pierced Ma 
druyna with three or four wounds, which 
she bore in brave silence ; so her master 
went away baffled. On her return to 
Barcelona, she refused to resume the 
dignity and duties of abbess that she 
might have leisure to prepare for her 
death, which occurred very soon after, 
from the wounds she had received in the 
ship. She was regarded as - a martyr 
and buried with great honour in the 
church, and afterwards translated to 
another tomb where she wrought miracles. 
She is called "Saint" by some Benedic 
tine and Spanish writers, but it seems 
uncertain whether her worship is sanc 
tioned by due authority. AA.SS. 
Hi St. Madubert, MADELBERT. 

B. Mafalda, or MALDA, May 2, -f 
1252. Daughter of Sancho and Dulcia, 
king and queen of Portugal. Sister of 
SS. THERESA (5) and SANCHA. Their 
brother Alfonso II. was envious of the 
fortunes left to his sisters and tried to 
take their property for himself. As 
Mafalda was his favourite, he .increased 
her portion and promoted her marriage 
to Henry I. king of Castile (1214-1217). 
The ceremony was performed at Palentia 
or at Medina del Campo. The bride 
scarcely arrived in Spain when the Pope 
declared the marriage null on account 
of consanguinity. She resolved to be a 
nun, and on her return home, obtained 
from her brother a ruined monastery 
which had been built at Arouca in the 
eleventh century. She restored the house, 
established in it a convent of Cistercian 
nuns and herself became a nun under 
the worthy Eldrada, its first abbess. 
Mafalda kept part of her fortune and 
built the monastery of Abraga, a bridge 
near it called For Dios, another bridge 
at Canaves, and other religious and 
beneficent institutions. She made fre 
quent visits to an image of the B. V. 
MARY in the cathedral at Porto. Once, 
on her way back, she was seized with 
fever, near Amaranth, and could go no 
further. Knowing that death was ap 
proaching, she ordered her body to be 
put on a mule and buried wherever the 
mule stopped. The mule went to Arouca, 


entered the church, kneeled down before 
the altar of St. Peter, laid down the 
precious burden and died. By her own 
wish, she was buried in her cilicium 
with no other covering except a thick 
layer of ashes. She was soon afterwards 
seen in glory by the nuns; and when 
the house took fire, she appeared among 
the flames and saved the church and 
infirmary from destruction. Other 
miracles attested her holiness. A.A.88., 
Appendix. Bucelinus. Henriquez, Lilia. 

St. Maflee, MACTAFLEDE. Baillet. 
St. Magdalene (1), MARY MAGDA 

B. Magdalene (2) of Como, May 13, 
+ 1465, O.S.A. Abbess of Brunate. 
Daughter of the chief magistrate of 
Como, Niccolo or Livio Albrizzi. This 
ancient and influential family had for 
their device, a gate and a lion, the branch 
to which Magdalene belonged added to 
this a wheel in token of their special 
devotion to CATHERINE (1). Her parents, 
Niccolo and Margarita, rejoiced to see 
early proofs of devotion and conscien 
tiousness.^ their child. In 1409, while 
she was still a very young girl, a famine 
desolated the city and neighbourhood of 
Como; numbers of beggars, emaciated 
by starvation and disease, wandered 
through the streets helplessly parading 
their rags and dirt. Magdalene s chari 
table heart was deeply touched by their 
distress. One day while her father was 
out she called in one of the beggars and 
with his assistance distributed amongst 
a number of these wretched creatures a 
great chest full of beans. Presently 
Niccolo came home and informed his 
daughter that he had just sold the beans 
for a large sum of money. Magdalene 
felt sure he would be very angry when 
he found that they were no longer there, 
and the discovery could not be delayed 
as the purchaser was expected immedi 
ately. It was a common thing for fathers 
to be very violent with their children. 
The girl was terrified. In her distress 
she began to pray aloud. Niccolo hear 
ing but scarcely understanding what she 
said, ran to the chest and found it brimful 
of beans. 

When her parents were dead, Magda 

lene, with the approbation of her Con 
fessor, decided to take the veil in the 
convent of St. Margaret, outside the 
walls of Como. It had long been ren 
dered famous by the sanctity of two 
noble sisters, LIBERATA (5) and FAUSTINA 
(13). Magdalene turned her steps to 
wards this convent, intending to ask for 
admittance there. On the way a myste 
rious voice called her by name and bade 
her go instead to Brunate, a little place 
on a hill not far from Como, honoured 
as the resort of two famous bishops who 
had become hermits there. Uncertain 
of its origin, Magdalene did not obey 
this call; but when it was repeated a 
second and a third time, she acknow 
ledged it as a divine command, and 
entered the cloister of St. Andrew at 
Brunate. Here she soon became abbess 
and the fame of her holiness attracted 
devout women to her community. With 
the help of Blanche, duchess of Milan, 
she succeeded in having her convent 
placed under the rule of the Hermits of 
St. Augustine, and this arrangement was 
confirmed by a bull of Nicholas IV. in 
1448. The community was extremely 
poor, so that the nuns were sometimes 
obliged to beg in Como ; and sometimes 
in bad weather they had to stay all night 
in the houses of charitable persons there. 
To avoid this inconvenience, Magdalene 
had a branch house built in Como, to 
which a few of the nuns removed while 
she remained at Brunate with the ma 
jority. One day the cellarer told her it 
was dinner time and there was no bread 
in the house. Magdalene who always 
had unbounded trust in God, said, 
"Never mind, call the sisters to the 
table." No sooner were they seated 
than the porteress entered with a great 
basket full of the very best bread. She 
said she heard a knock at the door, and 
found this basket on the step. Another 
time they suffered dreadfully from heat 
and drought. The wells were dry and 
the trees and plants were withered for 
want of rain. One of the nuns came to 
Magdalene and said her thirst was almost 
beyond endurance. Magdalene took her 
into the garden. There they knelt down 
and the abbess prayed that God would 
lighten their sufferings. They looked 


up and saw a crowd of beautiful juicy 
cherries on the trees, which a short time 
ago had nothing but blackened twigs to 
show. Magdalene miraculously con 
verted a relation of her own from a 
criminal life to one of penitential de 
votion. Many other miracles are told of 
her. She bore a long and painful ill 
ness with great fortitude. Immediately 
after her death she was honoured as 
a saint, and when the nuns moved to 
another house they carried her body 
with them as a sacred treasure. AA.SS. 
Torelli, Saints of the Order of St. Augus 
tine. Stadler. 

B. Magdalene (3), Oct. 14, 13, V., 
3rd O.S.F., -f- 1503 or 1505. Maddalena 
Panateri was born at Tridino, a town of 
Montisferrato ; her mother was of the 
family of Fondazucchi. She was beau 
tiful, clever, well brought up. She early 
set before herself the example of ST. 
CATHERINE OF SIENA. Her asceticism 
was great. She was often translated in 
spirit to Jerusalem and other holy places. 
She had the gift of prophecy and was 
favoured with many visions of Christ 
and the saints. She twice saved the 
life of her brother Benino by super 
natural means. In 1827 her immemorial 
worship was confirmed by the Congrega 
tion of Rites and her name was inserted 
in the Dominican Martyrology. A.R.M. 
AA.SS., Oct. 14, supplement. Marchesi, 
Diario Sacro Dominicano. Diario di 
Roma, Sept. 28, 1827. Tia,zzi,Predicatori. 
B. Magdalene (4) Mundo, Oct. 5, 
V. M. 1613, at Arima in Japan. At the 
time of the beatification of MARY MAG 
sent to the Carmelites of Florence, a 
cross containing relics of Magdalene 
Mundo, whom he called " the Blessed 
Mary Magdalen, Virgin of Japan." She 
was the daughter of a Christian gentle 
man, named Adrian Facafati Mundo and 
Jane his wife. Magdalen was twenty 
years old and had made a vow of vir 
ginity, when she was condemned to 
death, with her parents, a brother of 
eleven, and four other Christians. All 
the women met their death in dresses 
of ceremony, treating it not as a misfor 
tune, but as a festal occasion. Twenty 
thousand Christians, unarmed, encamped 

around the place of execution for three 
days ; they were fed and assisted by other 
Christians. Villefranche, MM. du Japon. 
B. Magdalene (5), Aug. 10,M. 1620. 
Wife of B. Simon Quiota or Kyota. He 
was born of a noble family in the king 
dom of Bungo, Japan. He was a soldier, 
but when Francis, his king, was expelled, 
Simon and Magdalene retired to Cocura, 
where the Jesuit Fathers made him their 
catechist and gave him charge of the 
mission. He opened a school for children 
and soon it was known that he cast out 
devils. The prince ordered him to 
abandon the faith and cease from the 
functions of catechist. As he did not 
obey, he was condemned to be crucified 
with his head down, like St. Peter. 
Magdalene who belonged to the confra 
ternity of the Eosary, was cited before 
the tribunals, after her husband. She 
said, " Why should I go to the tribunal ? 
I shall say the same before the jndges 
as at home and never will fear of death 
make me abandon the faith of Christ." 
She wrote this protest and sent it by 
her servants to the prince, who forthwith 
condemned her to be crucified with her 
husband. Authorities, as for LUCY DE 

B. Magdalene (6;, Sept. 12, de 
scended from the royal house of Bungo, 
was burnt alive in 1(327 with B. FRANCES 
(10), at Nangasaki. 

B. Magdalene (7) of Isounocouni. 
Sept. 10, M. 1622. Wife of Antony 
Sanga, at one time a catechist of the 
Jesuit Fathers in Japan ; he wished to 
be a Jesuit ; his health did not permit 
him to finish his novitiate, so he married 
Magdalene who had been brought up a 
Christian, and they dedicated themselves 
to the service of the missionaries of the 
Order of St. Dominic. They were both 
beheaded with Spinola. (Sec LUCY DE 

St. Magdeflede or MAGDEFREDE, 

St. Magdelberta, MADELBERT. 
St. Magenhild, MENEHOULD. Cahier. 
St. Maggina, or MIGIKA, M. April 
12. AA.SS. 

St. Magina, Dec. 3, M. in Africa. 
EM. Guerin. 



or MAGRUDEN. A parish in Fife is 
called Exmagirdle, a contraction of 
Ecdesia Magirden or Magridden, per 
haps an ancient Scottish saint. Possibly 
the name is derived from MAGDALENE. 

St. Magna, May 6, V., born at 
Ancyra, was compelled by her mother 
to marry. Her husband soon died and 
left her his sole heiress. She led a 
holy and laborious life, and gave all her 
substance in charity and piety. Palladius, 

St. Magnentia (1). (See CAMILLA 


St. Magnentia (2), Nov. 26. Ee- 
presented with St. Germain d Auxerre. 
She accompanied his relics when they 
were brought back from Ravenna : none 
of her companions in this pious office 
seem to be represented with him. Mag 
nentia died at Ste. Magnence near 
Avallon. AA.SS. Cahier. 

St. Magra, MACKA. 

St. Magriden or Magruden, MA- 


St. Magrina or Materna. (See 

St. Maharite, MARGARET is so called 
in Brittany. Cahier. Guerin. 

St. Mahault or Mahaut, MATILDA. 

St. Mahpul, MATILDA. 

St. Maikie, probably MAZOTA. 

St. Mainna, Feb. 20, V. mentioned 
in an old Irish martyrology. Colgan 
thinks it is a mistake for Moenna or 
Mainus, a monk or hermit. 

St. Maixence, MAXENTIA. 

St. Majola or Majolus, May 10, 
M. at Tarsus in Cilicia. AA.SS. 

St. Major or Majeure, companion 
of St. Saturninus. Guerin gives her no 
day, and as he enumerates seventy-three 
SS. Saturninus, this is not very en 

St. Majorica (1), April 30, M. at 
Alexandria. AA.SS. 

St. Majorica (2), April 30, M. at 
Aphrodisia in Caria. AA.SS. 

St. Majosa, June 1, M. with Au- 


St. Majota, Dec. 18, V. commemo 
rated in the Scotch Breviary. Per 
haps same as MAZOTA. 

St. Maker, MACRA. 

St. Malachiaor Malachie, Nov. 20, 
V. M. Guerin. 

St. Maid, MATILDA (4). 

St. Malda, MAFALDA. 

St. Maldeberta, MADELBERT. 

B. Malfalda, MAFALDA. 

St. Malina, April 28, M. with 170 
others, at Tarsus in Cilicia. Perhaps a 
woman. Worshipped at Narbonne and 
said to have lived and died there. 

St. Malque, MALCHIA or MALCHIE, 
Guerin, Table Alplidbetique. Perhaps 
this is the same as]MALA*cHiA. 

St. Mama (1) V. M. with BAHUTA. 

St. Mama (2), June 11, V. Per 
haps a companion of NINA. Armenio- 
Georgian Calendar. 

St. Mamelchta (1), MAMLACHA. 

St. Mamelchta (2), MAMELTA. 

St. Mamelta or MAMELCHTA (2), 
Oct. 17, 5, M. probably 5th century. A 
native of Persia. She was an attendant 
in a temple of Diana, but she had a 
sister who was a Christian. Mamelta, 
in a dream, saw an angel who showed 
her the mysteries of the Christian 
religion. She awoke in a fright and 
told her dream to her sister, who took 
her to the bishop ; he instructed and 
baptized her, her sister being godmother. 
While she was still dressed in her bap 
tismal robes, the people attacked her 
furiously, stoned her to death and threw 
her into a deep lake, from which she 
was with difficulty taken up by the 
Christians. The Bishop obtained from 
the King of Persia an order to have the 
temple of Diana overthrown and a church 
built on its site, dedicated to the God of 
the Christians, in the name of the Martyr 
Mamelta. When it was built he de 
posited her precious remains there. 
Assemani erroneously confounds her 

St. Mamica. (See ANNA (7).) 

St. Mamilla was formerly honoured 
in Palestine. Guerin. 

St. Mamlacha or MAMELCHTA (1). 
(See BAHUTA.) Assemani, Bibliotheca 
Orientale, erroneously confounds her 
with MAMELTA. AA.SS. Butler. 

St. Mammas or MAMAS, July 17, 
M. If the former, a woman ; and if 
MAMAS, a man. AA.SS. 


St. Mammea (l), MAMY. 

St. Mammea (2), MANNEA. 

St. Mammelthe, MAMELTA. 

St. Mammita, Aug. 17, M. with 
DISCA at Alexandria. Commemorated 
with a man named Mammes. AA.SS. 

St. Mamurra, Feb. 28, M. Guerin. 
Mas Latrie. 

St. Mamy or MAMMEA, Feb. 11. 
Queen. M. 3rd century. Mother of the 
Emperor Alexander Severus, 222-235. 
Converted by Origen. Put to death by 
her son. (Mart. Salisbury) Bede, Six 
Ages of the World, says it was Maximin, 
successor of Severus, who put Mammea 
and many other Christians to death. 

St. Mamyque or MAMYCA, March 
26, M. Guerin. 

St. Manaris or MANARIDIS. 5th 
century. A deaconess at Gaza in the 
time of St. Porphyry. (See SALAPHTHA.) 
Guerin calls her " Saint," but gives her 
no day. 

St. Manatho, ENNATHA. 

B. Mancia or Mencia Pereira, 
Aug. 12. Widow. Nun O.S.D. in Por 
tugal. Mentioned in Anno Dominicano 
Gallico, Viridario Germanico, and Anno 
Sancto Bdyico. AA.SS. Prater. 

St. Mancina, Jan. 13. Either 
MANCINACH, mentioned among the vir 
gins and widows in the Dunkeld Litany, 
or MANSENNA, in the Martyrology of 
Donegal ; or, more likely, Mainchin, an 
Irishman of the Gth or 7th century ; 
O Hanlon makes him a contemporary 
and servant of St. Patrick. Forbes. 

St. Mancinach. (See MANCINA.) 

St. Mane. (See NUNE.) 

St. Manechild, MENEHOULD. Baillet. 

St. Manegild or Manehild, MENE 

St. Manehould, MENEHOULD. 

St. Manintia or MARNINTA, Feb. 28, 
M. with many others. AA.SS. 

St. Manna (1), MANNIA, or MAGNUS, 
Feb. 4, M. at Forum Sempronium 
either Fossombrone in Urbino or a 
forum in Rome. Mentioned in several 
old calendars. AA.SS. 

St. Manna (2) or MENNA of Fonte- 
net, Oct. 3, 4th century. Daughter of 
Sigmar and Liutrude and sister of SS. 
Eucharius, Eliphus, GERTRUDE (1), 

Sigmar and Liutrude sent Manna at 
an early age to be baptized and taught 
by the bishop of Chalons. After a few 
years they recalled her to be married to 
a young nobleman. She said she would 
have no husband who was a sinner and 
mortal. As they insisted, she fled to the 
bishop, taking with her a veil with 
which she begged him to consecrate her. 
Fearing the anger of her parents, he 
hesitated, but while he doubted, an angel 
appeared and placed the veil on her 
head. Her parents were satisfied and 
soon afterwards died, leaving great pos 
sessions to be divided among their chil 
dren. The persecution under Julian 
the Apostate obliged them to disperse. 
Manna fled, attended by one maid. They 
came in their flight to a river, where 
there was a frightful abyss, dangerous 
even for boats and impassable for pedes 
trians. Manna prayed and immediately 
the gulf was filled with sand and the two 
women passed over dry-shod. The place 
was called ever after Le Guc de Ste. 
Manne. When she had got safely across, 
she stuck her staff into the earth and a 
fountain spouted out from the spot. She 
built herself a hermitage at Fontenet 
and passed the rest of her days there. 
Her relics were placed in the church at 
Portsas near Mirecour, where a great 
house of canonesses was founded by 
St. Bruno, afterwards Leo IX. ; it was 
destroyed in the French Revolution. 
Manna was particularly honoured in 
the Vosges. Martin takes the story 
from Jean Rhuyr, Antiquites des Vosges. 
AA.SS. says she is perhaps the same as 
AMA (4), one of seven sisters. The 
stories and the names in these groups of 
sister saints are somewhat confounded. 

St. Mannea or MAMMEA, Aug. 27, 
M. c. 303. Wife of St. Marcellinus, a 
tribune. Mother of John, Serapion, and 
Peter, all martyred at Tomis in Pontus ; 
or, according to their Acts given from 
an old MS. by Soller the Bollandist, at 
Oxyryncha in Egypt : the names of the 
sons are also different in this account. 
Many other martyrs suffered at the same 
time and are commemorated with them ; 
one of these was named SUSANNA. They 
were condemned to be torn by wild 
beasts, but the beasts lay down meekly 



and would not hurt them : then they 
were beheaded. R.M. AA.SS. 
St. Mannia, MANNA (1). 
St. Mansenna, MANCINA. 
Maraca, V. M. under Sapor. Migne, 
Die., Appendix. 

St. Marana or Maranna, Aug. 3, 
Feb. 28, 5th century. A lady of Berea 
in Syria, sister of CYRA (1). They im 
mured themselves in a small half-roofed 
enclosure near their native town, assign 
ing a little building outside their own to 
such oj; their maids as chose to follow 
their example. Here they lived for 
many years, loaded with chains too 
heavy for a strong man. Through a 
narrow window they received a scanty 
supply of food and water and exhorted 
their visitors to prayer and the love of 
God. They repeatedly fasted for long 
periods. They observed a rule of silence, 
which Marana allowed herself to break 
at Pentecost, in order to exhort to prayer 
and the love of God, such women as 
visited the cell for edification. No one 
ever heard Cyra speak. She was the 
smaller and weaker of the two and was 
bowed to the earth by the weight of her 
chains. Large mantles concealed their 
faces and forms and shut the world from 
their sight. They wrought miraculous 
cures on the blind, the lame, and the 
possessed. Only twice did they leave 
their dwelling ; once to walk to Jeru 
salem, twenty days journey ; and once 
to the church of St. Thecla, at Seleucia 
in Isauria, almost as long a distance. 
On both these journeys they fasted the 
whole way, only eating when they were 
at the goal of their pilgrimage. They 
allowed Theodoret, bishop of Cyprus, to 
enter their abode and feel the weight of 
their chains. He testifies that they had 
thus lived for forty-two years and were 
still living, the ornament of their sex, 
when he wrote in the middle of the fifth 
century, Hist. Religiosve. EM. AA.SS. 
Migne. Men. of Basil, Feb. 28. Baillet. 

St. Marcella (1), June 10, July 29. 
Patron of Tarascon and of Sclavonia. 
A fabulous saint described in the legends 
as servant of SS. Lazarus, MARY and 
MARTHA, whom she accompanied to 
Marseilles. After Martha s death, she 

preached in Sclavonia. She is by some 
writers identified as the woman who, 
recognizing the divine authority of Our 
Lord, " lifted up her voice, and said unto 
him, Blessed is the womb that bare 
thee, and the paps which thou hast 
sucked " (St. Luke xi. 27). Legenda 

St. Marcella (2), QUINCTIA MAR 

St. Marcella (3), June 2. One of 
227 Eoman martyrs, commemorated 
together this day in the Martyrology of 
St. Jerome. AA.SS. 

SS. Marcella (4, 5, 0), MM. in 
Africa, May 7 ; Tarsus, May 10 ; and 
Eome, Feb. 17, respectively. AA.SS. 

St. Marcella (7), Jan. 31, 4- 410, 
called "The First Nun," and by St. 
Jerome, " The Pattern of a Christian 
Widow" and "The Glory of Eoman 
Ladies." - She was of the illustrious 
Roman family of the Marcelli, and sister 
of ASELLA. Her mother was Albina, a 
benevolent and intellectual Christian 
lady of great wealth. Marcella was a 
child, but old enough to receive a last 
ing spiritual impression, when, in 340, 
St. Athanasius came as an exile to Eome 
and was a welcome guest in her mother s 
house. Albina, Asella and the little 
Marcella, heard with enthusiasm Atha 
nasius descriptions of the desert, with 
the solitary life and unremitting prayer 
of the monks. When he went away, he 
left in the house the first copy of the 
Life of St. Antony that had been seen 
in Eome, a book which greatly influenced 
the three ladies. 

Marcella grew up singularly beautiful, 
and married young. She had been a 
wife little more than half a year when 
she became a widow. She very soon had 
the offer of a second marriage, still more 
brilliant and wealthy than the first ; the 
pretendu was Cerealis, a consular senator, 
related to the imperial family. Her 
mother and all her friends favoured the 
suit of Cerealis and were vexed when 
she decidedly refused to take a second 
husband. The custom of the time, how 
ever, granted great freedom to a widow, 
a freedom shamefully abused by many ; 
Marcella used it to follow her vocation 
and break with the irksome and absurd 


conventionalities of the day. The law 
passed about this date, placing conse 
crated widows on the same footing as 
virgins, is supposed to have been made 
in the interests of Marcella, to protect 
her from the insistence of Cerealis. She 
sacrificed part of her fortune to obtain 
tolerance from those on whom, failing 
her, devolved the duty of keeping up the 
family name. She ceased to follow 
the fashion in dress, rebelling against 
the immense weight of splendid cloth 
ing, the hours of painting and curling 
before the mirror ; she was the first 
widow among the great ladies of Home 
to assume the coarse brown dress that 
marked her as consecrated to a religious 
and self-denying life. At first the 
gossips slandered her, seeking and in 
venting bad motives for her singularity. 
She disregarded these insinuations, liv 
ing a studious, charitable and devout 
life with her mother, in a palace on 
Mount Aventine, supposed to have stood 
close to the site of the present church of 
St. Sabina. Here she grade ally attracted 
round her a society of women who as 
pired to a better life and more interest 
ing thoughts and occupations than the 
frivolous, gay world afforded. Some of 
these ladies were still members of the 
world of fashion and dressed as such. 
Some were wives of pagans, some were 
young widows, who would marry again. 
Most of them were women of high 
station and great influence, and many 
were of considerable ability and culture. 
This circle soon became a power in Rome. 
It has been called " The First Convent," 
but its members were bound by no rule ; 
they came and went, and were under no 
obligation to continue their meetings. 

It was in 382 that St. Jerome was 
summoned to Rome by Pope Damasus, 
and was assigned as a guest to the hos 
pitality of Marcella. He calls her house 
" the domestic church." He remained 
there three years, working at his transla 
tion of the Bible, instructing his hostess 
and her friends, and profiting by their 
criticism. Like all well-educated per 
sons of the time, they had some know 
ledge of Greek and some learnt Hebrew 
that they might follow and assist the 
work of translation. It was here that he 

first met PAULA (13J and EUSTOCHIUM, 
who became his life - long friends. 
FABIOLA, BLAESILLA, Paulina were also 
of the party, and so were many others 
whom his pen has made famous. He 
testifies to the scholarship and earnest 
ness of Marcella. She often tried to 
restrain him from quarrelling or to 
moderate the violence of his retaliations 
on his opponents. He attributes the 
condemnation of Origen s doctrines, by 
Pope Anastasius, to Marcella s influence, 
and calls this decision a "glorious 

When Paula and Eustochium had left 
Rome and settled in the Holy Land they 
wrote to Marcella begging her to join 
them, and dwelling on the delight of 
visiting the scenes of our Lord s life on 
earth, and of other events in scripture 
history. This letter has been repro 
duced in English by the Palestine Pil 
grims Text Society. 

Marcella, however, remained in Rome. 
She must have been nearly eighty in the 
disastrous year 410. She had outlived 
most of the friends of her youth and had 
removed from the palace on the Aven- 
tiue to a smaller house, accompanied by 
PRINCIPIA (1), a young girl she had 
brought up and whom she loved as a 
daughter. There were signs that the 
house belonged to a wealthy family, and 
when the Goths took the city, the 
soldiers, bent on pillage, would not 
believe that Marcella had not a store of 
money and jewels concealed ; they knew 
nothing of the lavish charity which had 
dispersed the family treasures. To in 
duce her to give up that which she had 
not, they beat, tortured, insulted the 
aged lady ; they threatened violence to 
Principia ; but Marcella succeeded in 
defending her until another group of 
soldiers arrived, having some reverence 
for holy things. They escorted the two 
women to the church of St. Paul, one 
of those which had been named by 
Alaric as a sanctuary for all who chose 
to take advantage of it. Here the 
venerable Marcella, exhausted with her 
fatigues and wounds, died the next day. 

Eleven of St. Jerome s letters are 
addressed to her and she is mentioned 
in many of his other writings. 



St. Marcella (8), July 22, M. Wor 
shipped in the island of Ohio, where 
pebbles used to be found on the seashore 
full of clotted blood ; when crushed and 
kept in a bottle, the dust cured all manner 
of diseases. This miracle and certain 
nocturnal apparitions accounted for Mar- 
cella s worship as a saint and martyr. 
The Bollandists do not consider this 
sufficient authority. AA.SS., Prseter. 

St. Marcella (9), MARCHELL. 

St. Marcellina (1), June 2. One of 
two hundred and twenty-seven Eoman 
martyrs, commemorated together this day 
in the Martyrology of St. Jerome. AA.SS. 

St. Marcellina (2). M. with ANTIGA. 

St. Marcellina (3), Feb. 24, M. with 
many others at Nicomedia. AA.8S. 

St. Marcellina (4), July 17, V. 
4- 398. Eepresented with two boys. 
Daughter of Ambrose, a Eoman of high 
birth, prefect of the Gauls. She had 
two brothers, younger than herself: St. 
Satyrus and the great St. Ambrose, 
bishop of Milan from 374 to 397. She 
is credited with a large share in their 
education, and the three were united by 
the most devoted affection as long as 
they lived. It is remarkable that al 
though brought up in the highest morality 
and Christian piety, neither of these 
holy men was baptized in youth; 
Ambrose, only after he was elected 
bishop of Milan. Marcellina received 
the veil of a consecrated virgin from 
Pope Liberius, at Eome, on the night 
of Christmas-day, 352, 353, or 354. On 
that occasion the Pope preached a sermon 
which is preserved by Ambrose in De 
Virginibus. She continued to live in 
her mother s house in Eome, and was 
one of the circle of devout and studious 
Christian ladies who so frequently met 
at the house of MARCELLA (7). 

When Ambrose was compelled to 
accept the bishopric of Milan, Satyrus 
gave up a good appointment in order 
to live near him and manage his secu 
lar affairs; Marcellina lived near her 
brothers, and was their adviser and 
confidant. She congratulated Ambrose 
on his fame and success as a preacher, 
and suggested that as she could not 
come to hear his sermons, he should 
send them to her. He then embodied 

that course of sermons in three books 
dedicated to his sister and entitled De 
Virginibus. It contains the address of 
Liberius to Marcellina, and her name 
occurs frequently throughout the book. 

KM. AA.SS. Three of the most 
important letters of St. Ambrose are ad 
dressed to Marcellina ; she is praised in his 
funeral sermon on their brother Satyrus, 
and in other works. Smith and Wace, 
"Ambrosius" and "Marcellina." 

St. Marcelliosa or Marcelona, 
May 20, M. in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Marcesine is in Guerin s table. 

St. Marchell or MARCELLA, Oct. 26, 
Sept. 5. 6th century. Welsh. Daughter 
of St. Arwystli Gloff and Twynwedd ; 
and sister of four sainted men. They 
were of the race of Seithen. There 
were six other saints of the same family. 
Marchell founded Ystrad Marchell, in 
Montgomery ; an abbey was afterwards 
built there and called Strata MarcJiella. 

B. Marchesina Luzi, Jan. 10, + 
1510, 3rd O.S.A. She was murdered in 
a cave on the mountain of Mambrica in 
Italy, by her brother Mariotto of Visso, 
with circumstances of peculiar atrocity. 
The crime was miraculously brought to 
light. Such were the universal con 
viction of her innocence and esteem for 
her sanctity, that from that day she 
began to be worshipped and miracles 
encouraged those who sought her aid. 
Civilta Gattolica, Aug. 18, Bibliography, 

St. Marchilla, July 22, is mentioned 
in the Arabico Egyptian Mart. AA.SS., 
Pr deter. 

St. Marcia (1), March 3, M. with 
St. Felix and others. E.M. 

St. Marcia (2), June 5, 6, M. at 
Csesarea in Palestine, with ZENAIS, CYRIA 
(1), and VALERIA. KM. 

St. Marcia (3), July 2, with ST. 
SYMPHOROSA and eight men; MM. in 
Campania, under Diocletian. R.M. 

St. Marcia (4), July 11, -f c. 300. 
Mother of SS. Marcellian and Mark. 
She is mentioned in the life of St. 
Sebastian. Silvano Eazzi, Sanctis Mu- 
liebris. AA.SS. 

SS. Marcia (5-17) ( MAC ARIA, MARGA, 



MARTIA), MM. in sundry places and on 
various days. Calendars. 

St. Marcia (18), KUSTICULA. 

St. Marcia (19), M. with her brother 
St. Felicitatus, in the early days of 
Christianity (probably 10th century). 
Their relics set in pearls and jewels are 
preserved in the Capuchin monastery 
on the Hradschin at Prague. Schultz, 
Guide to Prague. 

St. Marcia-Matidia, MAHTIA. 

St. Marciana 0) or MARTINIANA. 
(See IRENE (4).) 

St. Marciana (2). (See SILA.) 

St. Marciana 0* ), Jan. 9, July 12, 
V. M. c. 300,, in Mauritania. Patron 
of Tortosa in Spain ; sometimes called 
Marciana of Toledo ; she was born at 
Rusuccur. Despising the advantages of 
rank and fortune, she betook herself to 
Csesarea, 40 leagues west of Algiers, 
and there served an apprenticeship to 
martyrdom in fasts and austerities of all 
kinds. At last, during the reign of 
Diocletian, such was her desire to en 
counter the enemies of the faith, that 
she went into the forum and struck off 
the head of a statue of Diana. She was 
immediately seized and met the fate 
she courted,, being insulted, beaten with 
clubs and then killed by a wild bull 
and a leopard in the amphitheatre. Her 
Acts are short and simple but are not 
quite above suspicion. H.M. AA.SS. 
Butler. Baillet. 

St. Marciana (4). (&>e SUSANNA (10).) 

SS. Marciana (5, 6, 7), MM. in 
Home, Pontus, and Africa respectively. 

St. Marciana (8) of Albi, Nov. 2, 
5, V. M. supposed 8th century. She 
was of noble birth, a nun at Tarsia, 
veiled by Polymius, bishop of Albi. It 
is uncertain whether she was murdered 
by barbarians, or whether her habitual 
austerities amounted to martyrdom. 
Martin. Oynecseum. Migne. 

St. Martina (1) or MARINA, June 8, 
M. at Nicomedia. AA.SS. 

St. Marcina (2) or MAGRINA, June 
24, sister of PECINNA. 

St. Marcionilla or MARCIANILLA, 
Jan. 9, + 309. Wife of Marcian, 
governor of Antioch. Her son Celsus 
was one of many boys instructed in the 
Christian faith by St. Julian. In the 

persecution of Diocletian, Celsus was 
imprisoned, and begged to see his 
mother. She was sent to him and 
given three days in which to convert 
him. He, however, converted her. St. 
Julian and other Christian priests taught 
her. St. Antony baptized her. It.K. 
AA.SS. Butler. 

St. Marciosa, one of the martyrs 
of Lyons, who died in prison. (See 

St. Mardia, companion of URSULA. 

St. Mare, July 20, V. M. in the 
diocese of Lectoure, where the little 
town of Mare is called by her name. 

St. Marella, NIRILLA. 

St. Mareme, MEDRYSYME. 

St. Marewinna, MERWIN. 

St. Marga or MARCIA, April 6, M. 
at Alexandria. AA.SS. 

St. Margaret (1) or GRITA, July 20, 
V. M. 27(5 or 306, is called MARINA in 
the Coptic Church and by Metaphrastes ; 
on an old bell at Pittington near Durham 
are the words " Sancta Marineta." She 
is represented with a dragon and some 
times carrying a banner. MARGARET 
(1), BARBARA (1), CATHERINE (1), and 
EUPHEMIA (2) are the four great patron 
esses of the Eastern Church. Margaret 
is patron of women called Marjory, 
Marjoleine, etc. ; of women pregnant 
or in labour ; against barrenness ; of 
Cremona, Corneto, Procida, Montefia- 
scone, King s Lynn, and Paris. 

According to the legend she was the 
daughter of Theodosius, a heathen priest 
of Antioch, and was nursed and brought 
up by a Christian woman. When Theo 
dosius heard that the nurse had taught 
his daughter to be a Christian he said 
he would not acknowledge her for his 
child ; he thought the nurse being poor 
would soon be tired of maintaining the 
girl, and thus he would punish them 
both. The good woman s only wealth 
consisted of a few sheep, and these the 
now portionless maiden had to tend. 
By-and-bye it happened that Olybrius, 
prefect of Asia, on his way to Antioch 
to persecute the Christians, passed 
through the place where Margaret lived 
with her nurse, and seeing a beautiful 
young shepherdess in the field, inquired 



who she was. Finding she was of noble 
birth, he proposed to make her his wife. 
She refused that honour and declared 
herself a Christian. He then assembled 
the chief men of the city and after hold 
ing a grand feast in honour of his gods, 
he inflicted on Margaret many horrible 
tortures which she endured with great 
courage. She was put in prison where 
the devil appeared in various forms, and 
when to terrify her he took that of a 
dragon, he swallowed her, but she made 
the sign of the cross and he immediately 
burst asunder, leaving her unhurt. She 
was comforted by heavenly visions. 
Next day she was subjected to new 
forms of torture. Condemned to be 
drowned, she was bound hand and foot 
and thrown into a great vessel of water. 
She prayed that this trial might be to 
her instead of baptism. Immediately 
an earthquake shook the place, her 
bonds were loosed and a dove carrying 
a gold crown lighted on her head. 
Many of the spectators were converted 
and became martyrs. As none of these 
tortures availed to change her opinions 
or even to do her bodily harm, Margaret 
was condemned to be beheaded. At the 
moment of her death she prayed that 
God would show mercy on all who were 
in trouble, particularly women in labour, 
who should call on the name of Jesus 
and remember her martyrdom. The 
legend is of Greek origin. It was re 
jected as apocryphal by Pope Gelasius 
in the fifth century and her Acts were 
among those forbidden by him to be 
read in churches, as containing things 
more likely to deter sceptics from being 
converted than to edify Christians. Her 
story and her worship were made popu 
lar in Europe by the crusaders of the 
eleventh century. Many churches in 
England are dedicated in her name. 

R.M. AA.SS. Yillegas, Leggendario. 
Flos Sanctorum. Golden Legend. Mrs. 
Jameson. Annotated Prayer-book. 

St. Margaret (2), V. M., a com 
panion of URSULA. Her head and those 
of two others of the same band of 
martyrs were preserved in the Fran 
ciscan convent of St. Clara at Paris. 

St. Margaret (3) of Lerins, was the 

sister of St. Honoratus who, early in 
the fifth century, founded a monastery on 
the island now called St. Honorat, op 
posite Cannes. Margaret, in order to 
be near him and profit by his advice 
and assistance, settled on the neighbour 
ing island, then called Lero but now 
Ste. Marguerite. Honoratus, thinking 
the world had too strong a hold on 
his affections, intended to renounce the 
society of his sister, and would only 
yield to her entreaties so far as to agree 
to visit her when certain little flowers 
which covered the island were in bloom. 
Until that time these flowers had only 
bloomed for a very short time every 
year, but Margaret, convinced that her 
brother s visits would tend to the 
spiritual advantage of both, prayed 
that the flowers might blossom all the 
year round. Her prayer was granted, 
and flowers may be seen on the island 
at all seasons of the year to this day. 
Local legend. 

St. Margaret (4) called Brother 
Pelagian. A rich and beautiful maiden 
who was married by her family to a 
young man of rank equal to her own; 
but fearing the troubles and dangers of 
secular life, she fled on the day of her 
marriage, disguised as a man, and took 
refuge in a monastery where, under the 
name of Pelagian, she rose to the rank 
of abbot. It was a double monastery, 
having a house for monks and another 
for nuns. After a time, the whole com 
munity condemned her without a hearing, 
on a charge of seducing a girl who 
lived near their gates; so they built 
her up in a cave, where the " cruellest " 
of the brothers brought her every day a 
scanty allowance of bread and water. 
At last, being at the point of death, 
she found means to write a letter re 
vealing her name and story and begging 
that the nuns might bury her. Legenda 

B. Margaret (5), May 16, V. 10th 
century. A lady of rank, betrothed to 
St. Bernard of Mentone, but they were 
not married ; she became a nun and he 
a hermit. He founded the monasteries 
and hospices of the Great and Little St. 
Bernard, the former on a spot where he 
had destroyed an image of Jupiter and 



exposed the trick of its oracle. She 
is mentioned in the Life of St. Bernard. 
AA.SS., Prseter. 

St. Margaret (6), Queen of Scotland, 
June 10,11), Nov. 10 (MARITA, MERGRETJ, 
c. 1045-1093. She was daughter of 
Edward the Outlaw, who was son of 
Edmund Ironside; her mother was 
Agatha, sister of the Queen of Hungary ; 
they were probably daughters of Anna 
(14) and Yaroslav, grand-prince of 
Russia, at whose court Edward and 
his brother were refugees, as was also 
the Magyar Prince, afterwards Andrew 
I., king of Hungary. 

In 1057 Edward returned to England 
with his wife and three children, Edgar 
the Atheling, Margaret, and CHRISTINA. 
He had no sooner arrived than he fell 
ill and died. In 1008, Agatha with her 
son and her two daughters resolved to 
return to Hungary and embarked with 
that intent. Their ship was driven up 
the Firth of Forth to Dunfermliue, 
where Malcolm III., king of Scotland, 
received them hospitably. He very 
soon offered the whole family a per 
manent home with him and asked that 
the Princess Margaret should become 
his wife. Margaret, who was very 
devout and much impressed with the 
futility of earthly greatness, had very 
nearly determined to be a nun, but 
when Malcolm s request was made to 
Edgar, "the Childe said Yea ," and 
Margaret was persuaded to marry the 
king as his second wife. She was as 
saintly and self-denying on the throne 
as she could have been in the cloister. 
She at once perceived it to be her duty 
to benefit and elevate the people among 
whom it was her destiny to live, and 
this she undertook with the greatest 
diligence and the most earnest piety. 
There existed so much barbarism in the 
customs of the people, so many abuses 
in the Church, so much on all hands to 
reform, that she called together the 
native clergy and the priests who had 
come with her, her husband acting as 
interpreter, and she spoke so well and 
so earnestly that all were charmed with 
her gracious demeanour and wise counsel 
and adopted her suggestions. Among 
other improvements, Margaret intro 

duced the "observance of Sunday by 
abstaining from servile work, " that if 
anything has been done amiss during 
the six days it may be expiated by our 
prayers on the day of the Resurrection." 
She influenced her people to observe the 
forty days fast of Lent, and to receive 
the Holy Sacrament on Easter day, 
from which they had abstained for fear 
of increasing their own damnation 
because they were sinners. On this 
point she said that if the Saviour had 
intended that no sinner should receive 
the Holy Sacrament, He would not have 
given a command which, in that case, 
no one could obey. " We," said she, 
" who many days beforehand have con 
fessed and done penance and fasted and 
been washed from our sins with tears 
and alms and absolution, approach the 
table of the Lord in faith on the day 
of His Resurrection, not to our damnation 
but to the remission of our sins and in 
salutary preparation for eternal blessed 

Malcolm regarded her with holy 
reverence, and with most devoted love 
followed her saintly advice, and guided 
by her he became not only more re 
ligious and conscientious but more 
civilized and kinglike. 

One of her first acts as queen was to 
build a church at Dunfermline, where 
she had been married. She dedicated 
it to the Holy Trinity. She gave it 
all the ornaments that a church re 
quires, amongst them golden cups, a 
handsome crucifix of gold and silver 
enriched with gems, and vestments 
for the priests. Her room was never 
without some of these beautiful things 
in preparation to be offered to the 
Church. It was like a workshop for 
heavenly artisans ; capes for the singers, 
sacerdotal vestments, stoles, altar cloths 
were to be seen there; some made and 
some in progress. The embroideries 
were executed by noble young ladies 
who were in attendance on her. No 
man was admitted to the room, unless 
she allowed him to come with her. 
She suffered no levity, no petulance, 
no frivolity, no flirtation. She was 
so dignified in her pleasantry, so cheer 
ful in her strictness that every one 



both loved and feared her. No one 
dared to utter a rude or profane word 
in her presence. She did much for the 
secular as well as for the religious im 
provement of her country. She caused 
traders from all lands to bring their 
goods, and thus introduced many useful 
and beautiful articles, until then un 
known in Scotland. She induced the 
natives to buy and wear garments and 
stuffs of various colours. She is said to 
have introduced the tartans that after 
wards became distinctive of Scottish 
costume. She instituted the custom 
that wherever the king rode or walked 
he should be accompanied by an escort, 
but the members of this band were 
strictly forbidden to take anything by 
force from any one, or oppress any poor 
person. She beautified the king s house 
with furniture and hangings, and intro 
duced cups and dishes of gold and 
silver for the royal table. All this she 
did, not that she was fond of worldly 
show, but that the Court should be 
more decent and less barbarous than 
heretofore. Numbers of captives were 
taken in the wars and raids between 
England and Scotland, and many English 
prisoners were living as slaves in Mal 
colm s lands. They were of somewhat 
better education and superior culture 
to the Scots and gradually advanced the 
civilization of their captors. Many of 
these were sei^free by the queen. When 
she met poor persons, she gave them 
liberal alms, and if she had nothing 
of her own left to give, she asked her 
attendants for something, that she might 
not let Christ s poor go away empty- 
handed. The ladies, gentlemen, and 
servants who accompanied her took a 
pride and pleasure in offering her all 
they had, feeling sure that a double 
blessing would reward their alms when 
given through the saintly queen. 

She provided ships at a place on the 
Firth of Forth, still called " The Queen s 
Ferry," that all persons coming from 
distant parts on pilgrimage to St. 
Andrews might be brought across the 
water free of charge. She also gave 
houses and servants on either shore 
for their accommodation, that they 
might find everything necessary for 

their repose and refreshment and might 
pay their devotions in peace and safety. 
Besides this, she built homes of rest 
and shelter for poor strangers in various 

From childhood she had diligently 
studied the Holy Writ and having a 
keen intelligence and an excellent 
memory, she knew and understood the 
Scriptures wonderfully well. She de 
lighted to consult learned and holy men 
concerning the sacred writings, and as 
she had a great gift for expressing her 
self clearly, they often found themselves 
far wiser after a conversation with her. 
Her love for the holy books made her 
spend much time in reading and studying 
such of them as she had. She longed 
to possess more portions of the Word of 
God, and she sometimes begged Turgot 
and other learned clergymen to procure 
them for her. 

The king s devotion to her and her 
influence over him were almost un 
bounded. Turgot calls Malcolm s peni 
tence and piety a " great miracle of 
God s Mercy." He wondered how it 
was that there could exist in the heart 
of man living in the world such an 
entire sorrow for sin. The king dreaded 
to offend one whose life was so admirable 
as Margaret s. He perceived that Christ 
dwelt in her, and therefore he readily 
obeyed her wishes in all things. He 
never refused or grudged her anything, 
nor showed the least displeasure when 
she took money out of his treasury for 
her charities. Although he could not 
read, he loved her books for her sake, 
handling them with affectionate rever 
ence and kissing them. Sometimes he 
would take away one of her favourite 
volumes and send for a goldsmith to 
ornament it with gold and gems. When 
this was done, he would restore it to the 
queen as a proof of his devotion. 

Margaret brought up her eight children 
very strictly and piously, instructing 
them in the Holy Scriptures and the 
duties of their station and associating 
them in her works of charity. She 
made a great point of their treating their 
elders with becoming respect. The fruit 
of her good training appeared in their 
lives for long years after her time. 



There were many holy anchorites 
living in cells or caves in different 
parts of Scotland. These the queen 
occasionally visited, conversing with 
them and commending herself to their 
prayers. It was not uncommon in the 
ancient Celtic Church for devout secular 
persons to withdraw for a time from 
association with the rest of the world; 
they devoted themselves entirely to 
prayer and meditation for a long or 
short season, and then returned to 
the ordinary duties of life. A cave is 
still shown, not far from Dunfermline, 
where tradition says this holy queen 
used to resort for solitude and prayer. 

Her abstinence was so great and her 
care for her own needs or gratification 
so small that her feast days were like 
the fast days of others. She fasted so 
strictly that she suffered acutely all her 
life from pain in the stomach, but she 
did not lose her strength. She observed 
two lenten seasons in each year the 
forty days before Easter, and the forty 
days before Christmas. During these 
periods of self-denial, her biographer 
says that after sleeping for a short time 
at the beginning of the night, she went 
into the church and said alone three 
sets of Matins, then the Offices of the 
Dead, then the whole Psalter, which 
lasted until the priests had said Matins 
and Lauds. She then returned to her 
room and there, assisted by the king, 
she washed the feet of six poor persons 
who were brought there by the chamber 
lain. After this, she " permitted her 
body to take a littel slepe or nodde " 
(Horstmann). When it was morning 
she began her works of mercy again ; 
while the psalms were being read to 
her, nine little destitute orphans were 
brought, and she took each on her lap 
and fed it with her own spoon. While 
she was feeding the babies, three hundred 
poor persons were brought into the hall 
and seated all round it. As soon as 
Margaret and the king came in, the 
doors were shut, only the chaplains and 
a few attendants being present while the 
king and queen waited upon Christ in 
the person of His poor, serving them 
with food and drink. After this meal, 
the queen used to go into the church and 

there, with tears and sighs and many 
prayers, she offered herself a sacrifice to 
God. In addition to the " Hours," on 
the great festivals, she used to repeat 
the Psalter two or three times, and 
before the public Mass she had five or 
six private Masses sung in her presence. 
It was then time for her own dinner, 
but before she touched it she waited on 
the twenty-four poor people who were 
her daily care at all seasons ; wherever 
she happened to be, they had to be lodged 
near the royal residence. 

She had a Gospel Book which she 
particularly prized and often read. It 
had beautiful illuminated pictures, all 
the capital letters shining with gold. 
One of her people, when passing through 
a stream let it fall into the water, but 
was not aware of his loss and went on. 
By-and-bye the book was missing and 
was looked for everywhere, and even 
tually found at the bottom of the stream ; 
the pieces of silk that were between the 
leaves to prevent the letters rubbing 
against each other were washed away ; 
the leaves were shaken to and fro by 
the movement of the water, but not a 
letter was obliterated. She gave thanks 
for its restoration and prized it more 
than ever. This book, with the water 
stain on the last leaf, is now in the 
Bodleian Library. 

For more than six months before her 
death, Margaret could not ride on horse 
back and was often confined to bed. 
Shortly before her death, the king, 
against her advice, made a raid into 
Northumberland, where he and her 
eldest son, Edward, were slain. The 
queen, who remained in the castle of 
Edinburgh, had a presentiment of it, 
and said to those that were with her, 
" Perhaps this day a greater evil has 
happened to Scotland than any that has 
befallen it for a long time." Four days 
after this, she felt a little better and 
went into her oratory to hear Mass and 
receive the Holy Communion. She then 
returned to bed, and growing rapidly 
worse, begged Turgot and the others 
who were present to keep commending 
her soul to Christ with psalms. She 
asked them to bring her the black rood, 
which she had brought from Hungary 


and always regarded with great venera 
tion. It was of gold set with large 
diamonds and contained a piece of the 
actual cross of Christ. She devoutly 
kissed and contemplated it, and when 
she was cold with the chill of death, she 
still held it in both hands and kept 
praying and saying the fifty-first psalm. 
Her son Edgar, who had gone with the 
king to Northumberland, came into her 
room to tell her of the death of his 
father and brother. Seeing his mother 
was dying, he was afraid to tell her the 
sad news ; but she said, " I know, I 
know, I conjure you to tell me the 
truth," and having heard it, she praised 
God and died, and her pale face recovered 
its fair and rosy colour. The continuation 
of the Annals of Tighernac say, " Mael- 
colaim, son of Duncan, king of Scotland, 
is slain by the Normans, and Edward his 
son, and Marita the wife of Maelcolaim 
died of grief." 

The Annals of Ulster for 1093 say, 
"Maelcolaim Mac Donnocha sovereign 
of Alban and Echbarda his son, slain by 
the Franks. His queen, viz. Margarita, 
died through grief before the end of 
[three] days." 

While her body still lay in Edinburgh 
Castle, Malcolm s brother, Donald Bane, 
assisted by the King of Norway, attacked 
the castle, but he only watched the gate, 
thinking the other parts of the fortifica 
tion inaccessible. By the merits of this 
great Saint, her family and her faithful 
attendants escaped by a postern called 
the West Yhet, taking with them the 
revered corpse. A thick mist hid them 
from the enemy. They crossed the sea 
and arrived without hindrance at Dun- 
fermline, where they buried her according 
to her own wish. 

Donald Bane kept the kingdom. 
Edgar the Atheling took Margaret s 
children to England, and for fear of the 
Normans, gave them privately to friends 
and relations to be brought up. He 
afterwards helped to restore them to their 

Malcolm and Margaret had six sons 
and two daughters : Edward, killed with 
his father at Alnwick ; Edmund, who 
reigned with his uncle, Donald Bane, 
for three years and died a monk at 

Montacute in Somersetshire; Ethelred, 
lay abbot of Dunkeld and earl of Fife ; 
Edgar, king 1097-1107; Alexander, 
king 1107-1124; David (St.), king 
1124-1153; MALD (Si. MATILDA (4)), 
married Henry I., king of England ; 
and Mary, married Eustace, count of 

" The zere of God a thousand Ixvj 
zeris Malcolm ye sonne of Duncan tuke 
ye rewmm of Scotland in Heritage and 
rignyt xxxvj zeris. The yere of Christ 
a thousand Ixvj Mergret ye Quvenne 
was spowsyt wyt Malcolm and had six 
sonnys and twa dochtiris, Maid Quvenne 
of Ingland, and Marie Cowntasie of 
Balanne " (Chron. of the Scots.^). 

Margaret was worshipped without 
authority until 1250, when Innocent IV. 
solemnly approved her cult and ordered 
her sacred body to be translated from 
its first tomb. On July 19, 1297, all 
the arrangements being made, the men 
who were appointed to raise the body, 
found it impossible to do so ; stronger 
men were ordered to lift it and tried in 
vain ; still more men were brought, 
but all their strength was unavailing. 
Evidently the saint objected to what 
was being done. The clergy and all 
present prayed earnestly that the mys 
terious opposition might cease and the 
sacred rite be completed. After some 
time an inspiration was granted to a 
devout member of the congregation; 
namely, that the saint did not wish to 
be separated from her husband. As 
soon as they began to take up his coffin, 
that of his dutiful wife became quite 
light and easy to move, and both were 
laid on one bier and translated with 
ease to the honourable place prepared 
for them under the high altar. In 1(593 
Innocent XII. transferred Margaret s 
festival from the day of her death to 
June 10. The bodies are said by Pape- 
broch (AA.SS.) to have been acquired 
by Philip II., king of Spain (1556- 
1598), who placed them in the church 
of St. Lawrence in his new palace of the 
Escurial in two urns. The head of St. 
Margaret, after being in the possession 
of her descendant Queen Mary Stuart, 
was secreted for many years by a Bene 
dictine monk in Fife; thence it passed 



to Antwerp, and about 1627 it was trans 
lated to the Scotch college at Douai and 
there exposed to public veneration. It 
was still to be seen there in 1 785 ; it 
was well preserved and had very fine 
fair hair. Neither the heads, the bodies 
nor the black rood can now be found, 
but the grave of Margaret may still be 
seen outside the present church of Dun- 
fermline. Her oratory in Edinburgh 
castle is a small church with sturdy 
short pillars and a simple but beautiful 
ornamental pattern at the edge of its 
low rounded arches. It was falling to 
ruin when, in 1853, her late Majesty 
Queen Victoria, among her many good 
and wise works, had it repaired and 
furnished with coloured glass windows. 

EM. Turgot, Life of St. Margaret 
Queen of Scotland, tr. by Forbes Leith. 
AA.SS., June 10. Skene, Cliron. of the 
Picts, Cliron. of the Scots, and Celtic Scot 
land. Karamsin. Lappenberg. Butler. 
Horstmann, Lives of the Women Saints of 
our Contrie of England. Brit. Sancta. 
A Memorial of Ancient British Piety. 
Brit. Mart. Lingard, Hist, of England. 

St. Margaret (7), Queen of Den 
mark, July 28, + 1180. Daughter of 
St. Ingo IV., king of Sweden, and Helen, 
Queen. Margaret married Nicholas, 
kiug of Denmark. She showed her 
sanctity by her magnificent gifts to the 
Church and by her strenuous efforts to 
restore peace throughout the country, 
and especially amongst certain of her 
relations who quarrelled. She was still 
striving to make peace, when the agonies 
of death overtook her. Vastovius, Vitis 

St. Margaret (8), Oct. 25, M. 1176, 
at Roskild in Denmark. Patron of 
Roskild. She was of illustrious birth 
in the island of Zealand. Aunt of 
Peter, bishop of* Roskild, Niece of 
Absalon, archbishop of Lund. She 
married Herlaug or Haerloegr. She 
was found hanging from a beam and 
was supposed to have killed herself, and 
therefore was denied Christian burial. 
Archbishop Absalon, however, investi 
gated the matter and found that she 
had been murdered by her husband, 
whereupon she was translated into the 


church of St. Mary at Roskild. She is 
called a martyr, because she suffered an 
unjust and cruel death with piety and 
humility. AA.S3. Langebek, Scriptores, 
" Anonymi Chron. Dano Svecica, 826- 

St. Margaret (9), Feb. 3, Jan. 11, 
July 20, V. 12th century. Her body 
is preserved with great veneration in 
the church of the Cistercian nuns of 
Seauve Benoite, about twenty miles from 
Puy-en-Velay. The tradition of the 
place confirmed by several old writers 
says she was English ; but an old 
French Life of her, preserved in the 
Jesuit college of Clermont, says she was 
a Hungarian, of noble birth, and that 
she accompanied her mother on a pilgrim 
age to Jerusalem. The Biograjia Eccle- 
siastica says that her mother was English. 
After the death of her mother in Pales 
tine, Margaret made a pilgrimage to 
Monserrat and afterwards to Puy. She 
ended her days in the convent of Seauve 
Benoite, but she does not appear to have 
taken the vows of the Order as she is 
not mentioned by Henriquez, the his 
torian of the Cistercians. AA.SS., Prseter. 

B. Margaret (10), Oct. 29. End 
of 12th century. Margaret of Hohenfels 
was abbess of Bingen, where her sister 
IDA (7), countess of Spanheim, became a 
mm under her in 1190. Both are called 
Saintsby Bucelinus andMenardus. AA.SS. 

B. Margaret (11), July 13, daughter 
of Ladislaus II., king of Bohemia. In 
the 12th century she was third abbess 
of the Premonstratensian nunnery of 
Doxan, diocese of Prague ; it was founded 
by her mother, Gertrude of Austria. 
Stadler. Migne, Die. des Abbayes. 

B. Margaret (12) of Louvain, Sept. 
2 and 11, V. M. 13th century. Repre 
sented dead and floating on a river, a 
man with a spear standing by her, angels 
appearing in the heavens, the king and 
queen looking out of a window, a two- 
handled vase on the river bank, either 
the wine she was bringing to the robbers 
or the porridge which boiled without 
fire at her translation. 

In the time of Henry I., duke of 
Brabant, who died 1235, there was a man 



called Amandus who, with his wife, kept . 
an inn in the rue de la Monnaie at 
Louvain. " Little Margaret," a girl who 
was related to them, acted as a servant 
in their house. She was called "the 
Proud" because she would accept no 
love or admiration, intending some day 
to become a Cistercian nun. Strangers 
and pilgrims who came to their door 
were always hospitably received and en 
tertained. About the year 1200, Amandus 
determined to leave the world and become 
a monk at Villers, a famous Cistercian 
monastery in Brabant. Accordingly, he 
and his wife settled all their affairs and 
prepared to leave their home. Their 
intention became known to a set of 
robbers, who also ascertained that they 
had money in the house. So on the last 
night of their stay in their own home, 
eight of these ruffians came to the door. 
Margaret let them in, thinking they were 
strangers seeking a night s shelter. Pre 
sently they sent her out to fetch some 
wine from the neighbouring rue du 
Chevalier. While she was gone they 
murdered Amandus, his wife, and all the 
servants, and possessed themselves of 
everything they could carry away. When 
Margaret returned with the wine they 
took her to a house some distance from 
the town. The people of the house sus 
pected that she had been carried off by 
force. The landlady watched what the 
robbers would do with her. They took 
her to the banks of the river Deel, and 
as they were going to kill her, one of 
them was touched with compassion, and 
said to the others, " Let her live, I will 
marry her." But she said she would 
rather die than marry him, and as they 
were afraid she would betray their crime, 
they would not let her live, but gave to 
one of the party ten marks more than 
his share of the plunder, on condition of 
his killing the girl. He cut her throat 
and stuck his spear into her side, and 
they threw her into the river. The 
woman in whose house they had rested 
saw the murder. Next day a search 
was made for the murderers, but they 
could not be found; the bodies of 
Amandus and his family were found and 
people began to look for the body of 
Margaret. After some days it was found 

by some fishermen, but they were afraid 
to produce it lest they should be accused 
of the murder, they therefore buried the 
girl in the river bank ; over her grave, 
however, unearthly lights were seen at 
night, so she was taken up and carried 
into the town of Louvain and a chapel 
was built over her. Meantime Amandus 
and his wife appeared in a dream to a 
monk at Villers and told him that they 
were not yet in heaven, that but for 
Margaret they would not be so well off 
as they were, and that they could not 
hope to enjoy the same glory to which 
she was promoted. The two accounts 
from which her story is gathered agree 
as far as the moment of her death but 
differ as to the finding of her body. An 
old MS. of Eubea Valle says that the 
night she was murdered, the Duke of 
Brabant and his wife, who lived at 
Louvain, were looking out of their win 
dow, and saw a bright light in the 
heavens over the river, and heard angels 
singing. They sent to find out the cause 
of the unusual apparition, and the body 
of the saint was discovered, not under 
water but held up by the fish. The 
duke ordered a grand procession of the 
clergy and citizens to bring the sacred 
body into the city and bury it in a place 
of honour. It happened that a woman 
was making porridge for her labourers 
in the field. When she saw such a crowd 
of people, she went to the door with the 
pot in her hand and asked what it was 
all about. On hearing the circumstances, 
she laughed and said, " That story is 
true if my pot of porridge that I set 
down here on the wall will boil without 
any fire ; one is as likely as the other." 
Immediately, in presence of all the people 
the pot began to bubble and steam as if 
it were on the fire, and not only that, but 
whoever chose to eat of its contents could 
do so without diminishing the quantity ; 
the murderer s relations were not allowed 
to taste. 

AA.SS., Sept. 11. Le Mire, Fasti 
Belgici ae Burgundici. Biografia Ecclesi- 
astica. Biog. Nat. de Belgique. Molanus, 
Hist. Lovan. Butler. 

B. Margaret (13) of Ypres, July 20, 
1216-1237, 3rd O.S.D., led in the world 
a life of great innocence and simplicity. 



She was much tempted and vexed by her 
natural instincts, but fled to Christ to 
save her from them, and soon experienced 
so complete a change as to become subject 
to visions and ecstasies. She had a deep 
conviction of her own sinfulness. The 
life of prayer was so strong in her that 
when her confessor had commanded her 
to sleep during Christmas night, and she 
had every intention of obeying, she 
thought she was only saying a short 
prayer before falling asleep, and lo ! the 
morning dawned. She did not like to 
speak to any one but her confessor of her 
visions, etc. Thomas of Cantimpre praises 
her for this reticence, saying that most 
women who have anything of the sort to 
tell, make as much noise about it as a 
hen that has laid an egg. A life of her, 
translated into French, from that written 
in Dutch by Zegher, her confessor, calls 
her "Sainte Marguerite d Ypres." H. 
Choquetius, Sancti Belgi Ordinis Prse- 
dicatorum, 1618. Biog. Nat de Belgique. 
Preger, Deutsche Mystik im Mittelalter. 
Both these modern books quote her con 
temporary Life by Thomas of Cantimpre. 

B. Margaret (14) Rich, Aug. 15, 
Nov. 16, + 1257, prioress of Catesby. 
Sister of ALICE EICH. Ferrarius. The 
Bollandists promise an account of her 
when they come to Nov. 16. 

St. Margaret (15) of Hungary, 
O.S.D., Jan. 29, July 13, 1241 or 
1242-1270. Patron against inundations. 
Daughter of Bela IV., king of Hungary, 
descended from the sainted Kings Stephen, 
Emeric and Ladislas ; her mother was 
Mary, daughter of the Emperor Theodore 
Lascaris. Margaret of Hungary was 
sister of ST. CTJNEGUND (4), queen and 
patron of Poland. 

In 1240, the year of the dreadful 
Tartar invasion of Europe when the 
whole of Hungary was laid waste, Bela 
appealed in vain to the Pope, the Em 
peror, and his neighbours, to help him 
against the enemy of all Christendom. 
The royal family fled first to one place, 
then to another; and when in 1241 so 
many of their friends and kinsmen were 
killed in the desperate battle of Leignitz, 
the Queen of Hungary, daily expecting 
her confinement, fled to the farthest 
corner of her country and was at Klessa 

in Dalmatia, trembling lest the Mongols 
should make their appearance there also. 
Despairing of human aid, she sought the 
protection of heaven and vowed her un 
born child to the Church. It was a 
daughter and she called it Margaret in 
memory of one of the fair young princesses 
whose early death had just been added 
to the calamities of the royal house. 
From the time of Margaret s birth the 
forlorn affairs of Hungary began to mend 
and soon the Tartars were fast leaving 
the countries to which they had proved 
such a fearful scourge. When she was 
four she was placed in the Dominican 
nunnery at Vesprim, accompanied by her 
governess, the Countess Olympia, who 
soon became a nun there for love of her 
pupil. Margaret demanded to be dressed 
like the nuns and insisted on having 
a cilicium. At twelve years old she 
received the veil from the hands of 
Humbert, General of the Order. She 
was remarkable for austerity, humility, 
kindness, and every virtue, and was 
credited with gifts of prophecy and 
miracles ; her love of dirt was almost a 
miracle in itself. She did all the lowest 
and most revolting work of the house 
and kept herself and her clothes so dirty 
that the other nuns were afraid to sit 
beside her. Not content with her fair 
share of scourging, she made her friends 
and maids give her some more in a dark 
room, which often used to be miraculously 
illumined for the occasion. 

About 1261, Ottocar, king of Bohemia, 
who had just divorced his first wife, came 
to visit King Bela and Queen Mary, and 
begged to be allowed to see the princess, 
of whose holiness he had heard so much ; 
he was so charmed by her beauty and 
amiability that he entreated to be allowed 
to marry her, asking no dowry and ex 
plaining that his elder children were 
debarred from the succession. Bela at 
first said it was useless to ask, as Margaret 
had been vowed to the cloister from 
her birth ; but, as Ottocar persisted in 
his suit, he told Margaret that if she 
would consent to the alliance, a dis 
pensation might be procured, on the 
ground that the original vow had been 
made without her consent. Margaret, 
however, remained firm in her decision 



as she had no wish to leave her 

Her parents built her a monastery at 
Buda, on the island in the Danube after 
wards called in honour of her St. Mar 
garet s Island. She was abbess there. She 
was honoured as a saint from the moment 
of her death and the whole kingdom of 
Hungary demanded her canonization of 
Clement V. but it was never accom 
plished. She continued, however, to 
work miracles ; one of the first was, that 
when her nephew, King Ladislaus IV., 
was at the point of death, her veil was 
brought to him and placed on his head ; 
he immediately opened his eyes and 
returned to consciousness, and soon re 
covered. As soon as he was able, he 
visited her tomb and busied himself about 
her canonization. 

Her life was written in 1340, by a 
Dominican monk, from the original docu 
ments collected five years after her death 
with a view to her canonization. A.R.M., 
Jan. 26. AA.SS., Jan. 28. Ferrarius. 
Lopez, Hist, de Sancto Domingo. Mailath. 
Palacky. Eibadeneira. Baillet. 

B. Margaret (16), June 4, +1277. 
Second abbess of Vau-le-duc (Vallis 
ducis), a Cistercian nunnery founded in 
1232, by her father Henry 1., duke of 
Lorraine and Brabant. She is called 
"Blessed" by the Benedictine and Cister 
cian chroniclers. Her worship was pro- 
ably kept up as long as the convent 
was of the Order of St. Benedict and 
forgotten when it passed to Dominicans. 
AA.SS. Gallia Christiana. Bucelinus. 
Honriquez. Stadler. 

B. Margaret (17) Colonna, Sept. 
25, Dec. 30, V. 0. S. F., + 1284. 
Daughter of one of the great historical 
princely houses of Rome. Her parents 
died while she was very young and 
some of her brothers wished to settle 
her in a suitable marriage, but one of 
them, of a more religious turn than the 
rest (and afterwards a cardinal), en 
couraged her wish to be a nun; she 
went to a Franciscan convent near 
Rome, where she was occupied with the 
care of the sick but the veil was re 
fused her on account of her delicate 
health. She founded a convent for 
nuns of St. Clara at Palestrina ; Hono- 

rius IV. (1285-1288) gave to this com 
munity the convent of San Silvestro in 
Capite and thither her relics were trans 
ferred. Her virtues and miracles at 
tracted public veneration from the time 
of her death. Pius IX. in 1847 con 
firmed her immemorial worship and pro 
nounced her Blessed. A.R.M. Romano 
Seraphicum. Wadding. Diario di Roma, 
Dec. 17, 1847. Her life is promised by 
the Bollandists. 

St. Margaret (18) of Cortona, a 
penitent, 3rd O. S. F., Feb. 22, trans 
lation Nov. 22, 1247-1297. Repre 
sented with a spaniel or lap dog. 

She was born in the little town of 
Laviano, eight miles from Cortona. She 
grew up so beautiful that wherever she 
was, people would look at nothing but 
her face ; she liked this admiration and 
took great pains to dress nicely, curling 
her hair with hot irons. When she was 
eighteen, a young man of Montepulciano, 
having great riches, went about seeking 
some vicious way of spending them. He 
seduced Margaret and carried her off to 
his own home where she lived with him 
for nine years in a handsome house, 
dressing expensively, plaiting her hair 
with gold ribbons, eating dainty food, 
riding about on a beautiful horse and 
wearing jewels. Notwithstanding her 
sinful life, she was always kind and 
liberal, and had a respect for religion ; 
often when, in her rides, she came to a 
lonely place, she said, "It would be 
nice to pray here." She had a son, and 
she hoped that her lover would marry 
her to legitimize his child, but he kept 
putting it off. One day he went out and 
as he did not return that day nor the 
next she became very anxious. At the 
same time her little pet dog disappeared. 
In vain she sent servants to look for 
their master. His absence had con 
tinued for some days, and as she was 
looking up and down the road, sud 
denly the spaniel rushed to her, seized 
the end of her dress in its teeth and, 
without jumping up or making any 
signs of joy like a dog that has been 
absent from his mistress for a week and 
suddenly finds her, he showed great 
eagerness to lead her on. She followed 
and the dog led her to a thicket, and 



went in among the bushes, whining and 
making every possible sign that she 
should follow. This sho did with diffi 
culty through thorns and over stones 
and rough places. The faithful creature 
scraped with his paws and tried to re 
move the earth. Margaret now more 
alarmed than ever, fetched a spade and 
called a man to help her to dig. They 
soon discovered the murdered bcdy of 
her lost lover, in a horrible state of 
decay. He had been called away from 
a sinful life, most likely without a 
moment s notice, without time for a 
repentant prayer, certainly without be 
ing absolved and reconciled by the rites 
of the Church. Her grief and her 
horror were extreme. Next morning, 
taking her little boy with her, she went 
to her father s house at Laviano and 
begged him to take her in at least as a 
servant, and let her have some of the 
food of the pigs like the prodigal son ; 
she was willing to be beaten, even to be 
killed. Her father felt compassion for 
her but her step-mother positively re 
fused to admit her, so she sat awhile in 
the vineyard uncertain what to do, or 
how to feed her child ; she had thoughts 
of returning to a life of sin, but prayed 
against that temptation, and wandered 
forth with her son until she came in 
sight of the beautiful city of Cortona, 
and thought it was like Jerusalem ; and 
there she went to the church of the 
Friars Minors and asked for the habit 
of penitence. This they refused as she 
was still young and pretty and her con 
version was so recent that they feared 
she would relapse into her unholy life. 
She frequented the church. She la 
boured hard to maintain herself and her 
child, and lived in a poor little dwelling 
near some kind ladies who gave her 

In 1227, when she had destroyed all 
her beauty by fasting and weeping, she 
made a general confession and obtained 
admission to the Third Order of St. 
Francis. On that occasion she foretold 
that she would in time become holy and 
that pilgrims would come to visit her. 
At this time she removed to a still 
poorer lodging, nearer to the church of 
the Friars. She became a servant, and 

often cooked dainty food for her em 
ployers but never touched it herself, 
living all the time in the most rigidly 
penitential ascetic manner. After a 
time, she found that her service pre 
vented her attending mass and sermons, 
and she gave it up. 

She attended the great ladies of Cor 
tona in their confinements, making deli 
cate food and devising comforts for them 
but never departing from her own rigid 
practice of poverty and self-denial. Then, 
that she might attain to thorough hu 
mility, she went about begging, and if 
any one gave her a whole loaf she would 
not accept it lest it should be given out 
of regard for her ; she would only have 
such broken scraps as would be given to 
the first beggar who asked for anything. 

One day as she prayed with tears 
before the image of the crucified Saviour 
in the Franciscan church, He bowed His 
head and said to her, " What wouldst thou 
have, poor woman ? " She answered, " I 
seek nothing, I wish for nothing but 
Thee, my Lord Jesus." Another day 
while she was praying she heard the Sa 
viour speak to her in the spirit, and re 
mind her of her conversion, of the favours 
granted to her, such as perseverance, in 
crease in virtue, strength to do penance, 
good desires, and other gifts. She ren 
dered thanks with great affection, and 
Christ told her He had forgiven all her 
sins, and would make her a mirror of 
penitence, a net and a ladder to bring 
sinners to repentance. 

As the fame of her sanctity began to 
spread abroad, strangers from all parts 
of Italy, France, and Spain came to see 
her and take counsel of her ; and as she 
was attaining to great humility, the 
devil tried to destroy this virtue in her 
and make her vain of her virtues and 
favours. Then she called to mind her 
sins and her shameful life, and finding 
the temptation to pride returning to her 
thoughts in the night, she went out 
calling through the streets to the people 
to arise from their sleep and stone her 
and to drag her and chase her out of 
their city that she might not contami 
nate them with her wickedness, lest they 
should suffer a judgment for keeping 
so depraved a creature amongst them. 



Many arose and went to her and were 
edified by her repentance, and the devil 
never again lured her into self-compla 
cency. Once she went with a cord 
round her neck, in the poorest clothing, 
to Montepulciano, where she had lived 
during those nine years of infamous pros 
perity. She begged for alms, saying, 
"Behold your Margaret, so pretty and 
so brilliant, who scandalized you all and 
who wounded your souls! Take ven 
geance on me." 

At last she determined to serve and 
beg for the poor. With the help of the 
charitable Cortonese she built a hospital 
of St. Mary of Mercy, called the Miseri- 
cordia. It is still standing. She gave 
up her former cell to her sister ADRIANA 
(2) and served the destitute and the sick, 
begging from door to door for them until, 
worn out with her charitable labours and 
with more than twenty years of the most 
severe penance, she removed to a poor 
place in the highest part of the town 
near the citadel. This move was op 
posed by the Franciscan monks, lest she 
should not be buried amongst them. 
Here she spent the short remainder of 
her life, and died Feb. 22, 1297. She 
was embalmed and laid in a new tomb in 
the Francisan church of St. Basil, where 
twenty years before, the crucifix had 
spoken to her. She was afterwards 
translated to the new church the church 
of the monks of St. Basil, who had re 
moved there ; it was erected in her name, 
on a neighbouring hill, by the Cortonese 
and the monks. 

In 1505 Leo X. went to visit her 
tomb, recommended himself to her 
intercession, and gave leave to exhibit 
her relics for public veneration and to 
celebrate her festival in Cortona and in 
her own Order. Many miracles re 
warded the faith of those who sought 
her intercession. Urban VIII. declared 
her " Blessed," and she was solemnly 
canonized in 1728. Her son became a 
Franciscan monk and a great preacher. 

AA.SS. Jacobilli, Santi dell Umbria. 
Leon. Gaspar Bombaci. Her Life by 
Marchese. Leggendario. Mrs. Jameson, 
Sacred and Legendary Art. 

St. Margaret 09) of Castello, April 
13, -f 1320, 0. S. D. Born blind in 

1287 at Metola, in the duchy of Spoleto. 
She wore a hair shirt from the age of 
seven and fasted and prayed much. Her 
parents were greatly distressed at her 
blindness and took her to Castello, where 
they offered and commended her to a 
saint of the Order of St. Francis, whose 
body was kept there with great venera 
tion and wrought many miracles. As 
the saint did not open the eyes of the 
child, her parents abandoned her in the 
streets of Castello and went home with 
out her. Some charitable women took 
pity on her and placed her in a little 
convent which bore the name of St. 
Margaret; she did not remain there 
long, as her sanctity and asceticism so 
much exceeded those of all her com 
panions that they were dissatisfied with 
her, and spoke evil of her, and turned 
her out in disgrace. A certain honest 
man, called Venturino, took her in for 
the love of God ; his wife Grigia re 
ceived her with great kindness, and she 
passed the rest of her life with them. 
The Lord to whom the forsaken child 
belonged began immediately to pay for 
her board and lodging in miracles and 
the notorious sanctity of His servant. 
Although owing to her blindness she 
had never learnt to read, she used to- 
assist and instruct the sons of Ventu 
rino and Grigia in preparing their daily 
tasks for school. One day she was pray 
ing in her room at the top of the house 
when the kitchen took fire. A concourse 
of people rushed to the house so that 
half the town were assembled there, 
making so much noise and confusion 
that Grigia did not know whether the 
fire or the crowd was worse. In her 
distress she called Margaret, who left 
her prayers and threw her cloak down 
saying, "Don t be afraid, Signora Grigia, 
throw this over the fire and it will go 
out." Grigia obeyed her. The fire 
was extinguished quicker than if a river 
of water had been turned into it ; and all 
the people saw that the power of God 
was greater than the deluge. 

Margaret received the habit of the 
Order of St. Dominic from the brothers 
of that body, and frequented their 
church, still living with Venturino 
and Grigia. Her favourite subjects of 



meditation were the delivery of the Virgin 
Mary, the birth of Christ, and the 
service of St. Joseph during the flight 
into Egypt and the return thence. 

On her death, a grave was dug for 
her in the cemetery, but the people 
who had witnessed her sanctity and her 
miracles, clamoured to have her buried 
in the church like a saint, so they made 
a wooden box and took her in it to the 
church. A dumb and deformed boy was 
brought to this extemporized coffin, and 
as soon as he touched the body of the 
saint he became straight and cried out 
that he was healed by St. Margaret. He 
forthwith took the Dominican habit, to 
the joy of his grateful parents. 

The rulers of the town decided that 
Margaret ought to be embalmed. This 
operation was attended by miracles, the 
most remarkable of which was that her 
heart was found to contain three precious 
stones marked with representations of the 
three chief subjects of her meditations. 
On one was engraved the image of a 
beautiful woman with a gold crown on 
her head ; on the second, a new-born 
child batween two mules ; on the third, 
an old man with a bald head and white 
beard, wearing a gold mantle ; before 
him was a woman on her knees, in the 
dress of the Order of St. Dominic, repre 
senting Margaret herself at her devo 
tions. She cured many persons possessed 
of devils and afflicted with blindness 
and divers diseases. Her worship and 
miracles having continued for nearly 
three hundred years, her honours were 
solemnly confirmed by Paul V. in 1609. 

Mart.Predicatorum. AA.SS. Ferrarius. 
Cahier. Pio. Razzi. Analecta. 

B. or S. Margaret (20) of Faenza, 
Aug. 26, V. -f 1330. She was abbess 
of the Order of Vallombrosa, and was 
buried at the convent of St. John the 
Evangelist at St. Salvio, near Florence. 
For centuries the nuns reverently pre 
served the image of the Infant Christ, 
which she caused to be made. She was 
the disciple, beloved companion and suc 
cessor of ST. HUMILITY. She was favoured 
with many celestial apparitions and mar 
ried with a ring to Christ in a vision. 
AA.SS. Bucelinus. Ferrarius. 

St. Margaret (21) of Sanseverino, 

widow, Aug. T>, 27, 4- 1395, called La 
Paittoretta, the shepherdess. She was 
born of poor parents in the village of 
Cesalo, near Sanseverino. She was 
always anxious to serve God and her 
neighbour and to deny herself. When 
she was seven years old, she was sent by 
her mother to feed the sheep. On the 
way she saw a noble looking pilgrim 
sitting on the ground, apparently worn 
out with fatigue and hunger. He asked 
her if she could spare him some of the 
food she was carrying for herself, as he 
was dying of hunger. Although she 
was very hungry, the child opened her 
little bag and gave all her bread to the 
pilgrim, who stood up and solemnly 
blessed her for her charity and then 
vanished out of her sight. She knew 
that he was no mortal man and she 
spent the rest of the day in prayer. At 
night when she brought home the sheep 
as usual, she was very hungry and asked 
her mother for bread. The mother re 
plied somewhat angrily, " Didn t you 
see that the cupboard was empty when I 
gave you the last bit of bread I had in 
the morning ? And now you come and 
ask for more before supper time as if you 
were the only one of the family that 
wanted food ! Don t you know how poor 
we are ? Do you forget that we all 
want food ? " Margaret told her mother 
she had been fasting all day because 
she had given all her bread to a beggar, 
and that she was not sorry for it as she 
had done it for the love of Christ and 
she believed she had given her charity 
to the Lord Himself. "Well then," 
said the mother, " bear with patience the 
hunger you voluntarily encountered." 
With these words she opened the cup 
board, and saw to her surprise a large, 
white loaf of bread which she at once 
divided, giving a piece to Margaret first, 
and afterwards sharing it with the whole 
family and some relations and neigh 
bours, who, hearing that something un 
usual was going on, nocked to the house. 
When they saw the miracle they en 
treated Margaret to pray for them and 
they all lived together in peace. At 
fifteen Margaret was married to a man of 
Sanseverino, with whom she never quar 
relled during the twenty-one years of her 



married life ; she bad several sons and 
daughters whom she brought up piously. 
EM., Aug. 27. AA.SS.,Aug. 5. Baro- 
nius, Annales. 

B. Margaret (22) Dominici, June 
13, 1378-1442, O.S.F., was born at 
Foligno, of obscure but honest parents. 
From the time of her mother s death, 
when she was fifteen, she prayed for two 
years incessantly to be guided where 
and how she was to serve God. He 
inspired B. ANGELINA CORBARA to come 
to Foligno, where, in 1395, she founded 
the monastery of St. Anna. Devotees 
came from many places but Margaret 
was the first virgin of Foligno to enter 
there. Angelina was like the sun among 
planets, and Margaret was like the moon 
among stars. The number of nuns being 
too great for this convent, in 1399 a 
branch was established, one hundred 
paces from St. Anna s, and was dedicated 
in the name of St. Agnes, V.M. After 
long prayers it appeared that Margaret 
was chosen in heaven to rule the new 
monastery. When Angelina announced 
this to her, Margaret was overwhelmed 
with the sense of her own un worthiness, 
but in obedience to the Ministra as 
Angelina was called and the bishop, 
she was obliged to accept the office of 
Superior of the new house. It was 
called La Margaritura and the nuns 
were called Maryaritole. In 1402 the 
Margaritole had become so numerous 
that she had to enlarge the house. Mar 
garet was sent in 1431 to set up a new 
monastery of St. Catherine in Spoleto. 
She afterwards returned to her own 
at Foligno, and was eventually elected 
second Minister- General of the Ter- 
tiaries. She miraculously cured de 
formed and dumb persons. She died 
on June 13, the day of St. Antony of 
Padua, whom thenceforward her nuns 
took for patron, honouring their own 
saint with him every year. Many pri 
vileges had been granted by different 
Popes, to the convent of St. Anna, and 
Pius II., in 1462, extended these to the 
house of St. Agnes of the Margaritura. 
Margaret performed new miracles when 
her grave was opened, and again, in 
1588, on the occasion of her translation. 
She is enrolled by the O S.F. and by the 

people of Foligno among their Saints. 
Jacobilli, Santi di Foligno Santi dell" 1 
Umbria, and his life of St. Angelina. 

B. Margaret (23) of Sulmona, Sept. 
5, 1395-1449, O.S.F. Daughter of 
Francesco Figliuoli and of GEMMA (5) di 
Letto. Margaret was brought up by 
her cousin ALEXANDRINA in the convent 
of St. Clara at Sulmona. Jacobilli has 
written the lives of the saintly family of 
Letto of Sulmona, whose members he 
also mentions in his Santi dell Umbria. 

B. Margaret (24) of Savoy or MAR- 
GARIDA A GRANDE (Agiologio Dominico), 
Nov. 23, 27, + 1464, 3rd O.S.D. Patron 
of Alba de Montferrat. Eepresented 
holding three lances. Daughter of Louis, 
count of Savoy and prince of Achaia, 
who was a member of the family of the 
dukes of Savoy. She was married young 
to Theodore Paleologus, marquis of 
Montferrat, of imperial descent. She 
was disposed to virtue and piety and her 
heart was touched by the preaching of 
St. Vincent Ferrer, so that she became 
more strict in her conduct. Under her 
silken robes, she wore a cilicium. She 
was extremely charitable, particularly to 
those who were ashamed to beg. Her 
husband died about 1418, and she left 
the government to John James, her step 
son. When she was a widow and before 
she became a nun, she prayed to be num 
bered among the elect. The Lord ap 
peared to her in human form. He offered 
her three lances, which were the three 
different trials of calumny, sickness, and 
persecution, and asked her which she 
would choose to suffer. She said she 
would leave the choice to His wisdom, 
so He granted her all the three. She 
had no children. She went to Alba, not 
as a princess but as a poor woman, and 
in a few days she took the habit of the 
Third Order of St. Dominic. She was 
still beautiful and was invited to marry 
Filippo Maria, duke of Milan. She re 
fused on the ground of her religious 
vow. Eugenius IV. granted a dispensa 
tion, but she would not have it. She 
suffered badly from gout and prayed to 
be rid of it. The VIRGIN MARY told her 
she must bear it until her death. She did 
so and never complained again. She 
asked and received of the Pope, the old 



abbey of Gracciano, founded by Alerano, 
the first marquis, and containing his 
tomb; and there she built the convent 
of St. Mary Magdalene where she shut 
herself up and imitated St. Dominic, 
walking towards Paradise by the difficult 
road of patience. She cured her niece 
Amadea, afterwards queen of Cyprus, 
whom all the physicians had given up. A 
certain lady having heard Margaret spoken 
ill of, abused her and shut the door in 
her face. As a punishment for this un 
just and unchristian conduct, she brought 
forth monsters instead of children, until 
she repented and craved the pardon of 
the saint. Margaret brought up Gian- 
nettina de Boccarelli, who became a very 
holy nun. They were united by the ten- 
derest affection. Their spiritual father 
ordered them not to speak to each other 
and they dutifully obeyed. A.R.M., Nov. 
27. Razzi. Piq. Cahier. Manoel de 
Lima. Her Life is to be in the AA.SS. 
when they come down to Nov. 27. 

B. Margaret (25) Stropeni, LUCINA 

B. Margaret (2(3) of Ravenna, Jan. 
23, 1442-1505, one of the founders of 
the Congregation of the Good Jesus, was 
born at the village of Russi, between 
Ravenna and Faeuza. She became blind 
at two months old and began from early 
childhood to lead a life of religious con 
templation and extreme austerity. She 
suffered much from ill-health and from 
the unkindness of her neighbours, who 
accused her of hypocrisy. At length, 
however, they were convinced of her 
sincerity and goodness, and all of them 
and three hundred other persons who 
had been strangers to her put themselves 
under her guidance. She then thought 
herself called to draw up a rule. It was 
written, in the first place from her dicta 
tion, by Dom Serafino di Fermo, a Canon 
Regular of St. John Lateran. The Ven. 
Father Jerome Maluselli and B. GENTILE, 
her disciple, assisted her in founding 
this secular order, which was intended 
for persons living in the world. Each 
member was enjoined to be content with 
his station and fulfil its duties: there 
were special rules for the guidance of 
women married and single : the clergy 
of this brotherhood were bound to be 

content with their income and not seek 
to obtain good livings. Twenty years 
after the death of Margaret, Maluselli 
suppressed such of her rules as were 
adapted to laymen and women, and it 
became an order for priests only, under 
the name of the Priests or Regular Clerks 
of the Good Jesus. The Biografia Ec- 
clesiastica says that, with the exception 
of the extreme asceticism inculcated on 
members of religious orders, her holy 
counsels for her Congregation would be 
good for every Christian. About thirty 
years after her death, Paul III. con 
firmed her institution and commanded 
that her miracles and prophecies should 
be inquired into. She is not yet canon 
ized but is numbered among the saints 
of Italy. She foretold many events 
which duly came to pass, in particular 
the depopulation of Ravenna by the 
French, which occurred within a year of 
her death. AA.SS. Helyot. Ferrarius. 

B. Margaret (27) Fontana, Sept. 
13, 1440-1513, was a very good and 
charitable woman, who belonged to the 
Third Order of St. Dominic, and lived in 
her own family in Modena. One winter, 
although food was very scarce, she deter 
mined to take some bread to the poor. 
It was near Christmas and bitterly cold. 
As she was coming downstairs with her 
apron full of bread, she met her brother, 
who angrily asked her what she had 
there. The terrified girl said, " Roses," 
and immediately the loaves were changed 
into fresh, sweet roses. At her death 
her family were going to bury her in 
their own tomb, but the workmen suf 
fered such awful terrors when they 
began to prepare the grave that they 
were obliged to desist ; it was then de 
cided to bury her in the Dominican 
church, where her tomb emitted a scent 
of roses. AA.SS. Pio. Razzi. 

B. Margaret (28) of Lorraine, or 
Margaret of the Ave Maria, Nov. 2, 
1463-1521, O.S.F., was the daughter of 
Ferry de Lorraine, count of Vaudemont. 
Her mother was Yoland d Anjou, duchess 
of Lorraine and Bar, eldest daughter 
of Rene d Anjou, titular king of Jeru 
salem, Sicily, and Naples, and sister of 
Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England. 

After the death of her parents, 


Margaret spent some years of her youth 
at Aix in Provence, at the Court of her 
grandfather, King Rene, famous as a 
patron of troubadours. At his death 
she went to live with her brother Rene, 
duke of Lorraine, who married her, in 
1488, to Rene de Yalois, duke of Alencon, 
count of le Perche, viscount of Beaude- 
mont. Her married life lasted little 
more than four years, and at thirty, she 
was left a widow with three children. 
Her inclination would have led her to 
religious retirement, but for the sake of 
her children, she went to the Court of 
her relation Charles VIII. to be pro 
tected and confirmed in their guardian 
ship. On the accession of Louis XII. 
she went to Court to congratulate him, 
as her son had to take part in the cere 
mony of his coronation. The king made 
her stay for his second marriage with 
Anne of Bretagne, who was a firm friend 
of Margaret. On this occasion she also 
paid a visit of affection and respect to 
the ex-queen ST. JANE (10). Margaret 
brought up her children with great care 
and was so good a manager of their pro 
perty that, during the minority of her 
son, she paid off debts and burdens to 
the amount of 133,000 crowns, without 
diminishing the state required of him as 
a prince of the blood. She took great 
care that his subjects should live in 
peace and safety, and spared no pains to 
provide good magistrates to look after 
them and do them justice. She made 
great alliances for her children, marrying 
her son Charles, duke of Alencon, to the 
only sister of the Due de Valois, after 
wards King Francis I. ; her elder daugh 
ter, first to one duke and then to another, 
and the younger to the Marquis de 
Montferrat, a member of the imperial 
family of Paloologus. All these expenses 
and economies did not prevent her from 
giving immense sums in charity ; and 
not content with giving, she waited in 
person on the poor, dressing their sores, 
feeding and nursing them. Her ladies 
were unable to overcome their repug 
nance to these charitable works, and 
could not assist her. She built five 
monasteries: Argentan, Alencon, la 
Fleche, Mortagne, and Chateau Gontier ; 
the last was for the Third Order of St. 

Francis, and had a hospital attached to 
it for sick persons and for the enter 
tainment of pilgrims. 

When she had bsen a widow twenty- 
four years, and had set all her family 
affairs in good order, she took leave of 
King Francis I. and assumed the habit 
of the Third Order of St. Francis, in 
presence of her son and daughters. After 
a year of probation, she took the vows in 
1518. She lived as a nun of the Order 
of St. Clara, at Argentan, for four years 
in great perfection, and died in the odour 
of sanctity, 1521. She was buried in 
the church of her convent, where, not 
withstanding the damp, her body re 
mained perfect and lifelike for many 
years, and smelt of the gardens of 
Paradise. Steps were taken for her 
canonization in the reign and by the 
wish of her grandson Louis XIII., but 
owing to his death and the long minority 
of his son, the subject was allowed to 

The Bollandists say that her worship 
has never been authorized, but the people 
of Argentan and Alencon persist ^ in 
honouring and invoking her as a saint. 
AA.SS. Hueber, Menologium Francis- 
canum (Nov. 5). Leon, Aureole de Ste. 
Claire. Coste, Eloges des Eeines. Lau 
rent, Hist, de Marguerite de Lorraine. 

In the church of St. Germain at 
Argentan, on the left side of the great 
door, is the chapel of B. Clara, which is 
always called by the populace the Chapel 
of St. Margaret (meaning the Duchess of 
Alencon). There her heart is built up 
in the wall, and there pious persons light 
candles and put money on the altar, and 
often demand to have masses said in 
honour of Margaret. Women near their 
confinement invoke her and provide 
themselves with her relics, and the nuns 
of her convents resort to her intercession 
and protection with advantage on all 

B. Margaret (29) Plantagenet, 
May 4, 28, 3469 or 1473-1541, was born 
at Farley Castle near Bath. Daughter 
of George, duke of Clarence, and Isabella, 
daughter of the Earl of Warwick. Mar 
garet was niece of Edward IV. and 
Richard III. Her brother Edward was 
beheaded on Tower Hill in 1499. She 



married, in 1-H l, Sir Richard Pole, a 
landed gentleman of Bucks and kinsman 
of Henry VII. Sir Richard had already 
done good service to the king and after 
his marriage he distinguished himself 
particularly in the wars against Scotland, 
for which he was made a Knight of 
the Garter and chief gentleman of the 
bed-chamber to Prince Arthur, eldest 
son of Henry VII. It was probably at 
this time that Margaret s friendship with 
Catherine of Aragon began. Later, he 
was made Constable of the castles of 
Harlech and Montgomery and held other 
important appointments in Wales. He 
died in 1505, leaving Margaret a widow, 
with five children, viz. (1) Henry, 
lord Montague in his mother s right, 
beheaded shortly before her, on a charge 
of plotting to dethrone Henry VIII. in 
favour of Reginald Pole ; (2) Geoffrey, 
convicted at the same time, but pardoned 
in consideration of his betraying the 
secrets of his party ; (3) Arthur, con 
demned to death for plotting in favour 
of Queen Mary Stuart, but not executed, 
on account of his near relationship to 
Queen Elizabeth Tudor ; (4) Reginald, 
Cardinal, born at Stoverton Castle, Staf 
fordshire, in 1500, on two occasions he 
was nearly elected Pope ; twice he came 
near to being made King of England ; 
he was Archbishop of Canterbury after 
Cranmer; he died in 1558 on the same 
day as Queen Mary; he is buried in 
Canterbury Cathedral ; (5) Ursula, mar 
ried, in 1516, Henry, lord Stafford, son 
of the last Duke of Buckingham of that 
family. The Duke was beheaded in 
1522 but the barony of Stafford was 
afterwards restored to Henry. 

Henry VIII. succeeded to the throne 
in 1509. He held Margaret in great 
esteem and, desiring to atone for the 
judicial murder of her brother, Prince 
Edward, and the injustice that had been 
done to her family, he at once granted 
her an annuity. In 1513 he reversed 
the attainder of the prince and made full 
restitution to her of all the rights of her 
family, creating her Countess of Salis 
bury and giving her all the lands be 
longing to the earldom. She now had 
fine estates in Hampshire, Wiltshire, and 
Somersetshire, and although she had 

heavy burdens in the way of " benevo 
lence " and " redemption money " to the 
king, she was rich enough, a good many 
years later, to buy additional property for 
herself in Essex and Buckinghamshire. 

In 1517 Henry s eldest daughter, the 
only child of Catherine of Aragon, was 
born at Greenwich Palace. Henry, who 
called Lady Salisbury " the most saintly 
woman in England," appointed her 
governess to the infant Princess, after 
wards Queen Mary. Margaret carried 
her pupil to the neighbouring church 
of the Grey Friars to be christened ; 
she appointed a kinswoman of her own 
to be her wet-nurse and devoted herself 
with watchful affection to her charge as 
long as she was suffered to remain at her 

In 1533 the king married Anne 
Boleyn. The Countess of Salisbury, 
whose heart was in the cause of the in 
jured Queen Catherine and the Catholic 
religion, withdrew from Court. The 
king sent a lady to her with orders to 
bring the Princess Mary s jewels to him. 
Margaret refused to give them up. The 
king then deposed her from her office of 
governess, but the faithful Margaret 
said she would remain with her beloved 
pupil at her own expense. Mary re 
garded her as a second mother and 
Catherine fully appreciated her self- 
sacrificing devotion. The king, how 
ever, took means to remove his daughter 
from her care. After the fall of Anne 
Boleyn, in 1536, the Countess of Salis 
bury returned to Court and to favour. 
Meantime, in answer to Henry s declara 
tion that he constituted himself Head of 
the Church, her son Reginald Pole wrote 
his book Pro Unitate Ecclesise and sent 
it to the king. At the same time an 
insurrection occurred in the north of 
England, caused by the dislike of the 
people to the change of religion and by 
their loss of respect for the king. The 
book gave dire offence, and the king 
knowing that Pole was working against 
him in foreign Courts and that his whole 
family were hostile to the new arrange 
ments, determined to get rid of them all. 
The Countess of Salisbury, who was now 
about seventy years old, was accused of 
treason. She was imprisoned for a time 


in the house of Fitzwilliam, earl of 
Southampton, who did not treat her 
with the consideration due to her station. 
She was never brought to trial as it was 
certain that any jury would acquit her. 
In 1539 she was removed to the Tower, 
where she was kept without the common 
comforts necessary to her age, and not 
withstanding her great possessions, was 
not able to buy herself a warm garment 
to protect her from the extreme cold; 
Catherine Howard, the fourth of Henry 
VIII. s queens, sent her a furred gown, 
some shoes and slippers and other com 
forts. It was generally supposed that 
the Countess would soon be released ; 
but early on the morning of May 27 she 
was informed that she was to die that 
day. She walked with a firm step to 
the grass plot still shown in the Tower, 
where Anne Boleyn, before her, and 
Catherine Howard, after her, were be 
headed. When ordered to lay her head 
on the block she said, " Thus should 
traitors die, I am none ! " and stood erect, 
her almost gigantic height towering above 
the guards and spectators; and so she 
was beheaded. 

When Cardinal Pole was told of her 
death, he said that he had always thanked 
God for giving him a pious and excellent 
mother, but that it was an unexpected 
honour to be able to call himself the son 
of a martyr. 

Margaret s portrait, with those of many 
other martyrs, was painted on the walls 
of the ancient church of the English 
college in Rome, with the sanction of 
Gregory XIII. 

She is the only woman among the 
fifty-four English Martyrs, May 4, pro 
nounced Blessed by Pope Leo XIII., 
Dec. 9, 1886. They were martyred 
by Protestants in England during the 
struggle on account of the change in the 
national religion, between 1 535 and 1681. 
Die. of Nat. Biocj. Phillips, Life of 
Pole. Beeton, British Biography ; Nou- 
velle Biogragnie Universelle. Thomas, 
Universal Die. of Biography. Lingard, 
Hist, of England. Low and Pulling, Die. 
of English History. Sanford, Hist, of the 
Royal Family of England. Keightley, 
Hist, of England. Stanton, Menology of 
England and Wales. 

B. Margaret (30) of Piazza in Sicily, 
or Margaret Calixabeta, March 7, 
May 12, Sept. 13, Dec. 28, + 1560, 3rd 
O.S.F. Her father s name was Thomas 
Matthia ; her mother was Angela Negra. 
Various days and dates are assigned to 
her. She lived alone in a humble dwell 
ing and took poor girls to teach and 
train. She is credited with miracles. 
Stadler. Hueber. 

St. Margaret (31) delle Chiave, 
Sept. 8, June 13, -f 1570. A Portu 
guese widow, a nun, O.S.A., at Ponta 
Delgada in the Azores. She was ex 
tremely ascetic and had wonderful 
spiritual gifts. She died Sept. 8, and 
was translated June 20. Her immediate 
canonization was confidently expected 
by the inhabitants of the island; they 
began at once to build a church in her 
honour, but as she was not canonized 
it was not permissible to dedicate it in 
her name, so ST. MAKGAKET (1) was 
chosen as its patron in 1587. Margaret 
(31) is called "Saint" byTorelli, Secoli. 
Cardoso, Agiologio Lusitano. Chevalier, 
Repertoire. AA.SS., June 23, Prseter. 

B. Margaret (32), Sept. 14, + 1574. 
Daughter of Francis I., king of France. 
Married, in 1559, to Emmanuel Phili- 
bert, duke of Savoy. Migne. Her 
sister Magdelaine married James V., 
king of Scotland. 

B. Margaret (33) Agullona, Dec. 
9, 1536-1600, 3rd O.S.F. erroneously 
called Margaret Angelona and B. 
BULLONA was born at Xativa in Val 
encia. In her childhood she was sur 
rounded by a miraculous light, which 
moved about with her. At twenty, she 
became a member of the Third Order of 
St. Francis, and gave all she had to the 
poor. She lived by the work of her 
own hands, went about in ragged 
clothes, and begged at the gate of 
the friars. Her sanctity attracted the 
attention of St. Louis Bertran, Louis of 
Grenada and other persons eminent for 
learning and holiness. In her time, 
Mary, prioress of the Convent of the 
Annunciation in Lisbon, pretended to 
have the stigmata and deceived every one, 
even Pope Gregory XIII., who wrote 
her a letter. When she was found out, 
a great revulsion of feeling set in 



against ecstatic nuns in general, and 
Margaret came in for a share of the 
popular dislike and persecution, but 
her perseverance was rewarded with 
increase of grace. " Such wonderful 
things are recounted of this illustrious 
virgin," says the Bwgrafia Bcdetiattica, 
" that if they were properly proven, 
there is no doubt she would be placed 
in the category of the saints." Da^a 
and du Monstier speak of her as 
" Blessed " and " a holy virgin." 

B. Margaret (34), abbess of Val 
de Grace in Paris, Aug. 10, 1580-1020, 
was born at Villemont; daughter of 
Gilbert de Veynes d Arbouze, of the 
ancient house of Villemont, and Jeanne 
de Pinac, daughter of Peter, viceroy 
of Burgundy. Margaret took the veil 
at St. Peter s at Laon. Seeking for the 
severest rule, she first joined the Capu- 
chinesses or Passionists, then the bare 
footed Carmelites ; afterwards the Bene 
dictine nuns of Mont des Martyrs. 
Louis XIII. heard of her sanctity and, 
in 1018, appointed her abbess of Val de 
Grace. She obeyed the royal behest 
somewhat unwillingly. When she ar 
rived at her new house and was inaugu 
rated, she found that a room had been 
handsomely and comfortably fitted up 
for her. She sent for a ladder and 
began at once to pull down all the 
silken hangings, and banished from her 
cell everything but the plainest and 
most necessary articles. She practised 
in her own person all the austerities she 
required of those under her rule and 
soon reformed the convent. Her holiness 
was rewarded with the gifts of prophecy 
and miracles. She resigned her post in 
1620 and died at Sery in Berri, the same 
year. Catherine, princess of Lorraine, 
abbess of Remiremont, was her disciple 
and the authority for many of the facts 
recorded of her. Bucelinus. Hugo 
Menard. Biografia Ecclesiastica. 

B. Margaret (;-*5) Mary Alacoque, 
Oct. 17, 1047-1690. Founder of the 
devotion to the Sacred Heart. Repre 
sented holding a heart, or a picture of a 
heart, encircled with a wreath of thorns 
and surmounted by a cross. She was 
born at Lauthecour, in Charolois, Bur 
gundy. She was christened Margaret, 

to which at her confirmation she added 
the name of Mary. She was for a time 
discontented with her station, desiring 
riches and distinction for herself, but 
she found that nothing but the love of 
Christ could bring her any satisfaction. 
At twenty-three, she became a nun at Pa- 
ray-le-Monial, in Charolois, of the Order 
of the Visitation, founded by JANE (19). 
She was for a long time mistress of the 
novices and was much beloved by them. 
She was the first to establish a general 
devotion to the heart of Jesus as a 
special object of worship ; she did so 
in consequence of visions and revela 
tions, which are described at great 
length by her biographer. The object 
of this devotion is to acknowledge the 
love of Christ to His people and to 
make amends to Him for the indignities 
to which He submitted for their sake 
during His life on earth, and to which 
He is still subject in the Sacrament ; 
and to make up, by the greater love 
of His devotees, for the ingratitude 
of those who forget and neglect Him. 
The festival is held on the Friday 
after the octave of Corpus Christi. 
She met with great opposition, es 
pecially in her own convent and 
diocese, which were the last in France 
t > receive the Sacred Heart as a separate 
object of devotion. Immediately after 
her death, she was regarded as a saint, 
and miracles were performed at her 
tomb. She was beatified in 1864. In 
1720, three hundred societies of the 
Sacred Heart had been established in 
different parts of Europe and in India 
and China. Saints and Servants of God, 
published by the Fathers of the Oratory 
of St. Philip Neri. Analecta. 

St. Mariamna (1), Feb. 17, V. 
Sister of St. Philip the apostle. She 
is not commemorated in the Western 
Church, but honoured in the Mcnea with 
the title of "Equal of the Apostles." 
After the ascension of the Lord, she 
accompanied her brother and St. Bar 
tholomew to Hierapolis, in Phrygia, 
where idols were worshipped in magni 
ficent temples. In one of these temples 
a viper was kept in a shrine and re 
ceived divine honours. The preaching 
of the three saints put a stop to idol 



worship for a time, but through some 
cause of dissatisfaction the people rose 
in a sedition against them and hung 
Philip by his head, from a pillar, and 
fastened Bartholomew and Mariamna on 
crosses. The earth then suddenly sank 
to a great depth, engulting the proconsul 
and a great number of the rioters and 
spectators. The people understood this 
calamity to be a judgment for their 
conduct to the holy preachers, and 
begged their forgiveness. Mariamna 
and Bartholomew prayed Philip to free 
the populace from their danger : the 
earth returned to its usual level ; all 
the people were saved except the pro 
consul. He was left in the abyss with 
the viper, which had escaped in the con 
fusion . Batholome w and Mariamna were 
released, and Philip, who was already 
dead, was buried with fitting honours. 
Bartholomew afterwards preached in 
India, and Mariamna having preached 
the gospel and baptized many converts 
in Lycaonia, died there in peace. 

The Latin Acts of St. Philip do not 
give him any sister ; but two daughters, 
virgins, buried with him. Bollandus 
thinks the story of Mariamna possibly 
makes some confusion with St. Philip 
the deacon. AA.SS. Menology of Basil. 

SS. Mariamna (2) and Philippa 
(1), VV., May 1. Daughters of St. 
Philip the apostle. Tradition says 
Philip had three daughters, two of 
whom (Mariamna and Philippa) re 
mained at Jerusalem until they died 
at a great age and were buried there 
on each side of their father; the third 
was HERMIONE. Some legends add a 
fourth, Eutyche. Their names are not 
mentioned in any of the old martyr- 
ologies. Some of the hagiologists appear 
to confound the daughters of St. Philip 
the apostle with those of St. Philip the 
deacon : " four daughters, virgins, which 
did prophesy" (Acts xxi. 9). AA.SS., 
" St. Philip," May 1, Introduction. 

St. Mariamna (3). See THECLA 

St. Mariana (1) or MARINA, March 
16, V. M. in the year 253, at Antioch. 
She was afterwards translated into Spain. 

St. Mariana (2), KETEVAN. 

B. Mariana (3) or MARIANNA, of 
Jesus, May 25/1618-1645, V. 

Marianna Paredes y Mores, called the 
"lily of Quito," was born at Quito in 
Peru. She devoted herself to God from 
her early youth, seeking especially the 
grace of purity ; and knowing that that 
virtue could not be cultivated in a life of 
ease and pleasure, she subjected her body 
to severe and extraordinary penances. 
She is said to have preserved her country, 
by her prayers, from the scourge of 
earthquake and pestilence. After her 
death many miracles were wrought by 
her intercession. She was solemnly 
beatified by Pius IX. in 1853, and her 
life, written on that occasion, was pub 
lished by Agostini at Turin, in 1858, in 
the Collezione di buoni libri. La Civilta 
Cattolica, Dec. 3, 1853. Diario di Roma, 
Nov. 21, 1853. 

B. Mariana (4) of Jesus, MARY (67). 

Mariana (5) or MARIANNA Fontan- 
ella, MARY (70). 

St. Mariminia, ARMINIA (2). 

St. Marina (1), June 18, M. at Alex 
andria. Her martyrdom is commemo 
rated, June 18 ; her translation to Venice, 
July 17. EM. 

SS. Marina (2-11), appear as MM. 
in different places. One of them is also 
called MARCINA (June 8). The great V. 
M. ST. MARGARET, and some of the other 
Margarets are sometimes called Marina. 

St. Marina (12), July 17, Y. M. at 
Antioch in Pisidia. Daughter of a 
heathen priest. She underwent diverse 
tortures on account of her Christian faith 
and was then put in prison, where a 
dragon appeared to her; its neck was 
encircled by horrid serpents which hissed 
at the young saint. She killed it with 
the sign of the cross. Next day she was 
thrown into a lake; a white dove ap 
peared over her, blessed the water and 
baptized the maiden. Marina was taken 
uninjured from the lake and beheaded. 
Men. of Basil. 

St. Marina (13) or MARGARET, July 
18, V. M. at Orense or Amphilochium in 
Galicia, Spain. She and her eight sisters 
were daughters of Attilius and lived at 
Belcagia. They left their father there 
and went to Orense, where Marina 



vanquished the devil in the form of a 
dragon, by making the sign of the cross. 
E.M. AA.SS. 

The Spanish hagiologists sometimes 
claim as a native of their own country, 
some ancient saint who suffered martyr 
dom at Eome, Nicomedia, or anywhere 
else. This seems a reflection of the story 
of MARINA (12) and that of MARGARET 
(1), both martyrs at Antioch in Pisidia ; 
nevertheless she appears in the Roman 
Martyrology as a separate person. 

St. Marina (14), May 10, -f 362. 
Wife of St. Gordian, a ricarius in Eome 
under Julian the apostate. He was 
converted by St. Januarius, an aged priest 
who was brought to his tribunal accused 
of being a Christian. Gordian and Marina 
went by night to the prison to receive 
instruction and baptism from Januarius. 
He would not baptize them until they 
had allowed him to destroy all their 
idols, one of which was a gilded statue 
of Jupiter, the gift of the emperor. He 
then baptized them and their household 
of fifty-three persons. When these things 
came to the knowledge of the emperor, 
he deputed some one to supersede Gordian 
and punish him. Marina was sent to be 
a slave to the peasants who worked at a 
villa called Aquas Salvias, near the 
Porta Capena, not far from the spot 
where St. Paul the apostle was beheaded. 
While there, she heard that her husband 
had been scourged to death and thrown 
in front of the temple of Pallas and left 
to be eaten by dogs. The dogs, however, 
kept guard over the martyred saint until 
one of his servants came with some other 
Christians to take him away and bury 
him in the tomb of St. Epimachius, about 
a mile from Eome, in the Via Latina. 
Gordian s name appears in the Vetus 
Romanum and other very ancient mar- 
tyrologies, and Marina s name is men 
tioned in the account of him by Ado. 
AA.SS. Smith and Wace, " Gordianus 
(3) " and Marina (1)." Baillet. 

St. Marina (15), June 13, July 19, 
Dec. 4, is called in the Golden Legend 
Perhaps 5th century. Eepresented at 
the door of a monastery with a small 
child. Somewhere in the East, once 
upon a time, there was a man whose wife 

died, leaving him an infant daughter. 
He called the child Marina after her 
mother, and gave her into the care of a 
good woman to nurse. Then having no 
pleasure or interest in the world, and 
longing only to follow his wife to 
Paradise, he left his home and went to a 
monastery and there he tried to occupy 
himself entirely with the duties and de 
votions of the monks ; but ever and anon, 
the thought of his little daughter recurred 
to his mind and he wondered what would 
become of her, left alone in this unsatis 
factory world. The Abbot soon re 
marked that he had some unacknow 
ledged care in his mind, and questioned 
him about it. " Alas, Father," said he, 
" I have a little child, I have left it to 
be nursed, but after that I know not what 
will become of it, or what dangers may 
await it in this wicked world." The 
Abbot supposed the child to be a boy, 
and without more questions, he bade the 
father go and fetch it and bring it up 
himself in the monastery, safe from all 
the peril and wickedness of secular life. 
The happy father set out for his old 
home and brought his daughter, who was 
now a big baby able to run about. He 
kept her carefully in his own cell, teach 
ing her all that was necessary and 
earnestly impressing on her the import 
ance of concealing her sex. She went by 
the name of Marinus. By the time that 
her father died, she was tall and strong 
and took her share of the labours of the 
community ; among others, she was often 
sent with a cart to fetch wood from a 
considerable distance. On these occasions 
she used to sleep at an inn where soldiers 
and other rough people sometimes lodged. 
At last it came to pass that the landlord s 
daughter had a child, and said that 
Brother Marinus was the father of it. 
The landlord and his wife came to the 
monastery and complained to the Abbot 
of the indignity they had suffered from 
one of his monks. Marina not being 
able to prove her innocence, accepted the 
accusation in silence and was turned out 
of the monastery. She lived outside the 
gate and sometimes the monks threw her 
a bit of bread. When the child was 
weaned, its grandfather brought it to 
Marina, saying, " Here is your son, take 



him and bring him up if you like ; for I 
will not have him." Marina took the 
child and the insult meekly, and tended 
the boy as if he had been her own ; and 
when the monks gave her the remnants 
of their food for charity, she fed the 
child first, and if anything remained 
when he had had enough, she contented 
herself with that. 

"When her exclusion from the monas 
tery had lasted five years, the monks 
seeing her meekness and patience, and 
how she departed not from their gate 
nor sought to associate with others, 
besought the Abbot to restore her to her 
place amongst them. The Abbot replied, 
"Marinus has brought a grievous re 
proach upon us and has committed a 
great sin, we cannot bring him back as 
one of ourselves again ; but let him come 
in and do the hardest and meanest of 
the work, and by-and-bye, perhaps we 
will admit him to penance." So Marina 
was brought back into the monastery, 
not to her former place amongst the 
brethren, but to do all the work that was 
most laborious and disagreeable. This 
she accepted humbly and thankfully. A 
few days afterwards she was found dead 
one morning. The monks went and told 
the abbot, who said, "Behold, what a 
sinner Marinus was; God would not 
allow him to be reconciled by penance, 
but cut him off before he had begun ! " 
Her accuser was tormented by a devil, 
and could only be cured by penance at 
the tomb of the injured saint. AA.SS., 
July 17. Golden Legend. 

B. Marina (16) of Spoleto, June 18, 
joined the order of Canons regular of 
St. Augustine, took the name of MARINA, 
and founded the convent of St. Matthew 
at Spoleto. At her death a heavenly light 
illumined her body, and many miracles 
increased the reputation for holiness 
which she had acquired in her life. 

B. Marina (17), MARY (64). 
St. Marina (18), MARIANA (1). 
St. Marineta, MARGARET (1). 
St. Marinha, July 18, a Portuguese 
V. M. in one of the three first centuries. 
Many churches are dedicated in her 
name in Portugal and Galicia. She is 

said to have been worshipped in the 
Order of Mercy from time immemorial. 
She is sometimes confounded with Mar 
garet and sometimes supposed to be one 
of nine sisters born at a birth (See Qui- 
TEBIA). A.EM. Azevedo. 

St. Marionilla, M. 309. A matron 
of Antioch who was put to death with 
cruel tortures in the persecution of the 
Christians, at the same time with St. 
Julian, St. Celsus, St. Antony and many 
others. At their death an earthquake 
ruined great part of the city, over 
throwing most of the idols and heathen 
temples ; and many persons were killed 
by lightning and hail. Martian, who 
had condemned these Christians, escaped 
half dead from the storm, but died a 
few days after from a horrible disease. 
Martyrum Ada. 

St. Mariota. In the 16th century 
there was a chapel in her honour in the 
county of Haddington in Scotland. 

St. Marjoleine, MARGARET. 
St. Marjory, MARGARET. 
St. Marmenia, May 25, + 230. 
Wife of Carpasius and mother of LUCINA 
(4). In the reign of the Emperor 
Alexander, the Church in general had 
peace, but occasional cruelties^ and in 
justice were committed against the 
Christians through bigotry, malice or 
covetousness. Alrnachms, prefect of 
Eome (whose name is not historical), 
raised a persecution against them and 
commissioned Carpasius to compel them 
to worship the gods. St. Urban I., who 
had succeeded St. Calixtus as Pope in 
223, was one of the first victims. Car 
pasius held a great function and called 
upon all to join in the sacrifice. The 
Pope and many others who refused 
were beheaded, Carpasius proceeding 
with the sacrifice was seized by the 
devil. He gnashed his teeth and talked 
incoherently, crying out between the 
paroxysms that this had come upon him 
because he had killed the Christians ; 
Almachius thought Carpasius had be 
come a Christian, and ordered him to 
be taken away. His convulsions and 
sufferings increased and he presently died. 
Marmenia, next night, went with her 
daughter Lucina to two holy Christian 



priests and begged to be instructed. 
They buried Urban and the martyrs who 
Buffered with him. Lucina distributed 
all her property to the poor among the 
Christians. Marmenia, Lucina and 
twenty-two of their newly converted 
servants were beheaded, and many other 
Christians were put to death by Alma- 
chius, and are honoured on the same 
day. AA.SS. Baillet. The story is 
taken from the Acts of St. Urban, 
which, though very ancient, are not 

St. Marninta, or MANINTIA, Feb. 
28. M. with many others. AA.S8. 

St. Maroye, MART OF OIGNIES and 

St. Martana, Dec. 2 (R.M.), Dec. 10 
(Lightfoot and Tillemont), Nov. 30, + 
between 250 and 205. A Christian lady 
who came to Eome with her daughter 
VALERIA (4) some months after the 
martyrdom of SS. Adrias and PAULINA 
and their family. Martana and Valeria 
were made to die of hunger for their 
faith, and were buried beside Paulina 
and her companions in the sandpit, at 
the first milestone from the city. Bishop 
Lightfoot, Hippolytus of Portus. 

St. Martha (1) of Bethany, the 
entertainer of Christ, July 29. 1st 
century. Patron of housekeepers, inn 
keepers, publicans (with Zaccheus), hos 
pitallers, laundresses (with HUNNA) ; 
patron and model of women who serve 
God in an active life, while her sister 
MARY is the patron of those who choose 
the contemplative state ; MARTHA is 
patron of Provence, Aix en Provence, 
Cadiz, Castres, Tarascon, Martos. Re 
presented carrying a bunch of keys, 
or with a dragon beside her. It is 
conjectured that she was the wife or 
daughter of Simon the Leper. We are 
told that " Jesus loved Martha, and her 
sister, and Lazarus." After the death 
of Lazarus, the Lord came to Bethany ; 
and Martha, as soon as she heard that He 
was coming and before He entered the 
town, went and met Him, but Mary sat 
still in the house until Martha came 
back and called her, saying, " The 
Master is come and calleth for Thee." 
Each sister, as she met the Lord, said, 
"Lord, if Thou hadst been here, my 


brother had not died. They knew that 
he was to rise again at the last day, 
but as yet they knew not that he was 
to be given back to them at once. After 
the raising of Lazarus, the Saviour 
again visited the family at Bethany, 
where they made Him a supper, and 
Martha served ; many of the Jews came 
that they might see Lazarus, and because 
of him many believed in the Lord Jesus. 
To these details, tradition adds that after 
the death of onr Saviour, Martha with 
her brother Lazarus and sister Mary, 
MAUCKLLA their maid, and St. Maximus, 
one of the seventy-two disciples, were 
put by the Jews into a boat without 
oars, sail, or rudder, and committed to 
the sea, with the intention that they 
should all perish ; the boat, however, 
arrived safely at Marseilles, of which 
Lazarus became the first bishop, and 
Maximus, bishop of Aix. Martha con 
verted a great number of persons by her 
preaching. A large district on the bank 
of the Rhone suffered great loss and 
terror from a dreadful dragon named 
Rasconus ; Martha killed it, and the 
town of Tarascon, which in the course 
of years grew up on the spot, bears the 
name of the monster, to this day. St. 
John xi., xii. R.M. AA.SS. Villegas. 
Mrs. Jameson, 

St. Martha (2), Feb. 23, V. M. 251 
or 252. In the time of Deoius, a ruler 
named Paternus came to Astorga in 
Asturias. There he summoned all the 
people to a great feast to sacrifice to the 
gods. A certain Christian virgin, named 
Martha, of noble birth and great riches, 
absented herself ; he had her seized and 
commanded her to worship idols. On 
her refusal she was placed on the rack 
and beaten with knotted sticks. After a 
time Paternus told her that if she would 
renounce her religion, she should marry 
his son ; if not, she should be pnt to 
death. As she disregarded his promises 
and threats, she was stabbed and her 
body thrown on a heap of rubbish. A 
charitable matron buried her. B.M. 
AA.SS. Baronius. 

St. Martha (3), DOMINICA (1). 

St. Martha (4), Feb. 24, M. at 
Nicomedia in Bithynia with many others. 


St. Martha (5), Jan. 19, 20, + 270 
or 800. Wife of Maris or Marius, a 
nobleman of Persia. They sold their 
possessions, gave all to the poor, and 
with their sons, Audifax and Abacum, 
travelled to Rome, where they devoutly 
assisted the persecuted Christians and 
buried those who were put to death, 
until they were apprehended by Mari- 
anus, under the emperor Aurelian. 
Maris and his sons were tortured in 
various ways, Martha being compelled 
to stand by and see them ; they were 
then beheaded, and she dipped her 
finger in the blood and made the sign 
of the cross on her forehead. She was 
finally taken to Santa Ninfa, the sacred 
pools, thirteen miles from Rome, and 
there drowned. The date and the name 
of the reigning emperor are matters of 
dispute, but the story is accepted as 
true. KM. Villegas. Baillet. Butler. 
Martin. Canisius. 

SS. Martha (6) and Mary, Feb. 8, 
VV. MM. They were sisters. La- 
herius, in his Menologio Virginum, says 
they lived and died in Asia, but Bol- 
landus declares the date and place of 
their death to be unknown. As the pre 
fect of the province was passing through 
the place where they lived, they looked 
out of the windows and cried out that 
they were Christians ; he pitied their 
youth and would have let them retract 
their words and escape death, but they 
said martyrdom was not death, but the 
beginning of an endless life. A boy 
of the name of Lycarion or Bycarion, 
their pupil, was martyred with them. 
They were all three hung upon crosses 
and pierced with swords. AA.SS. 

SS. Martha (7) and Mary, June 6, 
VV. MM. Honoured in the Greek 
Church with three companions, VV. 
MM., not known where or when. AA.SS. 

St. Martha (8). (See THECLA (16).) 

St. Martha (9), Sep. 20, is com 
memorated with SUSANNA (13). ll.M. 

St. Martha (JO), May l, 22. V.^of 
Auxerre, end of 4th century. Wife 
of St. Amator of Auxerre. Both were of 
high rank and great wealth. On their 
wedding-day their room was splendidly 
decked for them with silk and gold, ivory 
and precious stones ; the bride s dress 

was magnificent; a large gathering of 
friends assembled for the festive oc 
casion. St. Valerian (May 6), the aged 
bishop of Auxerre, having been invited, 
according to the custom of the time, to 
bless the house of the newly united pair, 
instead of the marriage blessing read by 
mistake the prayers for the dedication of 
a priest. As no one present understood 
Latin except Amator and Martha, the 
mistake passed unremarked. When the 
young couple were alone, Amator said 
to his bride, " Did you understand what 
the bishop read while we knelt before 
him ? " "I did," answered Martha, " and 
I was afraid it would now be sinful to 
lead the worldly life we contemplated." 
From that time, they considered them 
selves set apart for the service of God. 
They were encouraged in their resolu 
tion by an angel who appeared to them. 
The venerable Valerian was soon suc 
ceeded by St. Eladius, to whom Amator 
and Martha went for advice and instruc 
tion. He ordained Amator a priest and 
gave the sacred veil to Martha. On the 
death of Eladius, Amator succeeded to 
the bishopric, and on his death, in 418, 
he begged to be succeeded by St. Germain. 
Martha died some years before her hus 
band and was buried by him. These 
four bishops of Auxerre are universally 
considered saints, and Martha is so called 
by Saussaye, Arturus and others, although 
her worship is not authorised. AA.SS., 

St. Martha (11) with. SAULA E.M., 
perhaps 5th century. 

St. Martha (12), Sept. 1 (MATANA, 
MAHTHANA), -f c. 428. Mother of St. 
Simeon Stylites the Elder or St. Simeon 
in Mandra. He was born at Sisan on 
the borders of Cilicia and Syria, in 
388. When he was about sixteen, he 
disappeared from his home and his 
parents did not know what had become 
of him, until his extreme asceticism and 
his repute for miraculous powers at 
tracted so much attention even in distant 
countries that his mother discovered his 
whereabouts. Meantime he had been 
sent away from one monastery on account 
of his excessive austerities and had lived 
some time in another monastery, an ex 
ample of humility and devotion. At 


last, in 413 he settled in a cell of his own 
near Antioch, where a number of devout 
men gathered round him. Although 
he lived shut up in a cell, he was con 
tinually disturbed by persons who came 
to consult him on all subjects, so in 42:5, 
to escape from these interruptions he 
built himself a pillar, of no great height 
at first ; but as this innovation in the 
customs of the anchorites drew crowds 
to see this wonderful man, he gradually 
built the column higher and higher to be 
out of their reach. Round the pillar was 
a wall to keep off intruders, especially 
women : the enclosure thus formed was 
called Mandra, a word signifying a fold 
for sheep or cattle. The emperor Theo- 
dosius II., his wife Eudoxia, his sisters, 
sundry bishops and other potentates sent 
to consult him on divers matters. Some 
of them begged him, in vain, to descend 
for a time from his pillar and come to 
visit them. His new form of self-mortifi 
cation profoundly impressed the age and 
he had imitators, both in the Church and 
in heretical bodies. He is credited with 
the conversion of many Arabs and other 
heathens. Pilgrims came in great num 
bers from all directions, some from Spain 
and Britain ; so that a house for their 
entertainment was built in the neigh 
bourhood, the ruins of which are there 
to this day. As far as the curiosity and 
devotion of the world would allow him, 
he spent his time in perpetual adoration. 
He wrote several epistles and addresses, 
and although they are not extant, ex 
tracts from them are preserved in the 
works of reliable authors, and many of 
the wonderful things told of him by his 
early biographers are confirmed by the 
latest explorations. In 428 Martha dis 
covered in this marvellous man her long 
lost son and sought an interview with 
him. This he declined, saying that 
they would meet in the next world. 
This answer only quickened his mother s 
desire ; she wished to ascend by a ladder, 
the better to see and hear him ; but this 
he absolutely forbade. However, as she 
entreated the more earnestly, he bade 
her wait patiently for a short time and 
then he would see her. She sat down 
within the Mandra and immediately died 
Then he directed those who stood by to 

bring her nearer ; they laid her at the 
foot of his column, and he prayed God 
to receive her soul. Upon this, the 
happy mother moved in her death-sleep 
and a smile irradiated her face. AA.SS. 
Guerin. Compare with " Simeon Stylites " 
in Smith and Wace. 

St. Martha (13), May 24, + 551. 
Mother of St. Simeon Stylites the Younger, 
who is called also the Thaumastorite, or 
according to Dr. Stokes, Maumastoritos. 
Martha was a native of Antioch ; her 
husband came from Edessa in Mesopo 
tamia, and her son was born at Antioch 
in 521, and died in 596. He was the 
second of three SS. Simeon Stylites. He 
early became a monk in a monastery at 
the foot of a mountain near Antioch, 
under St. John the Stylite, who, when he 
considered him sufficiently advanced in 
holiness, allowed him to come on to his 
pillar. The two led a life of penance, 
standing together on the pillar for some 
time. Afterwards Simeon had another 
pillar constructed for himself in a small 
monastery, hewn out of a single rock in 
the mountain. On this pillar he stood 
until his death at a great age. Some 
accounts say he stood on a pillar for 
sixty-eight years. He is mentioned by 
the contemporary historian Evagrius, who 
bears witness to some of his miracles. 
He was highly esteemed by the Emperor 
Justinian. Few particulars are recorded 
of the life of Martha. She spent her 
whole time in works of devotion and 
charity, and such was her reverence for 
sacred places and services that she was 
never known either to sit down in church 
or to exchange a word with any one while 
there. She was very humble, and when 
Simeon wrought miracles she impressed 
on him that he must remember his own 
worthlessness and give God the glory. 
When she knew that her death was near, 
she went to her son to ask his prayers, 
and seeing her approaching, he called out 
to her, " Mother, I commend myself to 
thy prayers, for thou art going hence to 
God." She exhorted him to remember 
her in all his prayers after her death, 
and reminded him that she had always 
prayed for him. She was venerated as a 
saint during the life of her son, and is 
commemorated with him in the Greek 


Church. AA.SS. Baillet, " St. Simeon 
Stylites." Guerin. 

St. Martha (14), June 24, M., 
honoured in the Abyssinian and Coptic 
Churches. Not the same as any other 
Martha. AA.SS. 

St. Martha (15), abbess of Kildare, 
who died in 753. Colgan. 

B. Martha (1C)), May 24, 10th cen 
tury. Abbess of Malvasia in the Pelo 
ponnesus. One day while she was 
praying in the church of her monastery, 
an aged monk came up to her and begged 
her to give him her jacket. She an 
swered him, "As the Lord liveth, brother, 
I have but two jackets, one is at the 
wash, and on account of my infirmity, 
I cannot do without the other, which I 
am now wearing. Were it otherwise, I 
would gladly give it to you." The man, 
however, continued to beg, in the name 
of Christ, that she would give him one. 
At last she did so. He instantly disap 
peared, and from that moment she was 
cured of her infirmity and had no need 
for warm clothing. Every one perceived 
that the beggar must have been St. John 
the Evangelist. AA.SS. 

B. Martha (17), July 5, Cistercian 
nun at La Cambre near Brussels. She 
ministered with great charity and patience 
to ADELAIDE (10) when she had the 
leprosy. Called " Blessed " by Henriquez, 
Bucelinus and others. AA.SS., Prseter. 

St. Martha (18), Nov. 8, also called 
MARY, -f 1300. Daughter of the Grand- 
duke Demetrius, who was closely related 
to Alexander Nevski, grand-prince of 
Russia. She married Dormont, duke of 
Pskov. After his death she renounced 
the world and led a religious life. She 
was buried in the church of St. John 
the Baptist, where she is honoured with 
public worship. Slavonic Calendar in 
the AA.SS., Oct. vol. xi. 

St. Marthana(l). A holy deaconess 
or abbess who, in the 4th century, pre 
sided over a community of Renuntiants 
at Seleucia. She went to Jerusalem to 
pray at the holy places, and there made 
the acquaintance of ST. SILVIA ; they 
became dear friends and met again with 
great joy when Silvia visited Seleucia on 
her way to Constantinople, probably 
about 385. These Renuntiants were an 

extremely self-denying sect, who re 
nounced all private property. Pilgrimage 
of St. Silvia. 

St. Marthana (2), MARTHA (12). 

St. Martia or MARCIA-MATIDIA, 
March 3. Her name is the first in a 
list of martyrs in eighteen of the oldest 
and most reliable martyrologies. Martia 
and her companions are mentioned in 
an ancient Anglo-Saxon edition of St. 
Jerome, discovered in the seventh cen 
tury. They suffered perhaps in Spain, 
perhaps in Africa. Some writers, con 
founding her with Matidia Augusta, have 
called her a sister of the Emperor 
Trajan and disciple of St. Clement, but 
Trajan had no sister who was a Christian. 
His niece, Matidia, was the wife of 
Adrian. AA.88. 

St. Martina, Jan. 1, 15, 30, Dec. 
31, + 230. Patron of Rome. She was 
the daughter of a consul of Rome and 
deaconess in the Christian church in the 
time of the Emperor Alexander Severus 
and Pope Urban I. She was ordered to 
sacrifice to Apollo, and replied, " Com 
mand me to sacrifice to Jesus Christ, 
that will I do, but to no other God." 
They dragged her to the altar of Apollo, 
and she prayed that his image might 
perish. Immediately, part of the temple 
fell down, destroying the statue of the 
god, killing the priests and causing the 
devil to depart shrieking from the idol s 
shrine. She was struck on the mouth, 
and eight executioners were commanded 
to inflict divers tortures on her, but she 
was defended by four angels who avenged 
on the eight men each injury they did 
to the young saint. They tore off her 
eyelids and the angels tore off theirs. 
She prayed for their conversion, which 
occurred while they were tearing her 
with hooks ; they declared themselves 
Christians, and were immediately hung 
up and torn with hooks by other execu 
tioners. She was condemned to be killed 
by a lion; but instead of hurting her, 
he crouched at her feet. Then she was 
hung on four stakes and cut with swords, 
and at last she was beheaded. At the 
moment of her death, a great earthquake 
shook the city: a circumstance which 
increased the number of converts from 
paganism. Her martyrdom occurred 



Jan. 1, but her festival is the 3()th. 
E.M. Canisius, Mart. Da- Kirchen 
Kalcndftr. Flo* Sanctorum. Leggendario. 
AA.SS. Baillet (Jan. 30) says her Acts 
are not authentic, but that she was held 
in veneration at Rome from the time of 
her martyrdom, and a chapel was erected 
in her honour, over her tomb at the foot 
of the Capitoline Hill, where multitudes 
resorted on the 1st of January, although 
the festival was afterwards changed to 
other days, to avoid interfering with 
commemorations of greater importance. 
Before the finding of her relics, the 
monks of St. Francis of Araceli boasted 
that they possessed St. Martina s head. 
Her bones were said to be at Sta. 
Maria Maggiore, and her whole body at 
Piacenza ; but in the time of Urban VIII. , 
1 634, her body was found in a ruined 
vault under her church. She was in a 
sarcophagus of terra cotta, placed on a 
long slab of stone, enclosed between 
two walls and covered with earth and 
pebbles. In the same sarcophagus were 
other bodies separated by partitions, one 
of which was of lead, one of marble, and 
one of earth like a large tile ; the names 
of SS. Martina, Concordius and Epi- 
phanius were inscribed respectively on 
three of the compartments, the other 
was not named; but the epitaph de 
scribed them all as having suffered death 
in the cause of Christianity. The head 
of Martina was separate from the body, 
in a rusty iron bowl, and was easily 
ascertained to be that of a young girl. 

Her Acts are almost identical with 
those of PRISCA and TATIANA, neither 
of which are authentic : those of Prisca 
are supposed to be the oldest of the 
three and the basis on which the other 
two were written. 

St. Martiniana. (See IRENE (4).) 

St. Martyria (1) or MARTYRIUS, 
May 21, M. at Ravenna. AA.SS. 
Henschenius from Bede and other 

St. Martyria (2), June 20, M. at 
Tomis. AA.SS. 

St. Marvenne, MERWIN. 

St. Marvia, perhaps MERWIN. 

St. Mary (1), the Prophetess, July 1 
(MARIAMXE, MIRIAM). The Martyrolcxjy 
of Salisbury says, " St. Mary the Pro 

phetess, sister of Moses and Aaron, As 
Moses was/guyder of the meu/amonge/ 
ye/childer of/israell, so was she of the 
women." When Moses was born in 
Egypt, the cruel edict of Pharaoh was 
in force, condemning every male child 
among the Hebrews to death. His 
mother concealed him for three months, 
and then being no longer able to do so, 
put him in " an ark of bulrushes " and 
laid it in the flags by the river s brink ; 
Miriam, his sister, stood at a little dis 
tance to see what would happen. When 
Pharaoh s daughter found the child and 
had compassion on him, Miriam sug 
gested that she should employ one of 
the Hebrew women to nurse him ; and 
fetched his mother (Exodus ii.). Miriam 
next appears after the crossing of the 
Red Sea (Exodus xv. 20), where she is 
styled Miriam the prophetess, the sister 
of Aaron. She headed the Hebrew 
women in a great service of praise and 
song. In Numbers xii. we find that 
Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses 
because he had married an Ethiopian 
woman. As a punishment Miriam was 
smitten with leprosy. When Aaron 
confessed the wickedness of himself and 
his sister and prayed to Moses for her 
restoration, Moses interceded with God 
and was promised that she should re 
cover in seven days. During that time 
the whole nation halted for her while 
she was kept outside the camp. She 
died at Kadesh in the desert of Zin 
(Numbers xx. 1). Her tomb was shown 
in the time of St. Jerome. The prophet 
Micah (vi. 4) mentions her as one of 
the great leaders and deliverers of the 
Israelites. Josephus numbers her among 
the old Testament Saints. The Christian 
Calendars honour her, July 1, with 
her nephew Eleazar, and great-nephew 
Phineas. According to Josephus, she 
had a husband named Hur. Moham 
medan legend makes her identical with 
Mary, the mother of Jesus, and says she 
was miraculously kept alive to fulfil her 
blessed destiny. Smith s Die. of the 
Bible. Stadler, Lcxikon. AA.SS. 

St. Mary (2)> 1st century, Mother 
of the Saviour, March 25 Annunciation, 
Aug. 1~> Assumption, Feb. 2, July 2 
Visitation (to Elisabeth), Aug. 5 Our 


Lady of the Snow, Sept. 8 her nativity, 
Sept. 12 her name, Sept. 24 Our Lady of 
Mercede for the Kedemption of Captives, 
Nov. 21 Presentation of the Blessed 
Virgin in the temple in her childhood ; 
this feast, originally observed Feb. 14, 
is the oldest festival in her honour, Dec. 
8 the Immaculate Conception, Oct. 7 
Our Lady of Victory, instituted by 
Pius V. in honour of the victory of the 
Christians over the Turks at Lepanto ; 
this victory was ascribed to her. All 
these days and a few more are marked 
in the R.M. Many others are set apart 
by different Churches and Orders in 
honour of certain events and relics con 
nected with the Mother of the Lord. 
The month of May is the month of 
Mary. By the Seven Dolours of the 
Blessed Virgin, March 7, are generally 
meant (1) the agony of grief that Mary 
felt when Simeon prophesied that this 
Child should be for the fall and rising 
again of many, and that a sword should 
pierce through her own soul; (2) when 
the angel told Joseph to flee into Egypt 
because Herod would seek the Child s 
life, and she saw from this how ill He 
would be received on earth ; (3) when 
He stayed behind at Jerusalem with the 
doctors and she lost Him ; (4) when she 
met Him carrying His cross ; (5) when 
she saw Him crucified ; (6) when He 
was taken down from the cross and she 
took Him in her arms; (7) when they 
took Him from her arms to bury Him. 

St. Mary has many aliases, amongst 
others, The Blessed Virgin Mary, the 
Virgin, our Lady, the Mother of God ; 
the Madonna; the Queen of Heaven 
and Hell ; the Star of the Sea ; the Gate 
of Heaven; the Mother of Mercy; the 
Refuge of the Lost ; the Mediatrix ; the 
Protector from Divine justice and from 
the devil ; the Ladder of Paradise ; the 
Door ; the Ark ; Theotokos, Deipara, 
Deigenitrix, Bogoroditza. la, Mariarnne, 
Merg, Miriam, Mury, are identical with 

She is patron of women named 
Annunciata, Candelaria, Concepcion, 
Dolores, etc. Cahier gives a long list 
of places, communities and industries of 
which she is patron. Among the coun 
tries are England, France, and Portugal ; 

among the towns, Lincoln, Salisbury, 
Paris, Hampstead, and Montreal which 
was founded by the Sulpicians under 
the name of Villemarie. Among the re 
ligious orders are the Cistercians and the 
Order of Mercede for the Redemption 
of Captives. The newspaper-carriers 
of Paris and ribbon-makers are under 
the patronage of the Annunciation ; the 
fish- sellers of Paris specially honour 
her Assumption. The Conception is 
the patron of Spain and the Spanish 
Indies; the Nativity, of many places 
in Paris, of restaurants, cooks, fish- 
women, makers and sellers of ribbons, 
fringes, gold and silver cloth. As Our 
Lady of tlie Snow, she is patron of 
embroiderers, lace-makers, bleachers of 
linen and spinners of thread for lace ; 
this is probably on account of the perfect 
whiteness aimed at in these arts. 

If the genealogy of our Lord given 
by St. Luke, is that of His mother, 
her father s name was Ileli, which is a 
variant oi Joachim, and the tradition 
that her mother s name was Anna is of 
great antiquity, and very likely to bo 

All that we know of St. Mary from 
contemporary history is the little that is 
told in the Bible, but that little was soon 
amplified and gradually grew to a story 
of considerable length, most of which is 
to be found in the apocryphal gospels. 

According to the traditions, Mary was 
the daughter of SS. Joachim and ANNA. 
For the story of their long childlessness 
and the wonderful circumstances of the 
birth of Mary, see ANNA (3). 

When Mary was nine months old, 
Anna set her on the ground to see 
whether she could walk, and she walked 
nine steps. By another account, she was 
first set down at three months and walked 
three steps. Her mother caught her up 
and said, "As the Lord liveth thou 
walkest no more on this earth until I 
bring thee into the temple of the Lord." 
So she made her chamber a holy place 
and suffered nothing common or unclean 
to come near her, but invited certain well- 
reputed daughters of Israel to keep her 

When she was a year old, Joachim 
made a great feast and invited all the 


priests, scribes, and elders, and many 
others. At tho feast he made an offer 
ing of his daughter to the chief priests. 
They blessed her, saying, " The God of 
our fathers bless this girl and give her 
a name famous and lasting through all 
generations. * All the people cried, 
" Amen." 

When she was two years old, Joachim 
proposed to Anna to take her to tho 
temple in fulfilment of their vow; but 
Anna said they would wait one more 
year that the child might know her 
parents. When she was three years old 
they took her to the temple, accompanied 
by several young women, each- carrying 
a lamp lest the child should be frightened. 
They delivered her to the priest, who 
" set her on the third step of the altar, 
and the Lord gave her grace, and she 
danced with her feet, and all the house 
of Israel loved her." Her parents left 
her with the other virgins who were to 
be brought up in the temple, and returned 

During the years of her childhood and 
education there, she was daily visited 
and fed by angels. When she was 
twelve or fourteen, or eighteen, for the 
accounts vary the priests ordered that 
all the virgins who were of suitable age 
should return to their families and " ac 
cording to the custom of their country 
endeavour to be married." They all 
received the command gladly, except 
Mary, who was vowed by her parents 
to the service of God for life ; besides 
which, she had herself made a vow of 
virginity, so that she could not marry. 
Then the priests, after asking counsel 
in the usual way, made a proclamation 
that all the marriageable men of the 
house of David or by another account, 
all tho widowers should bring their 
rods to the altar, when it would be made 
known by a sign from heaven which of 
them should be the husband of Mary. 
So the criers went out through all Judea, 
and the men assembled and presented their 
rods. The high-priest prayed, and after 
wards returned to each man his rod ; but 
no sign followed. The high-priest again 
sought Divine instruction, and it was 
revealed to him that the man who was 
destined to marry Mary had kept back 

his rod when the others were pre 
sented. Thus Joseph was betrayed, and 
had to produce his rod. No sooner had 
the high-priest taken it than it burst 
forth into flower and a dove from heaven 
lighted on it or, according to the Prot- 
evangelion, a dove flew out of the rod 
and lighted on the head of Joseph. He, 
however, refused to marry, saying that 
he was eighty years old, and had grown 
up children, and that ho would become 
ridiculous in the eyes of all people if he 
married a young girl. The high-priest 
reminded him what an evil fate befel 
Korah, Dathan, arid Abirarn when they 
refused to do the bidding of tho inspired 
rulers of Israel. So Mary was espoused 
to Joseph the Carpenter. He took her 
to his house and left her there while he 
went to attend to his trade of building. 
Now the priests decided to make a new 
veil for the temple, and they sent for 
seven virgins of the tribe of David, and 
when they were come, Mary being one 
of them, the high-priest said, " Cast lots 
before me, who of you shall spin the 
golden thread, who the blue, who the 
scarlet, who the fine linen, and who 
the true purple." The purple fell to the 
lot of Mary, and she went away to her 
own house to spin it. One day she went 
out to draw water, and as she went she 
heard a voice saying to her. " Hail, thou 
that art full of grace, the Lord is with 
thee, thou art blessed among women ! " 
She looked round, trembling, and went 
back into her house, and putting down 
her pitcher, she sat down to work at the 
purple. Then she saw the angel Gabriel 
standing by her, and he told her she was 
highly favoured and that she should be 
come the mother of a Holy Child, the 
Son of God Whom she was to call Jesus 
(St. Luke i. 26-37). At the same time 
ne told her that her cousin (ST.) ELISA 
BETH, who was old and had been called 
barren, was in the sixth month of her 
pregnancy. Mary finished working the 
purple for the veil and carried it to 
the high-priest, who blessed her, and 
she went a great distance from Nazareth 
to visit and congratulate Elisabeth, who 
lived at Hebron or Juttah, about twenty 
miles south of Jerusalem. 

Elisabeth received her with great 



joy and blessed her and was the first 
to hail her as the mother of the Lord 
(St. Luke i. 42). In answer to the 
salutation of Elisabeth, Mary uttered 
the song which we know as the Mag 
nificat (St. Luke i. 46-55). It shows 
that, whether the priests in the temple 
or her parents at Nazareth brought her 
up, she had been instructed in the scrip 
tures. The song is taken largely from 
that of Hannah (ANNA (1)), mother of 
Samuel (1 Sam. ii. 1-10). The rest of 
it is almost entirely from the Psalms and 
the books of Moses and the Prophets. 

When Mary returned to her husband s 
house, it became manifest that she was 
with child. While Joseph was grieved 
and perplexed, the angel of the Lord 
appeared to him in a dream and told 
him that she was about to become the 
mother of the Saviour of the world. 
They both suffered some suspicion and 
abuse from the priests, but they rejoiced 
because they were favoured by God. 

Soon they set out for Bethlehem, in 
obedience to the decree of the Emperor 
Augustus that all the Jews should be 

The Virgin Mother brought forth her 
son in a cave used as the stable of the 
overcrowded inn. At the moment of 
the Lord s birth everything stood still : 
the clouds were astonished, the birds 
stopped in the midst of their flight, 
people sitting at table did not move 
their hands to feed, and those who had 
meat in their mouth did not go on eat 
ing ; but all faces were looking upwards ; 
the kids that had their mouths touching 
the water did not drink. Then came 
SALOME and would not believe that a 
virgin had brought forth a child; and 
her hand withered, but she acknowledged 
her fault, repented of her presumption, 
and worshipped the new-born King ; she 
was allowed to carry the Child, and as 
soon as she took Him in her arms, her 
hand was made well. One of the legends 
of the Nativity popular in Spain was 
that the cow and the ass in the stable 
were quiet to let the Madonna rest, but 
the ox and the mule made their noises 
and disturbed her, and that is the reason 
that the ox and the mule never have any 
young ones to this day. 

Next came the Wise Men from the 
East, led by a star of wondrous bright 
ness, to the place where the young Child 
and His mother were. They worshipped 
the Child and presented their gifts and 
returned to their own country. The 
shepherds in the fields and SS. Simeon 
and ANNA (2) in the temple acknow 
ledged the Divinity of the new-born 
Saviour, and Simeon foretold to the 
B. Y. Mary the martyrdom of grief 
that she was to suffer. Then Herod, 
fearing that a rival king of Judea was 
born in Bethlehem, sent men to kill all 
the children there of two years old and 
under. Mary was afraid, wrapped her 
Child in swaddling clothes and hid Him 
in an ox-manger ; but Joseph, warned of 
God that Herod was seeking to kill the 
Child, fled into Egypt, taking his wife 
and her Infant on an ass while he and 
his son Simeon walked beside them. 
Many legendary details of this journey 
are told in the various apocryphal books. 
As the holy family sat resting under a 
tree, the divine Child commanded the 
branches to bend down that His mother 
might gather the fruit to refresh herself. 
When dragons and other monsters came 
out to trouble them, He stood before 
them and they went peacefully away. 
Lions and wild asses carried the baggage 
the little party brought with them. 

During part of their journey they 
were pursued by Herod s men, and at 
one place they passed through, the in 
habitants were sowing corn in the fields. 
Mary said to them, " If people come here 
asking for us, tell them we passed through 
your place when you were sowing corn." 
They promised to do so. The corn grew 
up and ripened in one night. Next day, 
when the same men were reaping it, 
Herod s soldiers arrived and asked them 
whether a young woman with an infant 
and an old man had passed that way. 
They said, "Yes, they passed through 
when we were sowing this corn." The 
soldiers thought that must have been 
months ago, but a wicked black beetle 
lifted up its head and said, " Yesterday, 
yesterday." However, nobody listened 
to it, and the soldiers gave up the pur 
suit as hopeless. I have heard an 
amiable French child say, " Kill that 


beetle, always kill a beetle, it comes 
from hell." Peasants in our own country 
a generation ago would say to a beetle 
in the fields, with an accent of reproof 
or menace, * Yesterday, beetle, yester 

Once the holy family drew near to a 
great city where there were many images 
of false gods. They all fell down at the 
approach of the true God and His mother. 
Mary was afraid that as Herod had sought 
to kill the Saviour, much more would 
the Egyptians be jealous of Him when 
they heard that their great idol had 
fallen down at His coming. They went 
therefore to the wild places where rob 
bers lived. The robbers at their approach 
heard a noise as of a king with a great 
army coming, they were terrified and 
fled in haste, leaving all their booty. 
Upon this, the prisoners whom they had 
taken, arose and loosened each other s 
bonds, and each taking his own property, 
went off. They met Joseph and Mary, 
and asked where the king and the 
soldiers were who had frightened away 
the robbers. Again they passed through 
a region infested with robbers, and saw 
a number of them lying asleep, two were 
lying on the road. Their names were 
Titus and Dumachus. (The Gospel of 
Nicodemus calls them Dimas and Gestas.) 
Titus said to Dumachus, " Let these 
persons go safely on their way and do 
not awake our companions." Dumachus 
refused, and Titus said, " I will give 
thee forty groats. Here, take my girdle 
as a pledge," and he gave it him at once 
that Dumachus might not speak or make 
any noise. When Mary saw the kind 
ness of the good robber, she said, " The 
Lord God will receive thee at His right 
hand and grant thee pardon for thy sins." 
Then the Lord Jesus said to His mother, 
" When thirty years have passed, the 
Jews will crucify me at Jerusalem, and 
these two men will be crucified with me, 
Titus on my right hand and Dumachus 
on my left, and Titus shall go with me 
into Paradise that day." She said, " God 
forbid that this should be Thy lot." 

They next went to another city where 
there were many idols, and as soon as 
they came near it, the city was turned 
into heaps of sand. Thence they went 

to a sycamore tree, and there the Lord 
caused a well to spring forth in which 
Mary washed her Son s coat. A balsam 
grows in that country from the sweat 
which ran down from our Lord. 

A great many miraculous cures, espe 
cially of leprosy and demoniacal posses 
sion, were performed by Mary, by means 
of the water in which she had washed 
her Son or His clothes. She defeated 
many cruel sorceries : one was in connec 
tion with a young man, the only pro 
tector of his sisters. A malignant sor 
cerer had changed him into a mule, but 
his sisters having hospitably received 
the holy travellers, revealed their grief 
to a young girl whom Mary had cured of 
leprosy and who had begged leave to 
remain with her and attend upon her. 
The Blessed Mary took her Son, set Him 
on the mule s back, and bade Him re 
store the animal to his true form ; which 
he instantly did. The grateful sisters, 
with Mary s consent, married their 
brother to the girl who had had the 
honour of being her servant and had 
induced them to seek her aid. 

After the return of the Holy Family 
to their own country, they lived at Na 
zareth, and many incidents are told of 
the next few years there and of the child 
hood of the Saviour. That of the Child 
Jesus tarrying behind in Jerusalem when 
Joseph and Mary had taken Him there 
on their yearly visit, at the feast of the 
passover, and His talking with the Eab- 
bis there, and being missed and found 
again by His parents, is told both in the 
Gospel of St. Luke (ii. 41-50) and in 
the first Apocryphal Gospel of the In 
fancy, with the addition (in the latter) 
that the doctors said, " Oh, happy Mary, 
who hast borne such a son ! " 

From this time until the beginning of 
our Lord s ministry, little is recorded of 
St. Mary. Smith s Dictionary says that 
she was probably at all events from the 
time of Joseph s death living with her 
sister MARY (o), who, contrary to the 
legendary account of St. Anne and her 
family, was older than the Blessed Virgin 
and whose children were much older 
than the Lord. 

St. Mary was at the wedding-feast in 
Cana of Galilee, where our Lord s first 



public miracle provided wine for the 
occasion. The marriage was apparently 
that of a relation, as she seems to have 
had some authority in the household 
(St. John ii. 1-11). Soon after this, she 
and her sister and nephews heard that 
He was going about teaching and doing 
good and had no leisure so much as to 
eat, and in their anxiety for His health 
and safety they determined to remon 
strate with Him. They could not, for the 
crowds of people, gain access to Him. 
It was told Him that His mother and His 
brethren stood without, desiring to see 
Him. He gave the answer that we know, 
St. Matt. xii. 4-6 ; St. Mark iii. 31 ; and 
St. Luke viii. 19. St. Mary is next met 
with at the time of the Crucifixion (St. 
John xix. 25, 26, 27), when the dying 
Saviour saw His mother and St. John 
standing by the Cross, and commended 
her to the care of the disciple " whom 
He loved," " and from that hour that 
disciple took her to his own home." 
They are both named among those who, 
after the Lord s Ascension, continued at 
Jerusalem in prayer and supplication 
(Acts i. 14). It is probable that she 
spent the rest of her life there, although 
one account says that she accompanied 
St. John to Ephesus and died there in 
the year 48. 

Concerning her death, her burial and 
assumption into Paradise, the Syriac 
Apocrypha says that when the apostles 
dispersed to preach in all the world, 
Mary, still in great sorrow, was constant 
in prayer every hour at the tomb and at 
Golgotha ; and as those who had cruci 
fied her Son and Lord hated her, they 
wished to kill her also, and set people 
to watch for her with orders to stone her 
if she went there to pray. Therefore 
Mary prayed to her Son to take her out 
of the world, and when the spies tried to 
speak to her or touch her, they could not 
for they saw the angel of God talking 
to her. The Jews then begged her to 
depart from Jerusalem, so she went to 
her own house at Bethlehem, and the 
three virgins who dwelt with her and 
who were daughters of the chief men of 
Jerusalem, went with her. She knew 
that she was soon to die and she wished 
to see her Son and all the Apostles be 

fore she departed out of the world. St. 
John was going into church at Ephesus 
and was warned by the Spirit of God to 
go and see his adopted mother. He was 
conveyed to her house instantly in a 
cloud of light. St. Peter was brought 
from Eome, St. Paul from Tiberias, St. 
Matthew from Beyrout, St. Bartholomew 
from Armenia, St. Thaddc^ous from Lao- 
dicea, and St. James from the cave of 
fiion. Five of the Apostles were dead, 
but they were awakened and brought to 
Bethlehem, and she took leave of them 
and blessed them. They carried her on 
a litter to Jerusalem. One of the priests 
of the Jews tried to throw down the 
litter into the valley that she might be 
burnt, but an angel smote off-iris arms ; 
the merciful Mary, however, forgave him 
and bade St. Peter give him back his 
arms. Then came EVE, HANNA, ELISA 
BETH, the patriarchs and the angels. 
The Saviour took her soul and the 
Apostles carried her body to the valley 
of Jehoshaphat, St. John going first and 
carrying the palm branch which an 
angel had brought to her from heaven 
before her death. They laid her in a 
new tomb and sat at the mouth of it as 
the Lord Jesus had commanded them. 
He then asked them what He should do, 
and they prayed Him to raise up the 
body of His mother and take it with Him 
to Heaven, and He did so. St. Thomas 
was in India, and when he was called was 
in the act of baptizing the king s nephew 
(see ST. MIGDONIA). Therefore he did 
not arrive in time to see all the wonders 
that the others had seen. He begged 
them to tell him everything, and when 
they had done so, he said he must see 
the empty tomb, "For I am Thomas, 
and you know that unless I see, I cannot 
believe/ They showed him the tomb ; 
the body of the blessed woman was not 
there, but instead (says the Portuguese 
tradition) the grave was quite full of 
roses. Then Thomas confessed that he 
had seen on his way to Jerusalem, the 
mother of the Saviour being carried to 
Heaven by angels, and that as he had 
not been able to come and stand with the 
others beside her deathbed, she had 
given him her girdle. 

Another legend is that she died and 



was buried at Antioch, and that when 
they sought for her body in the tomb it 
was not there, but crowds of beautiful 
lilies were growing in the place where 
the Blessed Virgin had lain. 

Tillemont (Hist. Ecc. I. 4(5;}) says that 
although the tradition of her being 
brought up in the temple is founded en 
tirely on apocryphal writings, it is clear 
from 2 Kings xi. 2, >, 2 Chron. xxii. 11, 
12, and St. Luke ii. ;>7, that under some 
circumstances women did live in the 
temple and bring up children there. 
Exodus xxxviii. 8 appears to have been 
taken by St. Ambrose to mean that there 
were women set apart for the service of 
the house of God. Tillemont further 
says that, although the Jewish traditions 
quoted by Epiphanius and Gregory were 
supposed to imply that the Virgin con 
secrated to God was to remain a virgin, 
and although the story of her marriage 
takes for granted not only that she had 
a vow of celibacy but that such a vow 
was of ordinary occurrence, " or I un et 
lautre est sans apparence" 

Whereas the Jewish writers disparaged 
Mary and stigmatized her Son as illegiti 
mate, Mohammedan tradition makes her 
identical with Miriam, the sister of 
Moses and Aaron, and says that she was 
miraculously kept alive for centuries in 
order to be the mother of Christ. It 
represents her as a holy virgin dedicated 
to God before her birth, by her mother 
Hannah ; educated by the priests in the 
temple, where angels ministered to her 
and where St. Gabriel appeared to her 
with the salutation, " O Mary ! verily 
God sendeth thee good tidings that thou 
shalt bear the Word proceeding from 
Himself. He shall be called Christ Jesus 
the son of Mary." Her child was born 
under a palm tree, and there God provided 
a stream of water for her and ripe dates 
fell from the tree for her to eat. The 
holy Infant spoke and taught and de 
clared His mission. " This," continues 
the story, " was Jesus the son of Mary, 
concerning whom they doubt." Neither 
Mary nor her Son were guilty of sin 
like other children of Adam, for, at 
their birth, God placed a veil between 
them and the evil spirit, because Mary s 
mother Hannah had prayed that they 

should be protected from Satan. This 
is the germ of the doctrine of the Im 
maculate Conception. During the first 
six centuries this doctrine was not heard 
of. So far was Mary from being con 
sidered faultless, that the " sword " 
which was to " pierce through her own 
soul " was interpreted by St. Basil, in 
the fifth century, to mean the pang of 
unbelief in her Son s divinity that she 
experienced when she witnessed His cruci 
fixion ; and her going with her nephews 
to try to interrupt His preaching and 
labours was attributed by St. Chry- 
sostom to arrogance and ambition. St. 
Ambrose describes her as a pattern of a 
young girl. St. Augustine says she was 
under original sin, but that perhaps the 
grace of God protected her entirely from 
actual sin. 

The observance of a feast of the Im 
maculate Conception is said to have 
been established in England by St. 
Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, in 
1109. St. Bernard opposed the inno 
vation. From the 14th century the 
Mohammedan belief in Mary s entire 
sinlessness grew and spread, until a 
decree of Pius IX., in 1854, established 
it as a dogma of the Church. As her 
worship increased, many passages in the 
scriptures were discovered to be pro 
phetic or mystical references to her. 
She was the Bride of Solomon s Song ; 
the Woman clothed with the Sun ; the 
East Gate of Ezekiel s Temple, by which 
the Prince of the people entered once, 
and which was shut for evermore (Eze- 
kiel xliv. 2) ; Jacob s ladder (Gen. 
xxviii. 12); the burning bush (Exodus 
iii. 2) ; Aaron s rod (Numbers xvii. 8) ; 
Gideon s fleece (Judges vi. 37). 

The Church of St. Mary in Trastevere, 
in Home, claims to stand on the site of 
one built about 222 by Pope Calixtus. 
Other places claim to have had the first 
church dedicated to the Virgin Mary, 
but it is thought that the worship of 
Diana, virgin-nurse of the universe, was 
transferred to St. Mary and led to the 
building of the first church at Ephesus, 
in the fourth century, when " the Peace 
of the Church " was granted by Con- 
stantine. Until that time monuments 
were erected to martyrs only. After 



the council of Ephesus, many churches 
were called by her name. St. PULCHERIA, 
the empress, built four great churches in 
Constantinople in her honour. 

As to relics, no part of her body ever 
was to be had, because it had been taken 
to heaven ; but in many places there 
were articles held in great veneration, 
as having belonged to her ; many locks 
of her hair were shown in divers places, 
and a festival in honour of one at 
Oviedo was held on May 2. Her robe, 
her sash, her ring, each had a fete ; and 
her veil, scarf, cloak, distaff, combs, 
gloves, bed, and many small household 
articles were treasured. Some of these 
were found near Jerusalem in the fifth 
century. When her comb and her sash 
were worshipped her husband could not 
escape: St. Joseph s day is March 19. 
His name began to be inserted in the 
martyrologies towards the end of the 
ninth century. Some of the traditions 
of the childhood of St. Mary are of the 
second century. 

E.M. Apocryphal Gospels. Smith, 
Die. of the Bible. Butler. Baillet. 
Tillernont, Hist. Eccles. Trench, Mediae 
val Church History. For " Merg " as one 
of her names, my authority is Miss 
Eckenstein s Woman under Monasticism. 

St. Mary (3) Magdalene, MADE 
LEINE, or MADDALENA, July 22, 1st 
century. The first person to whom 
our Lord appeared after His resurrection. 
One of " Les trois Maries" the others 
being Mary (5) and Mary (6). Mary 
Magdalene is the patron of penitent 
women, and of Provence and Marseilles. 

Eepresented with great quantities of 
fair hair ; often in a desert place, lying 
or kneeling on the ground ; frequently 
in tears ; with a vase of ointment near 
her ; sometimes carried by angels. 

The sign for her day, in ancient 
Norwegian calendars, is a chair, from 
the legend that on her arrival in heaven, 
gave her own chair to Mary Magdalene. 

In St. Luke viii. 1, 2, we read that 
our Lord " went throughout every city 
and village preaching . . . and the 
twelve were with him and certain women 
which had been healed of evil spirits 
and infirmities, Mary called Magdalene 

out of whom went seven devils, and 
JOANNA . . . and SUSANNA, and many 
others, which ministered unto Him of 
their substance." Such attendance on 
a beloved and revered Rabbi and such 
contributions to his maintenance were 
quite in accordance with the customs 
of the time and country. The associa 
tion of Mary Magdalene with these 
women of honourable station makes it 
unlikely that she had been until that 
time " a notorious evil liver." 

The next Biblical mention of Mary 
Magdalene, refers to the day of the 
Crucifixion. She is spoken of at one 
time as standing afar off (St. Matt. 
xxvii. 55, 56 ; St. Mark xv. 40) ; at 
another as close to the Cross (St. John 
xix. 25). With " the other Mary," she 
watched the entombment (St. Mark 
xv. 47), and when Joseph of Arimathea 
departed in the evening, he left them 
sitting by the grave (St. Matt, xxvii. 61). 
Through the sabbath day that followed, 
the GalilsBan women "rested" (St. 
Luke xxiii. 56), but "very early in 
the morning" (St. Mark xvi. 2) of 
Easter Day, they made their way 
back to the sepulchre. They found it 
open, the stone rolled to one side and 
angel-watchers without and within (St. 
Matt, xxviii. 2 ; St. Mark xvi. 5 ; St. 
Luke xxiv. 4). The anointing spices 
which they had brought were needless, 
for they learnt that their Lord was risen 
(St. Matt, xxviii. 6 ; St. Mark xvi. 6 ; 
St. Luke xxiv. 6). They "fled from 
the sepulchre," says St. Mark, " they 
trembled and were amazed, neither said 
they anything to any man" (xvi. 8). 
St. Matthew s account is different ; he 
tells us that they departed " with fear 
and great joy, and did run to bring His 
disciples word " (St. Matt, xxviii. 8). 
"As they went to tell His disciples, 
behold, Jesus met them, saying, All 
hail." And they " held Him by the feet 
and worshipped Him." From His own 
lips they received the command to carry 
His message to His brethren. No 
further mention of Mary Magdalene is 
found in the New Testament, although 
she is doubtless included among the 
women referred to in Acts i. 14. 
Tradition has added many details, and 


it is a disputed point whether Mary 
Magdalene, Mary of Bethany, and the 
" woman who was a sinner " were three 
different persons or not. 

The Legenda Aurea says that St. 
Mary Magdalene was to have been 
married to St. John the Evangelist, and 
that Christ called him from the wedding. 
To compensate them for the loss of 
domestic happiness, Ho bestowed upon 
each of them an abundant love toward 
God. The same legend says that after 
the Ascension of the Lord, Mary, 
MARTHA, Lazarus, Maximus or Maxi- 
minus, and MARCELLA were set adrift by 
the Jews in a boat without sails or oars. 
They were driven ashore at Marseilles, 
where the inhabitants refused them food 
or shelter. They took refuge in the 
porch of a heathen temple, and there 
Mary preached to the people who, after 
a time, were touched by her eloquence, 
and by the miracles performed by 
Lazarus and the others. Mary con 
verted the King and Queen, and per 
suaded them to destroy the temples 
and build Christian churches. Lazarus 
was unanimously chosen bishop of Mar 
seilles, and Maximian bishop of Aix. 

Mary then withdrew to a cave (la 
Sainte Beaume) in a treeless, waterless 
desert, where she lived in prayer and 
penance for thirty years. She was fed, 
from time to time, by angels, and at 
every canonical hour they lifted her 
from the earth and she heard the songs 
of the blessed with her bodily ears. 
When her death was near, the angels 
carried her to the oratory of St. Maxi 
mian on Easter Monday. He saw them 
holding her two or three cubits above 
the ground. She begged him to give 
her the holy sacrament, which he did 
in presence of many priests. She im 
mediately died, and they buried her 
honourably at the place now called St. 
Maximin. This and la Sainte Beaume, 
the tomb of Martha at Vezelay, of 
Lazarus at Autun, of Mary (5) and 
(6) at Aries and Tarascon were famous 
places of pilgrimage in the middle ages. 
EM. Mrs. Jameson. Villegas. The 
Golden Legend. Smith, Die. of the Bible. 
Pere Lacordaire. Paul Lacroix, Vie 
reJigieuse au moyen age, " Pelerinages." 

St. Mary (4) of Bethany, July 29, 
is the pattern of the contemplative re 
ligious life, as MAKTHA is of the active. 
Twice reproached as unpractical or 
wasteful, our Lord in both cases ap 
proved the course she took. She was 
sister of SS. Lazarus and Martha. All 
three were beloved by the Saviour. The 
first mention of the sisters is in St. Luke 
x. JJ8-42. Martha received Him into 
her house and " was cumbered about 
much serving, but Mary sat at His feet 
and heard His word." Martha com 
plained that her sister was not helping 
her, and Christ gave her the memorable 
answer, "Martha, Martha, thou art 
careful and troubled about many things, 
but . . . Mary hath chosen that good 
part which shall not be taken away 
from her." St. John xi. tells of the 
death and resurrection of Lazarus. St. 
John xii. 1-8, tells how, after the 
raising of Lazarus, and six days before 
the Passover, the Lord again paid a 
visit to the family at Bethany and 
they made a feast for Him, Lazarus 
sitting with Him at the table, Martha 
again serving. " Then took Mary a 
pound of ointment of spikenard very 
costly and anointed the feet of Jesus, 
and wiped his feet with her hair : and 
the house was filled with the odour of 
the ointment." Judas blamed her as 
wasteful, but the Lord commended her 
action. In the legends she is identified 
with Mary Magdalene and with the 
" sinner " of St. Luke vii. o7, but the 
circumstances of the anointing in St. 
Luke are quite different from those of 
the incident recorded by St. John. 
Compare with MARTHA (1) and MARY 

St. Mary (5) of Clopas, April y, 
UNGUENTIFERA (MS. Syuaxary at Dijon j), 
one of those who brought spices, etc., 
to embalm the body of the Lord ; one of 
" les trois Manes" (See MARY (3).) 

Represented carrying a vase. 

In the Bible she is called the " wife 
of Cleophas," but modern criticism says 
the name is Clopas, which is identical 
with Alphaaus, and different from 
Cleopas mentioned by St. Luke xxiv. 8, 
at Emmaus. Tradition calls her sister 



of the VIRGIN MARY, and from a com 
parison of St. John xix. 25, St. Matt. 
xxvii. 50, St. Mark xv. 40, it would 
appear that she was so, but it is not 
certain. Mary was the mother of Joses 
or Joseph and of St. James the Less 
the apostle who was the first bishop of 
Jerusalem and probably step-mother 
of Simon, and of St. Jude or Thaddeus. 
Compare St. Mark vi. 3, and xv. 40. 
She is also said to have had several 
daughters ; St. Epiphanius mentions two, 
whom he calls Mary and Salome. Other 
accounts speak of Mary Salome as one 
person and sister of Mary Clopas. 
(Compare SALOME.) Some traditions 
say Mary was married first to Alphseus, 
who was the father of St. James ; and 
secondly to Clophas or Clopas, who is 
said to be the brother of Joseph, 
husband of the Virgin Mary. Hege- 
sippus identities Simon, the son of 
Clopas, with Symeon, second bishop 
of Jerusalem, who was put to death 
under Trajan, as being of the house 
of David and a relation of the Lord 
Jesus Christ. Mary followed Christ 
during the three years of His ministry, 
assisting Him in His journeys and 
listening to His teaching ; she followed 
Him to Calvary and stood by His cross 
with His mother and Mary Magdalene. 
She was one of those who followed Him 
to the grave and beheld where He was 
laid ; then, with Mary Magdalene and 
Mary Salome, she prepared spices and all 
that was necessary to embalm His sacred 
body ; and having rested the Sabbath 
day, according to the commandment, 
they came to the sepulchre before day 
break, to fulfil this last duty of love and 
reverence. There they saw the angels, 
and hearing from them that the Lord 
was risen, they returned to the city with 
fear and great joy. On the way they 
met Him and embraced His feet. They 
then went to tell the disciples what had 
happened ; but they at first would not 
believe them. 

It has been pretended, without au 
thority, that the bodies of Mary of 
Clopas, and Mary Salome are preserved 
at a little town called Les Trois Maries 
near the mouths of the Rhone ; and 
that Mary Clopas and Mary Salome 

settled at Varoli in Italy, after the 
death of the Virgin Mary ; also that 
Mary Clopas went to Spain with MARY 
MAGDALENE and died at Ciudad Eodrigo. 
The legend of St. ANNE says that Mary 
Clopas was the daughter of ANNA (3) by 
her second husband, consequently she 
was younger than the mother of our 
Lord ; but Smith s Dictionary says she 
was probably older than the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, and her children very 
much older than our Saviour. He adds 
that Clopas was probably dead before the 
ministry of the Lord began ; St. Joseph 
was also probably dead. The two 
widowed sisters lived together; their 
children were therefore regarded as 
brothers and sisters, in a more decided 
sense than that in which southern and 
eastern nations call all cousins bro 
thers. Possibly the B. V. Mary lived 
with her sister before her marriage or 
on her return from Egypt. St. Matt, 
xii. 47, and xiii. 55 show that they were 
one household. R.M. Baillet. 

St. Mary (6) Salome, SALOME (2). 
St. Mary (7), June 29. 1st century. 
Mother of John whose surname was 
Mark. She has been called the sister 
of St. Barnabas, but was more probably 
his aunt, for, according to Bishop Light- 
foot and the Revised Version of the 
Bible, the expression " sister s son to 
Barnabas" (Colossians iv. 10) does not 
mean that Mark was son of the sister of 
Barnabas, but that Barnabas and Mark 
were sons of two sisters. Sister s son is 
the common name in the East for first 


It is related of Mary that having heard 
of the holy teaching and miracles of the 
Lord Jesus, she at once perceived that 
He was the Messiah, and leaving what 
she had in her hands, went directly to 
the temple, and throwing herself at His 
feet, prayed Him to come to her house 
that His entrance there might bless her 
and her family; that He accepted her 
hospitality then and every time He came 
to Jerusalem ; and that in her house He 
instituted the sacrament of the Last 
Supper. These things are not told in 
the New Testament nor in any of the 
oldest ecclesiastical histories. She is 
mentioned Acts xii. 12, where we learn 

. MAIlY 

that on St. t j eter*s miraculous release 
from prison, he came to her house, where 
many were gathered together praying. 
In verse 5 of the same chapter, it is said 
that while St. Peter was in prison, 
" prayer was made without ceasing of the 
Church unto God for him." 

It seems that St. Mary s house was, 
if not the chief, still one of the principal 
places where the Christians were in the 
habit of assembling for prayer. It was 
probably on her account that St. Mark 
withdrew from his companionship with 
SS. Paul and Barnabas, on the first 
missionary journey; and when later, 
Barnabas and Mark went to Cyprus, 
Mary is said to have gone with them and 
died there. Later tradition said that it 
was in the house of Mary, that the 
tongues of fire descended ; that it stood 
on the upper slope of Zion, escaped the 
general destruction of the city by Titus, 
and was still used as a church in the 
fourth century. Stadler and others, 
however, say that it is almost certain the 
house was not on the hill of Zion, but in 
an obscure street in the lower part of 
the city, not far from the walls, near the 
present Syrian monastery. 

Mary is honoured on St. Peter s day 
on account of her having received him 
in her house. It has been said that she 
was related to St. Peter, but there is no 
very clear ground for the supposition, 
St. Peter calling Mark his son (1 Pet. v. 
13) probably refers to his being his dis 
ciple and amanuensis, the Gospel written 
by St. Mark being dictated by St. Peter. 

The idea that Mary died at Alexandria, 
where St. Mark the Evangelist took up 
his residence, is grounded on the belief 
that her son Mark was the same person 
as St. Mark the Evangelist. This 
identity is assumed by most commen 
tators, but is opposed to the tradition that 
the Evangelist never saw our Saviour 
and was converted by St. Peter after the 
Ascension ; whereas John Mark, the son 
of Mary, must have been familiar with 
Him and His apostles during the years 
of His Ministry. 

EM. AA.SS. Smith, Die. of the Bible. 
Butler. Stadler und Heim. 

St. Mary (8), the slave, Nov. 1, 
March 17, May 13, 19. She was the 

only Christian in the house of the senator 
Tertullus in the persecution falsely at 
tributed to Marcus Aurelius. It was 
perhaps in the time of Hadrian 117-138 ; 
or in the reign of Diocletian that her 
martyrdom occurred ; perhaps in Rome 
or the neighbourhood ; but according to 
other accounts, in Cappadocia. Tertullus 
valued her for her fidelity, and when 
a strict order was promulgated that all 
Christians must be killed, he tried to 
make her save herself by apostasy, but 
in vain. He made a great feast on his 
son s birthday in honour of his gods: 
Mary would not partake of the feast nor 
join in the games. Her master therefore 
shut her up in a dark cell and starved 
her for a time : until being in danger of 
punishment for harbouring a Christian, 
he reluctantly gave her up. The populace 
demanded her death, and she died on the 
rack. Another version of the story says 
the spectators pitied her and induced her 
judge to put a stop to the tortures that 
she was already undergoing. He there 
upon condemned her to free imprison 
ment; i.e. a certain degree of liberty 
under the custody of a soldier. The 
Christian maiden was more afraid of her 
guard than of death, so she availed her 
self of a chance of escape, and hid among 
some rocks, one of which is said to have 
opened and received her. 

R.M., Nov. I. AA.SS. Baluze, Mis- 
cdlanics. Ado. Bede. Usuard. Stadler. 
Baillet. Butler. 

St. Mary (9), Dec. 2, Nov. 30, + 257, 
daughter of SS. Adrias and PAULINA (1) 
and M. shortly after her mother and 
before her father. 

KM., Dec. 2. Lightfoot, Hippolytus 
of Portus. 

St. Mary ( 1 0), daughter of Saturniuus. 

SS. Mary (11-28); MM. various 
dates and places. 

St. Mary (29), March 22 or 17, 
V. M. in Persia, in 346, with her brother 
St. James. He was a priest and she 
a consecrated virgin of Telaschlila, a 
small town in Assyria. They were seized 
by order of Narses Thamsapor, and as 
they persisted in their religion, he had 
them beheaded by an apostate Christian, 
at Teldara on the Euphrates. Stadler. 


St. Mary (30) of Egypt, April 2, 
called the Gipsy, la JwmVrme, Egyptiaca, 
Segiptiaca, lived in the 4th century. 

Generally represented with long black 
or gray hair, often as a wasted old 
woman; and sometimes with a large 
round hat and holding a vase of perfumes. 
Towards the year of our Lord 3G5, 
there dwelt in Alexandria a woman, 
whose name was Mary, and who in the 
infamy of her life far exceeded St. Mary 
Magdalene. After passing seventeen 
years in every species of vice, it happened 
that one day, while roving along the 
seashore, she beheld a ship ready to sail 
and a large company preparing to embark. 
She inquired where they were going. 
They said, " To Jerusalem, to celebrate 
the feast of the true Cross." She was 
seized with a sudden desire to accom 
pany them ; and as she had no money, 
she paid the price of her passage by 
selling herself to the sailors and pilgrims, 
whom she allured to sin by every means 
in her power. On their arrival at Jeru 
salem, she joined the crowds of worship 
pers who had assembled to enter the 
church that stood on the spot where 
HELEN (3) had found the cross of Christ. 
All Mary s attempts to pass the thres 
hold were in vain ; whenever she thought 
to enter the porch, a supernatural power 
drove her back in shame and terror. 
Struck by the remembrance of her guilt, 
and filled with repentance, she humbled 
herself and prayed for help, vowing that 
if she might look upon the cross of 
Christ, which was exposed to view in the 
church, she would never more be guilty 
of those sins to which she had been 
addicted. The unseen hindrance was 
removed, and she entered the church of 
God, crawling on her knees. Thence 
forward she renounced her shameful life. 
She bought at a baker s three small 
loaves, and wandered forth into solitude, 
and never stopped or reposed until she 
had penetrated into the deserts beyond 
the Jordan. Here she remained in 
severest penance, living on roots and 
fruits and drinking water only; her 
garments dropped away in rags piece 
meal, leaving her unclothed; and she 
prayed fervently not to be left thus 
exposed. Suddenly her hair grew so 

long as to form a covering for her whole 
person ; or, according to another version, 
an angel brought her a garment from 
heaven. Thus she dwelt in the wilder 
ness, in prayer and penance, supported 
only by her three small loaves, which, 
like the widow s meal, failed her not. 
After the lapse of forty-seven years she 
was discovered by a priest, named Zozi- 
mus. Of him she requested silence, and 
that he would return at the end of a 
year and bring with him the elements 
of the holy sacrament, that she might 
confess and communicate before she was 
released from earth. Zozimus obeyed 
her, and returned after a year. As he 
was not able to pass the Jordan, the 
penitent, supernaturally assisted, passed 
over the water to him; and having re 
ceived the sacrament with tears, she 
desired the priest to leave her once more 
to her solitude and to return in a year 
from that time. When he returned he 
found her dead, her hands crossed on 
her bosom. He wept greatly, and looking 
round, he saw written in the sand, these 
words : " ! Father Zozimus, bury the 
body of the poor sinner, Mary of Egypt. 
Give earth to earth, and dust to dust for 
Christ s sake." He endeavoured to obey 
this last command; but being full of 
years and troubled and weak, his strength 
failed him, and a lion came out ^of the 
wood and aided him, digging with his 
paws until the grave was sufficiently 
large to receive the body of the saint. 

Villegas places her date in the sixth 
century, but Papebroch says her story is 
very much older than is commonly sup 
posed. The legend is of much earlier 
date than that of Mary Magdalene, and 
it is known by contemporary evidence 
that a woman lived a hermit s life for 
many years in the desert beyond Jordan 
at that time. 

EM. AA.SS. Sylva Anaclioretica. 
Le gende Doree. Villegas. Pilgrimage of 
tlie Eussian Allot Daniel. Leggendario. 
St. Mary (31), the Penitent, Oct. 
29. 4th, 5th, or 6th century. Niece of 
the hermit St. Abraham of Chidane, in 
Mesopotamia, and confided to his care at 
the age of seven. He built a cell for 
her close to his own, and through a 
little window between the cells, he 


taught her to say her prayers and sing 
hymns and psalms and say the responses 
to his prayers, and daily instructed her 
to hate and despise all the pleasures 
and vanities of the world. Her father 
had left her a fortune sufficient for her 
dowry, but Abraham gave it all to the 
poor. When Mary was twenty, a young 
hermit came repeatedly to visit her uncle 
and receive instruction from him. One 
day, as Abraham was singing the even 
ing prayers and psalms, he suddenly 
perceived that Mary was not saying the 
responses ; he thought she had fallen 
asleep ; he called in vain, and at last 
with great difficulty got out of the cell 
in which he was immured and went 
round to see what was the matter. 
Mary was not there. Abraham pondered 
and wondered for a long time before he 
was able to entertain the idea that she 
might have gone away with the young 
hermit. The old man blamed himself 
much for having lost the lamb entrusted 
to him, and came to the conclusion that 
he could not hope to be forgiven, unless 
he recovered the erring soul ; so he 
walked off in search of her, and after 
much wandering he found that she was 
living in a certain city, rich with the 
gifts of her lovers and the wages of sin. 
He obtained an interview and spoke so 
earnestly to her of her wicked life, that 
she was alarmed, but said she had sinned 
past forgiveness and she had nowhere to 
go, no one to guide or befriend her. 
Then he made himself known and said 
he would take all her sin and penance 
on himself. She was touched by his 
anxiety for her, the trouble he had taken 
to find her, and the sacrifice of his 
solitude, and agreed to return with him. 
He made a great heap of all her jewels 
and beautiful robes in the court-yard 
of the house, and set fire to them, and 
when they were reduced to ashes, the 
pair went back to their desert, where 
they spent fifteen years in penance and 
prayer. Mary attained to great holiness, 
and when she died, angels became visible 
and carried her soul to heaven. Abra 
ham survived her a few years. 

Her conversion is commemorated in 
the Greek Church, Oct. 29. Mary and 
Abraham are honoured together on that 

VOL. n. 

day and on March 16. Golden Legend. 
Mrs. Jameson, Sacred and Legendary 
Art. Stadler. Baillet. 

St. Mary 0*2), the Captive, V. 
Daughter of Eudaemon, a Roman noble 
man in Africa. She was taken by the 
Vandals in the fifth century and sold 
into slavery with her maid, who continued 
to serve her in captivity. Euinart. 

St. Mary (33), Jan. 26, lived in the 
r>th century at Constantinople, with her 
husband St. Xenophon and their sons, 
SS. Arcadius and John. They were of 
senatorial rank and great wealth. Their 
sons were studying law at Beyrout, 
when Xenophon fell dangerously ill and 
sent for them. After a short time, how 
ever, feeling that his illness would pro 
bably be of long duration, he advised 
them to return to Beyrout, and promised 
that before their next visit he would 
arrange for their marriage. He recovered 
almost immediately, and very soon after 
wards, a report reached Constantinople 
that Arcadius and John were ship 
wrecked. Their father and mother, in 
great anxiety, set off to look for them. 
After long wandering, they found their 
sons monks at Jerusalem, and both took 
the habit of that quiet life, and having 
attained to great sanctity and the grace 
of miracles, " emigrated to God." Table 
of Russian and Greek Saints in AA.SS. 
Mail 1. Stadler. 

St. Mary (34) of Antioch, May 29, 
V. It is uncertain which Antioch. 
Daughter of a poor widow who decided 
that a celibate life was rather to be 
chosen for her child than marriage, as 
being free from care in this world and 
full of joy in the next : therefore they 
frequented the churches, singing and 
praying night and day. The devil, 
being displeased at their piety, stirred 
up a wicked man named Anthemius, one 
of the chief men of the city, to love 
Mary, watch her wherever she went, and 
try to tempt her and her mother to sin 
and disgrace by every kind of bribe, 
including a promise of marriage. As 
they rejected all his advances he swore 
to obtain possession of Mary, if it should 
cost him all he had. At the end of two 
years he was no further advanced with 
his suit than at the beginning. He 



confided his wicked purpose to a skilled 
magician named Magnus, and asked his 
assistance. Magnus said, " Show me the 
house where these women live, and be 
under no further anxiety ; to-morrow 
night I will bring Mary to you." Anthe- 
mius spent many hours in impatient 
expectation ; Mary came not. In the 
morning he went to the magician to 
complain of his disappointment. " I 
quite forgot you last night," said Magnus, 
" but be comforted ; to-night without 
fail Mary shall be yours." Again 
Anthemius waited in sleepless eager 
ness. Mary came not. In the morning 
he again went to the magician and said, 
" If it is too difficult for you to bring 
Mary to my house, compel her and 
her mother at least to admit me to talk 
with them." " Be quiet," said the wizard, 
" I had some very important business 
last night, I was not able to attend to your 
affairs, but to-night, I promise you the 
girl shall come to you whether she will 
or not." Magnus then went to the 
widow s house and stationed two devils 
in it, with orders to take Mary to Anthe 
mius and with threats of vengeance in 
case of disobedience. The devils dis 
turbed the good women with evil dreams. 
Presently the mother awoke and made 
the sign of the cross and said, " Arise, 
daughter, let us go to church, for I 
dreamed that that wicked man had caught 
you and wanted to take you away from 
me ; as I held you fast and he would 
not leave you, I saw priests coming with 
a crowd of people and the archbishop, 
and we got safely into the temple of 
God and gave Him thanks. Therefore, 
let us now go and place ourselves under 
the protection of the Lord and his saints." 
Mary also had been disturbed by dreams 
of her dreaded lover, so she willingly 
got up to accompany her mother to church. 
When they came to the end of one street 
and were just going to turn into the next, 
the two devils got between them, and one 
taking the form of the mother, said to 
the daughter, " Come this way, my child." 
Mary, thinking she was following her 
mother, let him lead her to the house of 
Anthemius, and when he had placed her 
beside the bed he left her. The other 
demon took the form of the daughter 

and went with the mother into the 
church. Authemius, when he saw that 
Mary indeed stood beside him, exclaimed, 
" How is this ? How many times have 
I entreated you to come to me and you 
always refused ; and now at last you 
have come of your own free will!" 
Mary trembled and called upon God to 
help her. Anthemius showed her quan 
tities of silver and gold, rich furniture 
and costly apparel, saying that all these 
should be hers and she and her mother 
should have as many servants as they 
could order about, if she would only 
promise to be his wife ; but if she would 
not, she should not go safely away from 
where she stood. Mary fell at his feet 
and said, " My lord, as I am in your 
power and can by no means escape, I 
will tell you the whole truth. We are 
poor women and we have no alms to 
give, no money wherewith to do works 
of mercy, but we offer to God our prayeis 
and vigils and my virginity tha,t we may 
find mercy in the last day. My mother 
says that if I marry I shall have to leave 
her and shall fall into sin and misery 
and be condemned by the judgment of 
God, so we wish to live together piously 
and enter together into the Kingdom of 
Heaven. This is why we never would 
listen to your persuasions ; but now, as 
you offer to let my mother be with me, I 
am willing to be your servant ; only I 
pray you do me no harm ; I will go and 
try and persuade my mother to come, 
and if she will not consent, I will give 
myself up to you." Anthemius consented 
to let her go away and leave the matter 
undecided for fifteen days. Mary went 
to the church where her mother was 
praying for her, much disturbed by her 
disappearance. She told her all that had 
happened and they prayed for help. 

Meanwhile, Anthemius thought over 
all that had happened and wondered 
beyond measure at the power of Magnus, 
who had compelled Mary against her 
will to come to him. He thought a 
man with such power was to be envied 
above all others, and resolved to offer 
him all his possessions if he would give 
him this power in return, for then he 
might have and might do whatever he 



As soon as it was light, be went with 
his request to Magnus, who told him 
he could never become a magician be 
cause he had received Christian baptism. 
Anthemius said he would renounce his 
baptism and the name of Christian. 
Magnus then said he would not be able 
to keep the rules of the Magi, and that 
if he did not do so, he would get into a 
miserable state from which there would 
be no escape. But seeing his great 
persistence, the wizard handed him a 
small letter and gave him these direc 
tions : " Take this letter and go out of 
the city, fasting, at nightfall, and stand 
on the bridge. There, an immense 
crowd will pass over about midnight, 
making a frightful noise, with their 
prince sitting in a car, but take care 
that you feel no fear and sustain no 
injury, however slight, while you are 
carrying my letter ; hold it up on high 
that it may be seen. Then if they ask 
you, What are you doing here at this 
hour ? say, The Lord Magnus sends 
me to my Lord the Prince, to bring 
him. this letter. But beware that you 
do not feel afraid or make the sign of 
the cross or call upon Christ." 

Anthemius took the letter, and when 
it was dark he went out of the town and 
stood on the bridge, holding the paper 
up in his hand. At midnight a great 
troop of horsemen arrived with the 
prince in a chariot in the midst of them. 
When the foremost came to Anthemius, 
they said, " Who is this standing here ? " 
He answered, " My Lord Magnus sends 
mo to carry this letter to the Prince." 
So they took the letter and gave it to 
the prince, who was sitting in his 
chariot. He read it, wrote a few words 
in it, and ordered it to be given back 
to Anthemius to give to his friend the 

Next morning Anthemius took the 
letter to Magnus, who said, " Would 
you like to know what he says? Just 
what I told you he would say. This 
man is a Christian. I never will admit 
one of them unless he will renounce his 
religion, according to our customs. " 
" Master," replied Anthemius, " I have 
already abjured, and I now abjure again 
the name and faith of the Christians 

and their baptism." Then the wizard 
wrote a new letter and gave it to 
Anthemius to take to the same place 
the next night. He went to the bridge 
at night, and again the crowd of people 
came, and when they saw him they said, 
" What have you come back for ? " He 
replied that Magnus had sent him with 
another letter. The prince read the 
letter and wrote an answer, which 
Antheinius took next day to the ma 
gician. "Do you know what he says 
now ? " said Magnus ; " I told him that 
you had renounced your Christianity 
and your baptism before me, but he 
says he will not admit you unless he 
has your renunciation written by your 
own hand." Then the wretched An 
themius said, "I am ready to write it," 
and he sat down and wrote 

"I, Anthemius, abjure Christ and 
His faith. I abjure also His baptism, 
and the cross and the name of Christian, 
and I promise never to make the sign 
of the cross, or to call on the name of 

While he was writing he was bathed 
in perspiration from head to foot and 
his under-garment was wet. Never 
theless he went on writing, and when he 
had finished the paper he gave it to 
Magnus to read. Magnus said, "It is 
well. Go back now, for he will admit 
you; and when he has done so, say 
reverently to him, I pray you, O my 
Lord, to give mo some spirits who shall 
be at my beck and call, and he will 
give you as many as you please. I 
forewarn you, however, not to accept 
more than one or two, for if you have 
more, they will give you no rest, con 
stantly troubling you, night and day, 
to supply them with employment." 

Anthemius went back and met the 
procession as before, and the one who 
walked first called out to the prince, 
" Magnus has scut this man back again 
with orders." The prince bade him 
come near ; and he went, full of misery 
and grief, and gave him his profession 
of abjuration. When the prince had 
read it, he lifted up his hands and 
began to call out, " Christ Jesus, behold 
thy late disciple, Anthemius, hath cursed 
Thee in writing! I am not the author 



of the deed, but he himself, in order 
to become a magician, hath written the 
profession of abjuration of his own free 
will, and brought it to me: therefore 
Thou hast no charge of him from hence 
forth." He called this out three times. 
Anthemius, when he had heard these 
dreadful words, began to tremble all 
over and to exclaim, " Give me back my 
writing ; I am a Christian : I pray, I 
entreat ; I will be a Christian ; give me 
back the confession I so wickedly wrote." 
As the unhappy man went on in this 
way, the prince said to him, " You cannot 
have that paper back now, but I will 
bring it in the dreadful day of judgment. 
You are mine from this moment. I 
have you in my power." Anthemius 
lay on his face on the ground, groaning 
and weeping until morning. After much 
agony of mind he shaved his hair, put 
on a rough tunic and sackcloth and 
decided to go and confess everything to 
a very holy bishop, who was living some 
miles from Antioch ; he was ashamed 
to confess his sins in his own city. 
When he arrived he threw himself at 
his feet and said, "I implore you to 
baptize me." The bishop replied, "Have 
you not already been baptized ? " Then 
with many tears, Anthemius told his 
story and said, "In that unhappy hour 
when I wrote the renunciation of my 
Lord Jesus Christ, immediately a copious 
sweat broke from me, so that the clothes 
I had on my body were soaked with it ; 
from that time, I believe that as I abjured 
Him, so He has deserted me. Now, O 
venerable father, help me, for I repent 
of the ruin I have wrought for myself." 
When the servant of God heard this, he 
threw himself also on the ground and 
lay there weeping and praying beside 
Anthemius. After a long time he arose 
and said to Anthemius, "I dare not 
absolve by baptism one who is already 
baptized. There is no second baptism 
among Christians, except the baptism 
of tears. But do not despair of your 
salvation nor of Divine mercy; but 
rather give yourself to God, praying to 
Him all the rest of your life. Hope 
not for any better way to recover 
your Christianity, for no other can be 

Then Authemius went away, weeping 
and lamenting his crime. He sold all his 
goods, gave liberty to all his slaves of 
both sexes, and distributed all his money 
to the churches and to the poor, by the 
hands of faithful servants ; to the mother 
of the girl for love of whom he had 
desired to become a servant of the devil, 
he gave three pounds of gold and pro 
cured her a place of abode in one of the 
churches, begging her to pray for him 
and promising that they should never 
be molested by him any more as he was 
going away, he knew not whither, to 
rely entirely on the mercy of God and 
to weep away his sins. After this, he 
was seen no more. Thus Mary and her 
mother were delivered from the fear of 
their persecutor, and from the promise 
that Mary had made to him and the fear 
of breaking it. 

AA.SS. from her Acts, written from 
local tradition long afterwards and pre 
served in a Greek MS. in the Medicasian 
Library at Florence. 

St. Mary (35), GOLINDUCA. 

St. Mary (36), Aug. 9, M. 730, at 
Constantinople. She was the wife of a 
patrician. The Emperor Constantino 
set a great statue of Christ over the 
brazen gate of his palace in Constanti 
nople. It stood there until the icono 
clastic rage broke out in the eighth 
century : then Leo, the Isaurian, ordered 
every image to be thrown down, and 
when the destruction of this famous 
statue was attempted, a riot ensued, 
which was punished with great severity ; 
not only the rioters but persons sus 
pected of favouring the preservation of 
images were condemned to death ; among 
them, Mary with her two sons, and 
several others. AA.SS. compare THEO- 

DOSIA (8). 

St. Mary (37), the Consoler, V., 
Aug, 1, 8th century. Sister of Hanno, 
bishop of Verona. She was buried in a 
church dedicated in her honour in that 
city. Represented holding in her right 
hand a lily, and in her left, balances, 
in one of which are two bodies, in the 
other a ring. 

The city of Verona suffered the horrors 
of famine in consequence of a drought 
that had lasted for years. Hanno, 



the bishop, and his sister Mary endea 
voured to bring rain by their prayers and 
tears. It was revealed to Mary that 
there would be no rain until the bodies 
of the martyrs, Firmus and Eusticus, 
were brought to Verona, the scene of 
their martyrdom. Inquiries were im 
mediately set on foot to discover where 
these precious relics lay, and it was 
ascertained that they were at Capra, in 
Istria, but the inhabitants would not give 
them up for less than their weight in 
gold. Mary collected all the gold she 
could, which consisted in a great mea 
sure of the jewels of the Veronese matrons, 
and she went to Istria to purchase the 
holy bodies. When they were placed in 
the balance they became so miraculously 
light that a small part of the gold she 
had brought sufficed to buy them. She 
set sail with the bodies and the greater 
part of the gold ; but the Istrians re 
pented of their bargain and pursued her. 
Her escape was assisted by a miracle, 
the Istrian ships being unable to steer 
in the right direction when they tried 
to follow her. When she arrived with 
her treasures at Verona, all the people 
came and worshipped the holy martyrs, 
and the whole neighbourhood was im 
mediately blessed with fertilizing rain. 

B. Mary (38) of Carinthia, Feb. 5. 
Beginning of 9th century. Wife of B. 
Domitian or Tuitian, duke of Carinthia, 
who converted the people to Christianity 
and, with Mary s help, destroyed the thou 
sand idol statues from which Milstadt 
on the Drave is said to have taken its 
name. They there founded a Benedic 
tine church and monastery, where they 
were buried. AA.8S. 

St. Mary (39) of Cordova, Nov. 24, 
V. M. H;>1. Daughter of a Christian 
father and Mohammedan mother who, 
however, was ultimately converted by 
her husband. To avoid hindrances to 
the observance of their religion, they 
left Cordova and went to Froniano, 
where Mary s brother Walabonsus was 
entrusted to Salvador, abbot of the 
Monastery of St. Felix, to be educated. 
At the same time Mary was placed, by 
her parents, at Cuteclara, under the care 
of a holy woman named Artemia, whose 

two sons, Adolphus and John, had been 
put to death for the Christian faith. In 
S51 Walabonsus, then a deacon of the 
Christian Church, received the crown of 
martyrdom; and soon afterwards Mary 
met ST. FLORA in the church of St. Acis- 
clus at Cordova. (See FLORA (3).) BM. 
AA.SS. Stadler. 

St. Mary (40), MLADA. 

St. Mary (41) Torribia, called 
MAUIA DE LA CABEZA (Mary of the 
head), Sep. 8, i), and with her husband, 
May 10. 12th century. Patron of Madrid 
and Toledo. 

Represented crossing a stream on her 
apron, or mantilla, carrying a lantern or 
torch and a cruse of oil. 

Wife of St. Isidore, one of the patrons 
of Spain. They lived at Tordelaguna, 
near Madrid. Mary was a maid-servant ; 
Isidore was a ploughman in the service 
of Juan de Vargas, at a farm supposed 
to be Caramancha. He always did 
much more work than all his fellow 
servants who, therefore, were jealous of 
him and told their master that he always 
came late to his work. Juan de Vargas 
got up very early to see, and found Isi 
dore in church, while an angel held the 
plough for him. The servants again 
complained and again Juan went to see. 
This time he saw Isidore plodding along 
with his plough, with an angel on each 
side of him ploughing, so that he got 
through as much work as any three of 
the other workmen. Their jealousy in 
creased and they again carried mis 
chievous tales to their master. Isidore 
said, Wait, master, see whose field will 
be best in harvest time." And indeed 
when harvest came, Isidore s field had 
three times as fine a crop as any of the 
others. So Juan de Vargas made him 
superintendent of the whole farm. Isi 
dore was very kind to his horses and to 
all animals. Once when he and Mary 
had given all their food to some poor 
people, another beggar arrived and they 
fetched the pot which had been emptied, 
and lo ! it was full of excellent meat, so 
they had a good dinner for their new 
friend and for themselves. Isidore was 
invited to a party. He went to church 
on the way. When he arrived at the 
house, followed by a crowd of beggars, 



the feast was over; everything was 
eaten except a small portion which they 
had reserved for him. He said, : It is 
enough for me and for the poor of 
Christ." The dish was brought and 
was found to be full of the best of food. 
They had one little boy who fell into a 
very deep well and was drowned. They 
prayed for his restoration, and the water 
rose miraculously to the level of the 
ground, floating up the body of the child, 
alive and well. In their gratitude, they 
made a vow of perpetual chastity, after 
which they lived in separate houses. 
Mary went to a hermitage at Caraquiz, 
and she used to go very early in the 
morning to a chapel on the other side 
of the Xamara, where she had under 
taken to keep the light burning. Gos 
siping neighbours began to wonder why 
she was out before daybreak. They 
tried to set her husband against her, as 
they had formerly tried to set his master 
against him. He had not the smallest 
doubt of her virtue, but by perpetual 
teazing they persuaded him to watch 
with them one night. It happened that 
there was a flood in the river, which 
swelled in a few hours to a raging, im 
passable torrent. They saw Mary come 
to the bank, quietly take off her mantilla, 
spread it out, and making the sign of the 
cross, step on to it. They saw it carry her 
safely across the stream, and they saw her 
step off her improvised boat and proceed 
on her way to the chapel. They were 
much humiliated to see how far superior 
to themselves was the woman they had 
suspected and maligned. Some say her 
family name was Cabeza ; but it is gene 
rally supposed she goes by this name 
because her head is carried in proces 
sion in case of fevers and other misfor 
tunes, and sometimes placed on the head 
of the patient with good effect. 

In 1211 Isidore appeared in a dream 
to a lady and ordered her to have his 
body raised from the earth : this implied 
canonization. He appeared to Alfonso 
of Castile and showed him a path by 
which to fall upon the Moors at Las 
Navas de Losa, where, in consequence of 
Isidore s guidance, he gained a great 
victory. Philip III. having been cured 
of a mortal disease by the body of St, 

Isidore being brought into his room, de 
manded his formal canonization, which 
was completed by Gregory XV. in 1622, 
with that of SS. Ignatius, Francis Xavier, 
TERESA and Philip Neri: they were called 
" The Five Saints." Isidore was wor 
shipped as one of the tutelary saints of 
Spain and as patron of Madrid long 
before his canonization by the Pope. 
Mary was called " Blessed " in Eome ; 
" Saint" in Spain ; and her worship \vas 
approved by Innocent XII. in 1697. 

Martin. Cahier. Baillet. Ott. Moroni, 
Die. Eccles. 

St. Mary (42) of Alzira, in Valencia, 
Aug. 21, 22, V. M. c. 1180. Patron of 
Algeziras. Mary and her sister GRATIA 
( 1 ) were daughters of Almanzor, a Saracen 
chief. They were converted to Christi 
anity by their brother St. Bernard, and 
made a vow of virginity at his instiga 
tion. Before their baptism their names 
were ZORAIDA and ZAIDA, and Bernard s 
name was Amethe. All three were put 
to death by their relations, in a wood 
near Populetum, because they would not 
return to the faith of Mohammed. Some 
say Almanzor was king; others, that 
he was a subject of Zaen, king of Pin- 
tarrafes and Carlete, in Valencia. Ber 
nard was a Cistercian monk, therefore 
they are all commemorated in the Bene 
dictine calendar. AA.SS. 

St. Mary (43) of Oignies, Jan. 23, 
24, 1177-1213. She was the daughter 
of wealthy parents at Nivelle in Brabant. 
She was married, at fourteen, to a very 
pious man. They led an ascetic and chari 
table life, devoting themselves especially 
to the service of lepers in a quarter of 
Nivelle called Villembroke. Mary was 
very strong by nature, and could undergo 
long fasts and great privations without 
any injury to her health. One whole 
winter she slept every night in the 
church and never suffered from the cold, 
although the wine in the chalice froze. 
She once spent thirty-five days without 
tasting food and without speaking a word. 
As her holiness was much talked about, 
she left Villembroke about 1206 and 
joined the Beguines at Oignies. 

About 1209, Jacques de Vitry, who 
afterwards became her confessor and 
biographer and eventually a bishop and 



cardinal, was a young man, studying 
theology at the University of Paris ; and 
hearing of the wonderful holiness of 
Mary, he left Paris for the purpose of 
visiting her. A friendship sprang up 
between them, and he ever afterwards 
regarded her with the highest reverence. 
He returned to Paris, and when he had 
finished his studies and taken holy orders, 
he came back to Oignies and said his 
first mass in the church of the canons 
there. Mary influenced and assisted him 
much by her advice, and he attended her 
in her last moments and attributed to 
her prayers his great eminence in preach 
ing. Many visions and miraculous in 
cidents are told by her biographer. She 
saw the massacre of the German crusaders 
at Montjoie in 1 20i>. She correctly fore 
told the period of her own death six 
years before it occurred. She was so 
scrupulous and of such a tender con 
science that she used to confess with 
tears little things that her confessor 
said were not worthy of any attention. 
AA.SS. Crane. Exempla of Jacques 
de Vitry. Baillet. Butler. Preger, 
Dnitsclie Mi/stik. 

St. Mary (44), a Russian princess, 
M. 1230, was daughter-in-law of AGATHA 

B. Mary (45) of Brabant, called St. 
Mary, Queen and Martyr, Jan. 18, Dec. 
31, -f- 1206. Represented decapitated, 
her confessor standing by. She was 
the daughter of Henry the Magnani 
mous, duke of Brabant, and grand 
daughter, maternally, of the Emperor 
Philip. She married, 1253, Louis the 
Severe, palatine of the Rhine, and duke 
of Bavaria, who had succeeded in the 
same year to half the dominions of his 
father, Otho II. Mary is the original 
of the legend of GENEVIEVE OF BRABANT. 

The neighbourhood of the Rhine was 
infested by brigands. Louis determined 
not to suffer them in his dominions, and 
in 1250 he set out to put them down, 
leaving Mary with his sister Elizabeth, 
widow of the Emperor Conrad IV. at 
the castle of Donauwerth on the north 
bank of the Danube. 

One day Mary wrote two letters, 
one to her husband, the other to 
his cousin and companion - in - arms, 

Count Ruchon of Wittelsbach. Her 
messenger could not read, so she 
told him that the letter with the red 
seal was for his master and that with 
the black was for Count Wittelsbach. 
The man delivered the wrong letter to 
Louis, with most disastrous conse 
quences. Louis, without a moment s 
reflection, imagining the worst about 
his wife, ran his sword through the 
messenger, and rushed back to Donau 
werth. The governor of the castle came 
to receive him, and was instantly stabbed. 
Louis then made for the apartments of 
his sister Elizabeth, where the first 
person he met was Helice de Brennen- 
berg, one of his wife s ladies-in-waiting. 
Believing her to be an accomplice, he 
seized her and precipitated her from the 
tower. Mary and Elizabeth wept and 
expostulated in vain. The duke would 
hear no explanation, and Mary was 
beheaded. The same night his hair 
and beard turned white, although he 
was only twenty-seven. Count Ruchon 
hearing of the tragedy, fled, but pub 
lished everywhere the innocence of the 
duchess, which was attested by miracles. 

Louis, seized with remorse, buried 
her with great honour in the monastery 
of the Holy Cross at Donauwerth. Then 
he made a pilgrimage to Rome, and 
sought absolution of Pope Alexander 
IV., who ordered him to build a monas 
tery for twelve monks of St. Bruno. 
Louis built it, but as there were no 
Carthusian monks in Germany, he put 
in Bernardines. 

Mary is called " Blessed " by Rader 
in Bavaria Sancta, but according to the 
Bollandists, her worship was never 

Many legends are founded on the Life 
of Genevieve of Brabant, written in 
1472 by Matthew Emich, a Carmelite 
monk, afterwards Bishop Auxiliary of 
Mayence. This work is an amplifica 
tion of the story of Mary of Brabant. 
AA.SS. Ram, Hag. Nat. de Bdyiquc. 

St. or B. Mary (46), the Sorrowful, 
June 1 8, V. M. of chastity, c. 1290. She 
lived first at Woluwe-Saint-Pierre and 
then as a recluse at the church of Notre 
Dame, probably at Stockel in Brabant. 



She made a vow of poverty and virginity 
and worked hard for her living, still 
giving much time to prayer. A rich 
man tried to persuade her to leave her 
retreat and break her vow. When he 
was exasperated by her persistent refusal, 
he hid a valuable silver cup in her cell 
and accused her of having stolen it. 
She was condemned to death. She 
prayed for her accuser and for her 
own salvation. The executioner en 
treated her with tears to forgive him 
and to pray for him when she arrived 
in heaven, as he knew she would be 
there immediately. He then cut off 
her hands and feet, and she was empaled, 
and instead of Christian burial, she 
was thrown into a pit and some earth 
thrown over her. Her accuser was pos 
sessed by a devil and was taken to the 
shrine of ST. DYMPNA and to many other 
shrines, but the evil spirit declared 
there was only one saint who could cast 
him out and that was St. Mary, the 
innocent woman who had died as a thief. 
Accordingly, seven years after her death, 
he was taken to her grave. When they 
had prayed to her and obtained the cure 
of the demoniac, she was taken up from 
the ground and buried under the altar 
of the church at Woluwe-Saint-Lambert, 
and the people called her St. Mary the 
Unfortunate, in Flemish Die Ellendige. 
A chapel was built there in her honour 
in 13G3, and it still stands almost un 
changed. AA.SS. from contemporary 
authority. Biog. Nat. Beige. 

St. Mary (47) de Soc os (of Help), 
Sept. 25, 10, Dec. 31, + 1290. She 
was of the Order of St. Mary de Mereede 
(Ransom) for the Redemption of Cap 

Once on a time, Don Rodrigo Guillen, 
the second son of the noble house of 
Cervellon in Barcelona, married a good 
woman of equal rank ; having no 
children, they gave all their substance 
to the Order of St. Mary de Mereede. 
Through the prayers of B. Peter 
Nolasco, they had a beautiful daughter 
whom they christened Mary, in honour 
of the BLESSED VIRGIN. They brought 
her up piously, and when she was 
eighteen she chose a life of celibacy, 
charity and devotion, and went three 

times a week to the hospital with her 
mother. She wished to serve God in 
His people, but had not yet decided 
how best to do so, when B. Bernard of 
Corbaria preached a sermon on the 
miseries and dangers of the Christian 
captives who were slaves to the Turks. 
Mary was so touched by the picture 
of their woes that she thought of 
nothing but how she could help them. 
After her father s death she lived for 
some years very quietly with her mother, 
near the church of the Brothers of 
Mereede. She considered herself a steward 
for the poor of the ample provision left 
her by her father. Except the three 
regular portions of each day which she 
gave to prayer, she spent all her time in 
working hard for her poor, preparing 
food for them, releasing many prisoners, 
befriending shipwrecked mariners and 
travellers, and omitting no act of 

About 1265, two childless widows of 
exalted station in the province of Barce 
lona took a house near that of the 
Brothers of St. Mary de Mereede, and 
accompanied by a few girls of kindred 
disposition, spent their time in exercises 
of devotion and in working for the poor. 
Mary, who had already had several 
years experience in every branch of 
charitable work, and whose mother was 
dead, became a member of the little 
community. B. Bernard of Corbaria, 
prior of the monastery, was their spiritual 
director. No women had hitherto been 
made members of the Order, and they 
had great difficulty in obtaining his 
permission to wear the habit of the 
brotherhood and to be constituted a 
Third Order, in imitation of the Ter- 
tiaries of St. Francis and St. Dominic. 
As soon as they succeeded, they unani 
mously elected Mary their first superior. 
She was already greatly beloved by the 
afflicted, and was found so helpful in 
all sorts of trouble, that her family 
name was lost in that glorious name of 
Socos, by which she is honoured to this 
day in her own country. 

Besides the usual vows of Third 
Orders, the members of the Order of 
Mereede promised to pray for the 
Christian slaves, to pity their sufferings 



and to accompany in spirit the brothers 
who went to visit them. Mary had 
great gifts of God. She was credited 
with miracles during her life and after 
her death ; especially in aid of those in 
peril on the sea : Barcelona in those 
days had no harbour, and wrecks were 
frequent on the coast. 

She was buried in the church of the 
Brothers of Santa Maria de Merced in 
Barcelona. Her immemorial worship 
was sanctioned by the Pope in 1(592. 

E.M. AA.SS. Ribadeneira, Sept. 
2."). Lambertini. Helyot. 

St. Mary (48) Hurtado, O.S.D., 
suffered so much unkindness from her 
husband, often nearly losing her life, 
that after many years the religions 
authorities of Valladolid sanctioned her 
leaving him and taking the veil in the 
Convent of St. Catharine. She was sent 
hence to govern the Convent of Peni 
tence. She performed a miraculous 
cure by her prayers with the aid of 
a crucifix to which she had a great 
devotion. She died covered with horrible 
wounds, which became clean and sweet 
the moment she was dead. Lopez, 
Sittoria de Sancto Domingo y de su or den. 

B. Mary (49) of Jesus, a nun at 
Burgos in the 14th century. One of 
the oldest convents in Burgos was that 
of the most Holy Trinity, built by St. 
John of Matha, founder, c. 1200, of the 
Order of the Trinity for the Redemption 
of Captives. In 1306, during the war 
between King Peter the cruel and his 
brother Henry of Trastamar, this con 
vent was ordered to be destroyed, as it 
stood outside the walls and was a danger 
to the town and its inhabitants, be 
cause it could be used as a fortress by 
the enemy. When they began to pull 
it down, a stone fell on the head of 
a crucifix over the altar, which there 
upon shed drops of blood. B. Mary of 
Jesus and several other innocent and 
devout young nuns were present,and the 
blood fell on the clothes of some of 
them ; several drops on Mary s veil, as 
well as on the altar cloth. They col 
lected all they could, and the crucifix 
told them that the small house in which 
they were living would become a great 
convent. The blood-stained veil was 

preserved by the community, and the 
crucifix was removed to another church, 
where it continued to work miracles. 
In 158(3 a good house and garden in 
Burgos were provided for the successors 
of those nuns. Florez, Espaua Sagrada. 

B. Mary (50) Spesalasta, of Pisa, 
O.S.D., -f- c. 1393. When a baby and 
ill, she was put by her nurse in her bed 
in the balcony. An angel told her to 
have herself carried away, as the balcony 
and porch were going to fall, and when 
she was taken away, they fell. At five, 
she was taken in spirit to the prison of 
Peter Gambacorta, governor of Pisa, and 
father of CLARA (8). The VIRGIN MARY 
told her she should say five aves daily 
for him. She had two husbands and 
eight children. When she had lost her 
second husband, four sons, and her 
mother, an angel informed her of their 
salvation, so she did not mourn. Christ 
appeared to her as a poor man, and she 
washed His wounded legs. The crucifix 
bowed to her. Pio. Razzi. 

B. Mary (51) Storioni of Venice, 
July 2, 1379-1399, 0.S.D. The daughter 
of Nicholas Storioni, she was of noble 
birth, rich and beautiful. She was 
married at fourteen to a dissipated 
young nobleman, named Giannino della 
Pla^a. A few days after the marriage, 
he went off to the war then raging 
between the Lord of Mantua and 
the Duke of Milan. Mary remained 
at Venice and went to live with her 
mother, whose house was close to the 
Dominican church of St. Peter and St. 
Paul. She attended many sermons there, 
and was particularly touched by those of 
B. Thomas of Siena. At sixteen she 
made a general confession and began at 
once to renounce her vanities and 
luxuries. She went to her own room 
at the top of her mother s house, pulled 
out her beautiful lace and fashionable 
dresses and set to work to cut them all to 
pieces. Her mother found her thus 
employed and said, " If you are deter 
mined not to wear these things yourself, 
you might at least have given them to 
me for your sisters who are going to be 
married." Mary said she did not dare 
to leave it in her own power to resume 
those vanities. She secretly joined the 



Third Order of St. Dominic. She dressed 
henceforth like an old lady and made 
herself useful in many ways about the 
house, waiting dutifully on her father 
who suffered from gout. From the time 
of her conversion she wore a cilicium, 
never tasted meat, slept very little, and 
that little in her clothes, used a scourge, 
and lived like a nun. She found time 
to learn to write and to copy out 
many of the sermons of B. Thomas 
of Siena. There was some difficulty 
about her becoming a nun in the absence 
of her husband ; but at last, at the age 
of twenty, with her parents consent, she 
was openly enrolled in the Third Order 
of St. Dominic. She was already in 
poor health, and was very soon struck 
down by the pestilence which ravaged 
Italy in 1399. Hernando del Castillo. 

B. Mary (52). (See JANE (12).) 
B. Mary (53) de Maillac, March 28, 
April 27, V. 1331-1414, was named 
Jeanne at her baptism, and Marie at 
her confirmation. Daughter of Har- 
douin, seigneur de Maillac, a nobleman 
of Tours. After her father s death, she 
married Robert de Silleye, a good young 
man whom she had known from child 
hood and whom she had saved by her 
prayers from drowning in a pond. He 
knew that she had made a vow of 
celibacy. Her grandfather, who had 
arranged and greatly desired this mar 
riage, died the day it was solemnized. 
While King John of France was a 
prisoner in England, the English laid 
waste the country and took many cap 
tives, among them Robert de Silleye, 
who was imprisoned at Gravelles. Mary 
sold her jewels and horses and raised 
three thousand florins, with the assist 
ance of her friends, but as there was 
some delay in sending the ransom, 
Robert was kept in a dungeon without 
food for nine days, and was then liberated 
by the VIRGIN MARY in answer to the 
prayers of his wife. After this, they 
devoted themselves more than ever to 
the service of Christ and His poor. 
They took three orphans and brought 
them up carefully. After Robert s death, 
Mary was expelled from his house and 
was deprived of all his property. She 

took refuge in the cottage of one of her 
servants, and having no table-cloth, she 
ventured to share that of the maid, who 
ungraciously took it from her. Mary 
gave it up without a murmur or a blush. 
She was now about thirty years old. 
She returned to Maillac to live with 
her mother and learned to make oint 
ment to heal wounds and diseases, and 
after a time went to Tours and lived 
near the church of St. Martin, devoting 
herself to the service of the poor. One 
day an angel came among them to eat 
at her table. Once when she was pray 
ing before the altar of the church at 
Tours, a mad woman threw a stone at 
her, which broke her back. Every one 
thought she was killed, and the most 
skilful doctors despaired of her cure ; 
but she recovered by the special assist 
ance of the Virgin Mary. She gave 
her house at Roche St. Quentin (where 
she was born) to the Carthusians, and 
to become really poor, she gave up all 
her property. She was despised by her 
friends and relations for her love of 
poverty, and suffered the greatest humilia 
tions and privations, sometimes taking 
shelter at night in a ruin. She took as 
a companion, Jeanne, a nun of Belmont. 

Louis, duke of Anjou, and Mary of 
Bretagne, his wife, acknowledged her 
sanctity and chose her as godmother to 
their infant son. She was anxious to 
instil pious ideas into her godson, and 
often recited prayers and portions of 
the Bible to him. When she told him 
about Paradise and the glory of the 
saints, he clapped his hands sj,nd stamped 
his little feet with delight. 

When she was fifty-five she was re 
ceived into a Franciscan convent in 
Tours. During her whole life the 
Passion of Christ was always present 
to her mind. Once as she was medi 
tating on the martyrdom of St. Stephen, 
she felt in spirit the stones that struck 
him, and became a partaker of his passion. 

A.EM., April 27. AA.8S. 

B. Mary (54) MANCINI, Dec. 22, 
Jan. 22, -f 1431, O.S.D. Daughter of 
Bartholomew Mancini, of a distinguished 
family of Pisa. She was christened 
Catherine. She was still young when 
she lost her second husband and all 



her children. Thenceforth she spent her 
time and money in pious and charitable 
works, and her house became the resort 
of the poor. At this time CATHERINE 
(3) came to Pisa, and by her advice 
Mary joined the Third Order of St. 
Dominic. She went to reside at the 
convent of the Holy Cross, where each 
nun lived at her own expense. Mary 
had six companions whom she main 
tained there. She left that house with 
CLARA (8) and became a nun in the 
convent Clara s father built in honour 
of St. Dominic. She succeeded Clara as 
superior, and attained to great holiness ; 
she worked several miracles, and died 
at a great age. Pius IX. approved her 
worship, and granted an office in her 
honour to the diocese of Pisa and to 
the Dominican Order. A.R.M., Dec. 22. 
Guerin. Civil ta GattoUca. Stadler. 

B. Mary (55) de Ajofin, July 17, 
4- 1489, a nun in the Jeronimite con 
vent of St. Paul at Toledo, where her 
body is kept in great veneration. For 
many years this convent was called San 
Pablo de las Beatas de Maria Garcias. It 
was built sixty or seventy years before the 
days of Mary de Ajofin, by the saintly 
Mary Garcias, on her own estate. Her 
nuns assumed a dress and rule like those 
of the monks of St. Jerome, but not until 
they had been living several years as 
a religious community did they take 
regular vows ; hence the name " Beatas," 
which in Spain still implies women de 
voted to a religious life, whether singly 
or in community, without being actually 
nuns. Helyot. AA.SS., Prspter. 

B. Mary (56) Bartholomea Bag- 
nesi, May 28, April 6, Oct. 18, 1514- 
1577, ord O.S.D. Her father was Carlo de 
Rinieri Bagnesi; her mother, Alessandra 
Bartolommea Orlandini ; both of noble 
families in Florence. They entrusted 
her to a nurse at Impruneta, six miles 
from Florence, who was not only very 
poor, but had concealed from the Bagnesi 
the more important fact that she had no 
milk to give the baby. The child would 
have been starved to death but for the 
charity of some poor neighbours who 
gave the nurse some eggs with which 
to feed the infant. As soon as she was 
old enough to have her hands out of 

swaddling bands, she used to pick up 
little crumbs from the ground to feed 
herself, so that she learnt abstinence 
and poverty from the very beginning. 
She used to be taken to see her sister, 
a nun at Faventino, who was very fond 
of her and taught her to sing ; she 
would say, "Marietta, whom will you 
have for a husband ? " The child used 
to answer, " Jesus Christ." At her 
mother s death she had to undertake 
all the housekeeping and did it well, 
although but a child. When she was 
seventeen, her father asked her if she 
would become a nun or remain in the 
world. She was startled by the sudden 
question and could not answer ; her 
blood seemed to freeze, and she never 
recovered her health during the forty- 
five remaining years of her life, and 
was therefore never able to become a 
nun. Some years after, when she was 
about thirty-three and very ill, her 
father wishing to give her the only 
satisfaction possible, proposed to her 
that as she was not in a state to leave 
her bed and go to a convent, she 
should take the Dominican habit of ST. 
CATHERINE (3) OF SIENA. Mary was de 
lighted, and became a member of the 
Third Order of St. Dominic. Her health 
immediately improved, and she went on 
foot to several churches. But she again 
relapsed into ill health. After some 
years of great suffering and greater 
sanctity, during which many experienced 
the good effect of her prayers and advice, 
she died, and so great was the popular 
opinion of her holiness that an immense 
crowd assembled to pay their respects to 
the dead saint. Her body was placed 
on a table, dressed in the habit of the 
Order and crowned with a wreath of 
flowers made of silk and gold, round 
her head were four candles blessed by 
the Pope and preserved by her for this 
purpose. She was buried by her own 
request in the Carmelite church of Sta. 
Maria degli Angeli. B.M. Breviary, 
O.S.D. AA.SS. Agostino Campi, Vita. 
Cappoccio, Vita. 

B. Mary (57) Antonia Bagnesi, 
Apr. G or Oct. 18, O.S.F. Date unknown. 
A nun of St. Clara at Florence, she 
attended those stricken with the plague. 



She is perhaps the same as MARY (56), 
who is claimed by the Dominicans as a 
member of their Order. Stadler. 

B. Mary (58) of the Resurrection, 
Oct. 12. 16th century. Nun of the 
Order of our Lady of Mercy (or Kan- 
som), in the convent of the Assumption 
at Seville. Helyot. 

St Mary(59)Magdalene de Pazzi, 
May 25, 27, 1566-1607. Eepresented 
in the dress of a Carmelite nun, wearing 
a crown of thorns and holding a flaming 
heart. She was the daughter of Camillo 
de Pazzi, and his wife Maria del Monte. 
The name given her in her baptism was 
Catherine. She showed extraordinary 
piety from a very tender age. She used 
to assemble as many of the poor children 
as she could and teach them. She passed 
the prison daily on her way to school, 
and gave her luncheon to the prisoners. 
Her parents, to encourage her charity, 
often gave their alms through her. Soon 
she began to distress herself about the 
sins of others as well as about their 
poverty, and to pray earnestly for the 
conversion of sinners and heretics. She 
became a nun in the Carmelite convent 
of Santa Maria degli Angeli at Borgo 
San Fridiano, in Florence ; and took the 
name of Mary Magdalene. After the 
year of her novitiate she had a long ill 
ness. The nuns thinking her at the 
point of death, made her take the veil 
and then put her back into her bed, 
which was a sack of straw. She was 
favoured with visions for forty days, and 
after that she recovered. During some 
of her ecstasies she received from the 
Saviour rules for a holy life. In the 
church of the monastery where she was 
living was the stone sarcophagus in which 
lay the body of MARY (56). Mary 
Magdalene de Pazzi had a great devo 
tion to her, and often visited her tomb 
and made earnest prayers to that holy 
soul. In her ecstasies she repeatedly 
saw her in Paradise, sometimes on a 
jewelled throne. Mary Magdalene was 
very clever in embroidery and in paint 
ing. The Carmelites of Parma preserve 
with great veneration and affection a 
picture by her, called il Torcolare ; it 
represents the Saviour under torture. 

Her sister nuns saw her painting and 

working or illuminating, with her eyes 
fixed on the cross. They could not un 
derstand ; they darkened the window, 
they threw a veil over her face, but still 
she went on with her work and did it 
as well as if her whole attention had 
been absorbed by it. Although she had 
a delicate skin and felt the cold ex 
tremely, she went barefooted to the well 
and about the garden ; her fasts were 
excessive, and some of her charitable 
acts and miracles imply a complete con 
quest of all selfish inclinations, as when 
she cured Mary Orlandini of leprosy by 
licking it with her tongue. She was 
declared Blessed in 1626 and canonized 

There was a picture of St. Mary Mag 
dalene de Pazzi by Dandini, from which 
an engraving was made in the eighteenth 
century by Pietro de Pazzi. 

BJf. Puccini, Vita. Ticozzi, Dizi- 
onario dei Pittori, etc. Leggendario. 
Modern Saints, by the Fathers of the 
Oratory in London. 

B. Mary (60) Victoria Fornari 
Strata, Sept. 12, 1562-1617, was foun 
der, in 1604, and first superior of the nuns 
of the Celestial Annunciation under the 
rule of St. Augustine ; they were called 
Torchine (blue nuns). She is represented 
standing praying before a large crucifix. 
She married, at seventeen, Angelo Strata, 
who appreciated her extreme goodness 
and piety. He said she was an excellent 
wife, good for nothing but praying and 
housekeeping, to which two matters she 
gave her whole attention, avoiding com 
pany and amusements. She had four 
sons and two daughters. After nine 
years of married life, her husband died, 
and she grieved so much for him that 
her sorrow was almost sinful. One of 
the characteristics of her Order was such 
complete seclusion that the nuns were 
only allowed to speak to their nearest 
relations through the parlour grating, 
and that only once a year. They were 
to imitate especially the humility of the 
BLESSED VIRGIN, and were to wear her 
colours. Their dress was a white gown 
and handkerchief with sky-blue band, a 
cloak, and shoes. Mary (60) was Prioress 
for the first seven years of the existence 
of the Order, and then became a simple 



nun. She performed some miraculous 
cures and had other wonderful gifts. 
Her body was still fresh in 1828, when 
she was solemnly beatified. 

The rule of her Order forbade the use 
of silk or gold, even for the furniture of 
the church ; it forbade also music, vocal 
or instrumental ; but these points were 
set aside for the occasion of her beatifica 
tion, by the Pope, at the request of many 
persons who wished to do great honour 
to her by having the festival as magnifi 
cent as possible. An immense concourse 
of clergy were present, and every priest 
wanted to celebrate. There were only 
five altars in the church of the Annun 
ciation, so they had to use the other 
churches that stood near. The festival 
lasted three days, on the evenings of 
which, all the neighbouring buildings 
were illuminated. 

Diario di Roma, March 5, 1828, and 
Sept. 19, 1829. Gyneazum. Stadler. 

B. Mary (61), Aug. 16, a member of 
the confraternity of the Rosary, M. 1620, 
at Cocura in Japan. Wife of B. Thomas. 
They were crucified with their little boy. 
The prince tried between blows and 
promises to pervert the child ; but the 
plucky little fellow said, " You think 
you can frighten me. Here is my heart ! 
Here is my neck! Strike! Kill me, 
but I die a Christian." He lived two 
days on the cross, and died, pierced with 
a lance. Authorities, same as for LUCY 

B. Mary (62) of Fingo, Sept. 1.0, 
M. 1622. She was niece of the Governor 
of Nangasaki and married Andrew To- 
couan Mourayama, a Brother of the 
Rosary. They sheltered Father de 
Morales in their house. Andrew was 
put to death as a Christian while they 
were both young. On account of her 
high birth, Mary was left at liberty for 
a few years. She lived in perpetual 
preparation and expectation of the 
martyr s death. At last, a messenger 
was sent to her house to summon her to 
the presence of Goncorou, the governor, 
to answer to the charge of being a Chris 
tian. She answered that she would not 
go to hear impieties, and would never 
abjure her faith, but that she would go 

to the place of execution without any 
summons or any armed men to bring 
her. She did not appear at the trial, but 
next day she put off her mourning and, 
arrayed in white velvet, she seemed to 
have regained the health and strength 
that she had lost during her widowhood, 
and walked in the van of those who 
presented themselves for martyrdom, 
looking radiant in her recovered youth 
and beauty and in the joy of going to 
rejoin her husband and take a place 
among the martyrs. (Sec LUCY DE 

B. Mary (63), Sept. 10, M. 1622, at 
Nangasaki, with her husband, B. Paul 
Tanaca. (Sec LUCY DE FREITAS.) 

B. Mary (64), Sept. 10, M. 1622, at 
Nangasaki, with her children and LUCY 
DE FKEITAS. Mary was widow of B. John 
Xoum or Choonn, who was burnt Nov. 18, 
1619. Pages calls her MARINA. 

B. Mary (65) Tanaura, Sept. 10, 
M. 1622, at Nangasaki, with LUCY DE 

B. Mary (66), Sept. 10, a Japanese, M. 
in 1622, with her sous, John aged twelve, 
and Peter aged three. She was the wife 
of the Corean martyr Antony, a catechist 
of the .Jesuit fathers. Authorities as for 

B. Mary (67) Anna of Jesus, April 
17, 1565-1624. Daughter of Luis Na- 
varra de Gunvara, who held an office at 
the Court of Madrid, and Juanna Romero 
his wife. After her mother s death, her 
father and step mother wished her to 
marry and resorted to unkindness of 
divers sorts to induce her to do so and 
to prevent her becoming a nun, but as 
she was desirous of sharing the suffer 
ings of Christ, she found it easy to bear 
those she encountered in her own home. 
She sought admittance now to one con 
vent, now to another, but was refused 
everywhere, as the nuns feared to draw 
upon themselves the anger of a powerful 
man. At last, when she was forty-two, her 
father losing hope of establishing her by 
a good marriage, consented to let her join 
the Order of St. Mary de Mcrcede for 
the Redemption of Captives. Here she 
had to pass through eight years of proba 
tion before she was allowed to take the 
habit, and in 1614 she took the vows. 


She was declared Blessed by Pius VI. in 
1783. A.EM. Startler. 

B. Mary (68) Vaz, Aug. 17, 3rd 
O.S F., M. in 1627, at Nangasaki. She 
was the wife of Gaspar Vaz. A.E.M. 
and the authorities for LUCY DE FREITAS. 

Yen. Mary (GO) Coronel, May 24, 
V. O.S.F., 1602-1665. She was abbess 
of the Conceptionist convent at Agreda. 
She wrote a Life of St. Anne and a 
more famous book called Tlie Mystical 
City of God, which has passed through 
many editions in divers languages. Her 
renown for holiness spread beyond the 
bounds of her own country. Many eccle 
siastical and secular personages sent to 
consult her and ask for her prayers. 
She was for many years the correspondent 
and adviser of Philip IV. king of Spain 
(1621-1665) ; but he had not courage to 
follow the advice of this strong-minded 
woman, who has been called " almost 
the only man at the time in all Spain." 
Notwithstanding the miracles that oc 
curred at her tomb and the general 
belief in the Divine origin of her reve 
lations, the books she wrote were 
disapproved by the Church and her 
canonization was thrown out. Analccta. 
Biog. universclle. Stadler. Kelly, Hist. 
of Spanish Literature. Her works edited 
by Silvela in Ribadeneyra s Autores 

B. Mary (70) of the Angels, Dec. 16, 
19, -f- 1717. She was a barefooted Car 
melite, founder of Moncalieri. Her 
name was Marianna Fontanella. She 
was the tenth child of Giovanni Donato 
Fontanella, count of Baldissero, who held 
honourable offices in the public service at 
Turin. From her birth she showed points 
of resemblance to THEHESA CEFEDA, that 
great saint whose Order she was destined 
to adorn. When Marianna was six years 
old she was much interested in the lives 
of the saints, particularly those who lived 
in the desert. She arranged with one 
of her little brothers to steal away from 
home and go to the desert and there live 
in caves among the wild beasts. They 
furnished themselves with as much bread 
and wine as they thought they would 
want on the journey, for they supposed 
that once arrived in the desert, God 
would provide for all their wants. Their 

great difficulty was how to get away from 
their father s house unperceived ; but one 
night,having discovered and appropriated 
the key, they determined to set off before 
the rest of the family were awake. They 
already fancied themselves in some hor 
rible cave doing penance for their sins, 
and great was their vexation and many 
were their tears when on the appointed 
morning they awoke at the usual time 
and found they had missed the long 
coveted opportunity. For a long time 
their parents and nurses could not un 
derstand the cause of Marianna s grief, 
but when they discovered her little store 
of provisions they got her to confess her 
plot, and were delighted with her piety. 
Rather more than a year after this, the 
child was very dangerously ill and her 
parents were in great distress. A Fran 
ciscan monk exhorted the Countess to 
revive her faith in the Virgin Mary and 
ask her to cure the child for the sake 
of her immaculate conception. He also 
advised that the invalid should swallow 
a vigUettino of the conception. She took 
his advice ; went to her daughter s bed 
and gave her the vigUettino to swallow, 
saying, "My dear child, recommend 
yourself to the most holy Virgin." The 
little girl, who until then appeared to 
be at the point of death, instantly aroused 
herself and said, " Mary, help me ! " Then 
she had a vision of the Virgin Mary pray 
ing for her to Christ, Who refused her 
prayer at first, saying that Marianna 
would be ungrateful to Him, but granted 
the child s life to His mother s persist 
ence. Marianna was perfectly cured. 
She considered herself bound to show 
her thankfulness by a life devoted to 
her Saviour. Before long her mother 
made her learn dancing and required 
her to be nicely dressed and to go into 
society. She obeyed, but it was pain 
ana grief to her. One day she found a 
broken image of the crucified Lord with 
out the cross. She kissed it, and cried 
over it and said it had been cruelly 
treated. It replied that site was the 
person who was cruel to her Lord. She 
was in great distress and felt she must 
give up all considerations except the 
service of Christ. She went to the glass 
to arrange her dishevelled hair, and saw 


instead of herself, Christ crowned with 
thorns and blood dropping from His 
wounds. She exclaimed, " Oh, Virgin 
Mary, how could you let me live to be 
EO ungrateful to my Lord ? " She had 
a book on the Passion, on which subject 
she meditated deeply. She was much 
affected by reading that the Lord was 
struck on the face in the house of 
Caiaphas. She prayed that she might 
partake this suffering, and her prayer 
was granted in a singular manner. One 
evening, soon after this, she went with 
her sister and others to benediction at 
the parish church and found a mad man 
kneeling next her. She felt a shudder 
of disgust, but said to herself that his 
soul might be more precious in the sight 
of God than her own. After benediction, 
when the priest turned to the altar and 
the people began to move, the man gave 
Marianna such a blow on the face that 
it resounded through the whole church. 
A great hubbub ensued ; the maniac ran 
off; all the men flew after him with 
drawn swords, while the women flocked 
round Marianna, shocked and sympathis 
ing. One said, " I am sure her jaw is 
broken ; " another, " I am sure all her 
teeth are knocked out." "As for me," 
said another, " 1 thought she was killed." 
II or sister wept and sobbed, but the 
young saint knew Who had sent her the 
blow, and rejoiced that the poor lunatic 
was suffered to escape. 

One of her sisters took the veil in the 
Cistercian convent of Eifreddo at Saluzzo. 
Marianna and her mother went to wit 
ness her profession. Marianna was per 
mitted to go inside the convent during 
the service, and to sing a verse or two 
with the nuns. When the ceremony was 
over, the Countess Baldissoro went to take 
leave of the nuns and of one daughter 
and called the other to accompany her 
home; but Marianna refused to return, 
saying she had gone with the intention 
of staying and serving God in that house. 
The signora was very angry and tried 
to insist. The nuns persuaded her to 
give in, and Marianna was allowed to 
remain for a year amongst other young 
girls who were being educated. At the 
end of that time her father died, and her 
mother felt the necessity of attending to 

her own soul and could no longer bear 
the whole burden entailed on the mis 
tress of the establishment, so her son 
Giambatista took Marianna home and 
made her his housekeeper, an office in 
which she acquitted herself very well 
and gave proof of great humility and 
patience. By-and-bye she renewed her 
request to be allowed to take the veil, 
but the widowed Countess could not bear 
the idea of such complete separation from 
her youngest and favourite child. Already 
five of her daughters were nuns, the other 
was married into the family of the Counts 
of Lodi da Capriglio, and Marianna was 
her treasure, so obedient, so cheerful, so 
gentle. Her mother s dearest wish was 
to have her happily married and living 
with her or close by. She found an alli 
ance suitable in every way, and one day 
when they were alone in their vineyard, 
she took Marianna for a longer walk 
than usual and tried to induce her to 
accept this apparently happy destiny, but 
her wisest reasoning and her tenderest 
persuasions failed to carry her point, and 
seeing her daughter entirely bent on a 
religious life, she gave up the argument, 
exclaiming, " Then may God make you 
a great saint!" and she never more 
troubled her on the subject. After a 
short time she offered her daughter to 
the Cistercians of Saluzzo, with whom 
she had lived. They were charmed at 
the proposal, but she felt called to a life 
of greater austerity. It happened that 
the holy sindonc, i.e. the linen cloth in 
which our Saviour was wrapped for burial, 
was to be exhibited from a balcony at the 
Palazzo Madama, and Marianua s mother 
sent her to see it from a balcony oppo 
site. Two Carmelite friars were there, 
one of whom was a great servant of God 
Father Francesco Antonio di Sant 
Andrea. He sheltered her with his cape 
during a little shower of rain, and dis 
cerning in her a beautiful soul, he asked 
whether she had a vocation to be a nun. 
"It is rather soon to decide," she 
answered ; but he continued the conver 
sation and she admitted that she had 
been accepted by the Cistercian nuns at 
Saluzzo but was not quite satisfied, and 
in spite of having intended to be very 
reserved, she felt compelled to confide 


in him. " Then why," said he, " do yon 
not go rather to the Carmelite nuns of 
St. Christina?" She had never heard 
of this convent, but she asked him to 
tell her more, and he described their 
holy life so sympathetically that she felt 
fascinated by that Order. She thanked 
the monk for his kindness and asked 
him to pray for her, after which, she 
went home so happy that she could not 
help shouting out, " I am going to be a 
Carmelite. I am going to be a Car 

Her mother thought her too delicate 
for the hard life and poor food of the 
Carmelites, but at last, after much con 
sultation, she took her to Santa Cristina 
della Priora. As the Countess raised 
objections about her dowry, nothing was 
settled tbat day. By-and-bye, the nuns 
becoming interested, the prioress invited 
her mother to an interview in which the 
money difficulties were finally smoothed 
over, and Marianna began her novitiate 
Nov. 19, 1676, at the age of sixteen, 
taking the name of Mary of the Angels. 
As soon as she was left alone in the 
convent she remembered with regret every 
caress and endearing quality of her 
mother, and this regret became worse 
and worse as the Countess often came 
to see her and told her she missed her 
so dreadfully that she could neither eat 
nor sleep and had no peace. The devil 
then tempted Mary with hatred of the 
strict rule, the penances, her sister nuns, 
and especially the mistress of the novices. 
At the end of her year s novitate she 
took the veil. 

For the first seven years the Lord hid 
Himself from her and she suffered 
acutely. When she was thirty-three and 
had been seventeen years a nun and for 
some time mistress of the novices, she 
was made prioress. She held this office 
four times. Her cell as prioress was the 
same as the others, but so situated as to 
be easy of access for all the nuns. The 
furniture of a cell consisted of a board, 
which when placed on the knees of the 
nun would do for a table ; a straw chair ; 
a rough pallet with a wooden cross at 
the head and a little print of some sacred 
subject. She used to say to her nuns, 
" Manage always to be without some 

thing that you want, in order to taste 
poverty." Although she loved poverty 
and wore the old clothes of the other 
nuns, she was always clean. Once when 
the nuns were determined to make her 
a new dress, they found it impossible to 
get a chance of taking her measure ; they 
had to measure and fit one of themselves 
who was about her size, and then to get 
the superior of the Order to command 
her to wear it. Her veil she always 
made herself, of rags and scraps. She 
made a vow never to look any one in the 
face, and only distinguished her nuns by 
their voices. When she was paralysed 
she would not let anybody undress her, 
although she could not do it herself. In 
this strait, ST. THERESA appeared and 
waited on her. 

Victor Amadeus II., then duke of 
Savoy, afterwards king of Sardinia, used 
to visit her and consult her on affairs of 
importance. Her humility made this 
honour distasteful to her. Once he asked 
if he could do anything for her. She fell 
on her knees and begged him not to 
visit that poor sinner again. The ladies 
of the Court came and condoled that the 
king no longer would come, and she 
only answered, " Well, what can I do 
about it ? " 

In 1702 she founded the convent of 
Moncalieri and hoped to hide herself 
there, but the Court and everybody in 
sisted on having her back in Turin. 
The devil appeared to her under various 
forms, often as a cat or several cats. He 
tempted her to destroy herself, etc. She 
was consoled by heavenly apparitions. 
Christ told her that the time of her 
purification was over, and embraced and 
kissed her, and asked her what she would 
like ; whereupon she prayed that she 
might suffer with Him as B. John of the 
Cross did. In the year 1702 she made 
a vow always to seek to please her 
heavenly Spouse. She had a great 
devotion to the mysteries of the Trinity 
and the Incarnation ; to the Passion and 
the Sacrament of the Altar ; and showed 
great pity for poor sinners, whom she 
constantly recommended to the prayers 
of her nuns. She prayed and did 
penance a whole year for one conversion. 
After communion she used to go into 



ecstasies, and when recovering from ill 
ness, the infirmarian forbade her to stay 
in heaven more than half an hour at a 
time for fear of exhaustion, and used to 
go up to her very softly in church, and 
only in thought exhort her to return to 
her senses ; she at once obeyed as if she 
had been shaken or loudly commanded. 
As a Carmelite nun she could not do 
much for the poor, but she was very 
kind to any of the nuns who were ill, 
especially one who suffered from cancer, 
and she was able to be charitable to the 
wounded in the siege of Turin, 1706. 

She was often consulted by B. Sebas 
tian Valfre of the Oratory. The people 
having deserved a pestilence, her prayers 
procured a mitigation and they had 
instead a cattle plague, from which they 
applied to her to release them. 

In 1713, after the peace of Utrecht, 
Victor Amadeus became king of Sicily, 
as well as duke of Savoy. In 1719 he 
lost Sicily and became king of Sardinia. 
While in Sicily, he wrote to Mary to 
pray for him. Her answer only promises 
the prayers of the community, expresses 
her great regard for him, and give a 
little advice. Afterwards she wrote to, 
beg the life of a deserter. The king 
refused. She prayed at the foot of the 
cross, saying, " Oh, if I had come to You 
first ! " Very soon after, the king sent 
her the pardon she had asked for. She 
was elected prioress for the third time 
in 1706. In the same year the French 
besieged Turin. The royal family were 
sent to Geneva, but before they went 
they called on the saint and recommended 
themselves to her prayers. Many persons 
consulted her as to whether they should 
go away. She said to them, " If you have 
provision for four months, you can stay." 
And sure enough, in four months exactly, 
the town was relieved. 

Among her other writings, Father 
Anselmo reproduces a most sympathetic 
letter to the king on the death of his 
son, at the age of sixteen ; and later, 
the queen writes to beg her prayers, and 
Mary, in a letter full both of humility 
and tenderness, tells her that Christ 
wishes her to console herself with His 
love, and that the great gift of comforting 
souls He has reserved to Himself. 

VOL. n. 

The story of the foundation of the 
Nunnery of Moncalieri is thus told by 
her biographer : 

A certain pious widow, Anna Maria 
Sapino, died there in 1700, leaving her 
house, by will, to be given for a convent 
to the first nuns who should come and 
establish their Order in Moncalieri. 
One of her executors, the Prebendary 
Kavero, thought the house was much too 
small to be used as intended by the 
widow. He went to Turin and consulted 
B. Sebastian Valfre, who knew that 
Mary had long had it in her mind to 
found a new house of her Order, and 
said to Kavero that he thought this a 
special interposition of God in favour of 
her pious intention, and thereupon took 
him to St. Christina s. Mary was 
delighted and at once began to take 
measures for the work she had at heart ; 
but there was considerable delay in 
getting all the necessary permissions : 
first the consent of the superiors of the 
Order, then that of the king had to be 
procured with due formalities. In 1702 
the convent was begun. She had to 
build a little church, as well as to alter 
the house. She borrowed money, and 
when any one asked her how she expected 
to pay her debt, she said that St. Joseph 
would not leave her in the lurch. She 
set up a bag for alms ; fabulous sums 
came out of the bag ; the building went 
on, and in 1703 the nuns took possession. 
Three of the holiest and most capable 
were chosen from St. Christina s to pre 
side. They set off from Turin in one of 
the royal carriages, accompanied by two 
ladies of the Court the Marchionesses 
Pallavicino and Tana. They were fol 
lowed by the provincial of the Order, 
and other ecclesiastics, and by many 
ladies and gentlemen ; the procession 
being closed by musicians. They entered 
Moncalieri to the sound of bells, amid 
the applause of the citizens, and went 
first to the palace of a certain count, 
where the Sindaco and Decurioni and 
other personages were waiting for them. 
Then there followed a grand religious 
ceremony and sermon. All the monks 
and multitudes of people went in pro 
cession to the new church, and after the 
benediction the host was placed on the 




altar for the first time. The foundresses 
renewed their solemn profession, and the 
provincial pronounced the new monas 
tery to be that of St. Joseph. Mary was 
not present. She would have liked to 
hide herself in her new house, but the 
king and the people desired her presence 
in Turin, so she had to remain at St. 
Christina s, and direct the new com 
munity for fourteen years from thence. 

Her dying illness was very edifying. 
She had often recovered in obedience to 
the commands of her superiors. At last, 
seeing her in perfect peace and ready 
for death, the nuns knowing there was 
no hope of her recovery, asked the con 
fessor to let her depart, begging only 
that she might wait until she had first 
blessed them all. He, holding the 
crucifix in his hand, said to her, " Mother 
Mary of the Angels, you have lived 
until now for the sake of obedience. If 
the good Jesus wants to have you with 
Him in everlasting glory, in the name 
of obedience, go." So he spoke and she 
died instantly. 

She had already long been looked on 
as a saint and credited with miraculous 
gifts of clairvoyance, prophecy and heal 
ing ; and as soon as her death was known, 
crowds flocked to the convent, bringing 
crosses and rosaries with which they 
entreated the nuns to touch the blessed 
corpse. The funeral was impeded by 
the concourse of devotees. The Court 
musicians came to play and sing at the 
mass. The belief in her sanctity was so 
widely spread that her canonization 
began the very next year to be discussed 
in high quarters ; but divers causes com 
bined to put it off for more than a 
century, when her miracles increasing 
and her " heroic virtue " having already 
been testified by Pius VI. in 1777 she 
was solemnly beatified by Pius IX. in 
1865. Her day in the Mart, of her 
Order is Dec. 19. 

A.E.M. Her Life by Padre Anselmo 
di San Luigi Gonzaga, Definitor Generale 
dei Carmelitani Scalzi. Eome, 1865. 

B. Mary (71) Magdalene Martin- 
engo da Barco, July 27, 1687-1737, 
O.S.F., was a native of Brescia. In 
1705 she became a nun and afterwards 
abbess in the Capuchin convent of Santa 

Maria della Neve, where she spent the 
rest of her life. She had a deep de 
votion to the sacred crown of thorns 
and secretly wore a crown of needles, 
which torture was only discovered after 
her death. The Count and Countess 
Martinengo and other members and re 
lations of this distinguished family were 
present at her beatification, on June 9, 
1900, by Leo XIII. The Tablet, June 16, 

St. Mary (72) Frances of the Five 
Wounds, Oct. 6, was born at Naples in 
1715 and died there in 1791, O.S.F. 
She was christened Anna Maria Rosa 
Nicoletta. Daughter of Francesco Galla 
and Barbara Businsin. Her father dealt 
in gold embroidered ribbons, and she 
helped industriously to make them and 
also to do all kinds of housework. At 
sixteen he ordered her to marry a rich 
young man who proposed for her; but 
she was for the first time disobedient, 
for she had chosen the immortal Bride 
groom. Galla, an ill-tempered man, 
was furious. He locked her up, and 
only when a long term of punishment 
and disgrace had failed to change her 
resolution, did he, in 1731, consent that 
she should be enrolled under the strict 
rule of St. Peter of Alcantara, which 
was a branch of the Third Order of St. 
Francis of Assisi, and called the Strictest 
Observance or Minori Scalzi. She re 
mained in her father s house and con 
tinued to work as hard for her parents 
as before. She spent more time in 
prayer and less in work than her sisters, 
but, to their astonishment, she accom 
plished a great deal more work than all 
of them. She was often ill in conse 
quence of overwork. Her father and 
some priests and others considered her 
a hypocrite. She bore their scorn and 
unkindness with the greatest humility. 
After the death of her mother, whom 
she nursed with devoted tenderness, her 
confessor let her go and live with Maria 
Felice, an estimable woman of the same 
Order. Here she had more time for 
prayer and contemplation. She received 
the five wounds more unmistakably than 
almost any one else. She prayed that 
she might suifer the death agony and 
the pains of purgatory instead of her 



father, and tins was granted. She had 
great love for her fellow creatures, was 
wonderfully kind to the sick and the 
poor, and gave good counsel to all who 
sought it. 

Among the favours granted her by 
God was that of communicating during 
her illness, by the ministry of angels, 
in the sacrifice of priests who were 
celebrating mass in another place. This 
is testified by the Venerable Philip 
Bianchi, superior of the College of 
Portanova at Naples, who calls her, 
" that humble and fervent tertiary." 

After her death people thronged to 
visit her ; one woman came on crutches 
and went away walking actively. 

Mary was pronounced " Venerable " 
in 1803 by Pius VII. Her miracles 
increased, and in 1843 she was beatified 
by Gregory XVI. In 1867 she was 
canonized by Pius IX. 

EM. Analecta. Stadler. Butler, 
" St. Peter of Alcantara." Leon. Her 
Life was written by Laviosa and dis 
tributed with her picture on the occasion 
of her canonization. 

B. Masalda, Aug. 7, is a misprint 

St. Masenza, MAXENTIA. 

St. Masilla, May 6, M. at Milan 
with many others, in the reign of 
Maximian. AA.SS. 

SS. Massa Candida, Aug. 24, 
three hundred martyrs, precipitated into 
quicklime, in Utica, in 258. AA.SS. 

St. Massaria, Dec. 17, M. in Africa. 

St. Mastidia, MASTHIDIA or MATHIE, 
May 7, V. Her body is known to have 
been publicly exposed for veneration in 
the cathedral of Troyes, in Champagne, 
in the 9th century ; but how long before 
that time she lived is not known. She 
and ST. MAURA are among the chief 
patron saints of Troyes. AA.SS. Martin. 
Cahier and Chatelain say she is the same 
as MATTHIA (1). 

St. Mastilla, June 2, one of 227 
Roman martyrs commemorated together 
this day in the Martyrolony of St. Jerome. 

St. Materiana is honoured with 
MAUCELLI.NA as patron of the church of 
Tintagel. Miss Arnold Foster (Dedi 

says nothing is known about 
Materiana, but considers that this Mar- 
cellina is the sister of St. Ambrose. 
Materiana is possibly the same as MADRUN. 

St. Materna (1) or MAGRINA. (See 

SS. Materna (2, 3), MM. of Lyons. 

St. Mathana, MARTHA (12). 


st. Mathilda or MATHILDIS, MATILDA. 
St. Mathithia or MATHITIA is men 
tioned in a litany used in England in 
the 7th century. Mabillon. Migne. 
English Mart. 

St. Matho, MATILDA. 
St. Matidia, MATTIDIA. 
St. Matilda (1), March 14, 807-968 
many. Wife of Henry I. called the 
Fowler and the Town-builder (919-936). 
She was daughter of Count Theodoric, 
a mighty prince of Saxony, who with 
his wife Reinhilda lived in the castle 
of Enger, and here Matilda was born. 
Not many miles from Enger stood the 
Benedictine abbey of Herford. It was 
the oldest foundation in Saxony, and 
was then ruled by Matilda, mother of 
Theodoric. While yet in her infancy 
Matilda (1) was placed under the care 
of her grandmother to be educated at 
the monastery. Here she was taught 
all the useful arts that a good housewife 
of that day had to practise and to teach. 
She was diligently instructed in such 
parts of the Holy Scriptures as the 
nuns had in their library and in all the 
history they knew. She learned to read 
and write Latin and to say and sing 
prayers and hymns. She excelled in 
embroidery, and perhaps painted those 
exquisite miniatures and ornaments with 
which the transcribers illustrated their 
careful and beautiful copies of the sacred 
books. It seems that either the pupils 
in monasteries were much more seen by 
visitors than in later times, or that 
Matilda paid occasional visits to her 
father s house ; for the fame of her 
beauty, ability and goodness spread 
throughout the whole land of the Saxons 
and reached the ears of Duko Otho the 



Illustrious, who was casting about for 
a wife for his son Henry. 

Otho was the richest and most power 
ful man in Saxony. He was descended 
on his father s side from Eckbert, on 
his mother s from Charlemagne. His 
son Henry the Fowler was distinguished 
by unusual gifts of mind and beauty of 
person. He seems to have been on 
active service nearly all the days of his 
youth and to have won and worn his 
laurels nobly. He refused to join with 
his brothers in robbing the church at 
Gandersheim, richly endowed by his 
father. He made a pilgrimage for his 
sins to Home, mostly on foot, at the 
age of twenty. Returning victorious 
from his wars, he fell in love with 
Hatheburg, a young and beautiful widow, 
who had taken the veil at Altenburg, 
and without waiting for his father s 
consent or the advice of his counsellors, 
married her. The Church declared the 
marriage null and they agreed to separate 
in 909. 

In the opinion of the Court it was 
imperative that Henry should marry 
again. Duke Otho, moved by the fame 
of Matilda s beauty, talent and virtue, 
sent Count Thietmar, who had been 
Henry s tutor, to the abbey to see her. 
Thietmar brought a favourable report, 
and Henry went himself to Herford, 
accompanied by a stately band of young 
nobles. They encamped in the fields, 
and Henry, with a few of his com 
panions, in disguise, gained admission 
into the church and saw Matilda reading 
the psalms with deep devotion. Struck 
with her beauty and dignity, he went 
after service to speak with the Abbess, 
who conducted him to her own room 
and remained there long with him in 
conversation. At last Matilda was sent 
for. When Henry saw her and heard 
her sweet voice, he begged that she 
might be betrothed to him at once. Her 
grandmother demurred, hesitating to 
dispose of the lady without the consent 
of her parents, but was at length talked 
over by the charming young man, whose 
noble lineage weighed much with her in 
his favour. The next day Henry set 
out with his bride for Saxony. All the 
way they were welcomed with great 

demonstrations of respect, and soon 
afterwards the wedding feast was held 
with royal splendour at Wallhausen. 
For three blissful years he rested from 
his wars and for Matilda the cares of 
maternity began. Their happiness was 
almost perfect. 

In 912 Henry succeeded his father 
as Duke of the Saxons, and on the death 
of Conrad, in 918, he was chosen King 
of Germany. Herbert, bishop of Mainz, 
demanded to be allowed to anoint and 
crown the new king. Henry declined : 
"It is enough," said he, "that I have 
been chosen king and bear that title ; no 
Saxon before me has attained so much. 
I thank God s grace and your love. Let 
anointing and crowning be kept for a 
better man." 

In the sixth year of his reign he com 
pleted the great work of uniting all the 
German lands into one kingdom : he had 
succeeded in that for which his prede 
cessor Conrad had so long and vainly 
striven. Euotger, who wrote the life 
of Henry s youngest son Bruno, says 
the day would not be long enough to 
tell how Henry caused " die schonste und 
herrlichste Friede " to bloom in the king 
dom which he found in the most deplor 
able state, constantly attacked on all sides 
by hostile neighbours and torn by the 
most savage internal feuds between blood 

Matilda lived as queen the self-deny 
ing life of the convent. Her hand was 
always open to the poor and her lips to 
plead for the oppressed and the unfortu 
nate. Often did she rise in the dead of 
the night and pour out her soul in prayer, 
to "renew her friendship with God." 
The king believed that whatever she 
did was right, and lent her his aid in 
all her undertakings. She had several 
children, who were distinguished by their 
beauty, ability and good qualities. On 
account of his extreme likeness to his 
father, Matilda loved her second son 
Henry better than her other children, 
and earnestly desired that he should 
succeed to the throne. 

In 928, Bruno was born, and in the 
following year her eldest son married 
EDITH (5), daughter of Edward the 
Elder, king of England. 


After a reign of seventeen years, 
Henry, now sixty years old, was seized 
with his last illness at the palace at 
Membleben. Calling the queen to him 
as he felt his death approaching, he 
spoke with her a long time in private, 
and then said aloud : " 0, most faithful 
and beloved, I thank Christ that you sur 
vive me. No one ever had a better wife." 
He thanked her for all her help in re 
straining his anger, in leading him to 
justice and mercy in his governing, aiid 
in always admonishing him to take the 
part of the oppressed. He commended 
her and her children and his parting 
soul to God, Saturday, July 2, 936. 
Ever after, the widowed queen observed 
Saturday as a day of works of mercy. 
After hearing the .king s last words, she 
went into the church to pray, and was 
kneeling there when the news of his 
death was brought to her. It is re 
corded as one of her miracles that she 
immediately struck off a pair of curious 
gold bracelets that she wore, although it 
had always been believed that they could 
not be rerrfoved without the help of a 
goldsmith ; she gave them to a priest for 
the first mass for her husband s soul. 

Henry was buried at Quedlinburg, 
which he and his wife had founded. 
His grave is still to be seen there in 
the crypt now called the " Old Minster." 
Great and universal was the mourning 
for the king. Widukind of Corvei says, 
"he was the greatest king of his time 
in Europe, inferior to none in mental 
and bodily gifts, but he left behind him 
a son [Otho] greater than himself." 

Matilda had for her widow s portion, all 
Henry s property in Quedlinburg, Pohlde, 
Nordhausen, Grona and Duderstadt. 

The land was once more distracted 
by wars and the struggle between the 
brothers for the crown. Most of the 
nobles agreed with the late king s wish 
for the election of Otho ; but many were 
resolved to stand by Henry, duke of 
Bavaria, Matilda s favourite. 

All the Frankish and Saxon nobles who 
favoured Otho met at Aix-la-Chapelle, 
where he was crowned and anointed king. 

Henry remembered that his having 
been born when his father was on the 
throne, gave him, in the opinion of some 

of his countrymen, an advantage over 
his elder brother, and presuming on his 
mother s preference for him, he continued 
for five years to push his claim. At 
length, under their mother s influence, the 
brothers made a lasting peace. 

One of the first things they did was 
to join in persecuting their mother. In 
fluenced by mischief-makers, they accused 
her of robbing the Crown of its revenue 
and spending it on the poor. To stop 
her almsgiving, they sent out spies 
who heaped ignominy on her almoners. 
She bore all their misdoings with patient 
humility, and actually gave up most of 
her possessions that her sons might be 
spared the sin of taking them away. 
Meanwhile, nothing prospered with the 
undutiful brothers, until Queen Edith 
persuaded the king to bring his saintly 
mother into honour again. Peace and 
prosperity were restored. 

Matilda, once more at Court, gave 
larger alms than ever. She visited the 
poor and the hospitals, and had large 
fires lighted in winter in the public 
places for the comfort of the poor. 
Otho rejoiced his mother s heart by his 
zeal for religion, being, like his father, 
passionately fond of relics. During 
Queen Edith s life, although he was 
generous in endowing her foundations 
and those of his mother, their zeal and 
liberality seemed to him excessive ; but 
after the death of his wife, he found 
comfort in these works, and allowed 
himself to be entirely led in them by 

In 951 Otho married ADELAIDE (3) 
and became virtually king of Itlay. 

In 955 Matilda suffered the heaviest 
sorrow that had ever fallen upon her in 
the last illness and death of her son 
Henry. This seems almost to have 
broken her heart. He was in the prime 
of life, not yet forty. He had groat 
virtues and great defects, so that his 
contemporaries did not know whether to 
praise or blame him most. He had 
something of his father s beauty and 
charm, but he was imperious and had 
the defect more unpopular than any 
vice of being shy and reserved, so that 
he did not win hearts as Otho did. 
Few loved him, but, for this reason, his 



mother loved him the more. Matilda 
was at Quedlinburg when she heard of 
his death. She called the nuns into the 
church and bade them pray for his soul. 
She knelt before the altar and suppli 
cated " Lord, have mercy, have mercy 
on the soul of Thy servant. Remember 
how all his days were full of sorrow 
. . . how little joy he had in life. ..." 
She prayed for pardon for his sins, and 
peace for his soul. Then she arose from 
the altar and went to her husband s grave, 
and laying her head on it, she talked to 
him who slept beneath the stone. She 
said she was glad he had not lived to 
suffer this bereavement. She entreated 
him to pray for the soul of the son who 
had his face and form and his name. 
Until now she had worn the royal scarlet 
robe, but from this day she laid it aside 
and was only seen in mourning, wearing 
no gold nor ornaments of any kind. 
She never more took part in any games, 
although she used to like them ; nor 
allowed any but devotional songs to be 
sung to her. One of her consolations 
was to have with her Henry s little boy 
Otho, now Duke of Bavaria. He was 
a very beautiful child, and repaid his 
grandmother s affection with the most 
endearing confidence and love. 

In 965, the whole royal family, in 
cluding Matilda s children and grand 
children, met round the aged queen for 
the last time on earth, at Bruno s palace 
at Cologne. Bruno s former tutor, 
Bishop Balderech of Utrecht, stood up 
in the joyous family circle and blessed 
the grey-haired queen, saying that in 
her were fulfilled the words of Psalm 
cxxviii., " The Lord will bless thee 
out of Zion, that thou mayest see the 
happiness of Jerusalem all thy life long, 
and see thy children s children." 

When, in 900, Otho was going for the 
third time to Italy, he paid a visit to 
his mother, who was living quietly and 
piously at Nordhausen. He stayed with 
her several days, and when he was going 
away, they went to mass together. 
Feeling she should never see him again, 
she got him to promise sundry things 
concerning which she was anxious. She 
went with him to the gate and saw him 
mount and ride off, and then she re 

turned into the church, and kneeling 
down, she kissed the place where he had 
stood. Some of the attendants ran after 
the Emperor and told him of this proof 
of his mother s affection. He hastened 
back and found her weeping where they 
had knelt together. He threw himself 
down beside her, expressing the tenderest 
gratitude for her love and solicitude ; 
again and again they embraced with 
tears until at last the mother said, " We 
are only making ourselves unhappy. Go, 
in the peace of Christ." So they parted 
for the last time. 

In 908, while making the round of 
the land to visit the religious houses 
she had built, the Queen was seized, 
at Nordhausen, with fever. The devoted 
nuns begged her to stay with them that 
her relics might be their possession ; but 
she preferred to die at Quedlinburg and 
rest by her husband. As death was 
approaching, she sent for the Abbess 
Richburg of Nordhausen, her former 
chamber- woman and confidante, and 
spoke long with her. Otho s illegitimate 
son William, archbishop bf Maintz, 
attended the dying saint and heard her 
last confession. She wished to give 
him something in remembrance of her, 
but her attendants reminded her that 
she had given away everything to the 
poor, except the sheets which had been 
reserved for her burial. She ordered 
them to be given to the archbishop, 
saying he would want them before she 
did, for a difficult journey he must 
shortly undertake. This proved true, 
for he died suddenly, twelve days before 
his grandmother, on his way to his 

On the Saturday of her death, she 
called her people about her and dis 
missed them with advice and blessing. 
She talked for a long time with her 
gifted grand-daughter MATILDA (2), 
abbess of Quedlinburg, comforting her 
with the assurance that Otho had pro 
mised for himself and his descendants to 
protect this monastery. 

At the point of death, Matilda had 
her hair-cloth spread on the ground, 
made the attendants lift her on it, and 
strewing ashes on her head, said : " Only 
in sackcloth and ashes is it meet for a 



Christian to die." So she died and was 
buried in the church of St. Servatius at 
Quedlinburg, by the side of her husband. 

Besides other children undistinguished 
in history, Matilda had : (1 ) Otho I., 
king of Germany, <>;>>; of Italy, 9,">1 ; 
Emperor, 902 ; called, for his beauty 
and charming disposition, " Amor 
Muwti" for his noble deeds and suc 
cessful rule, " the Great ; " he married 
(1st) in 929, B. EDITH of England; 
(2ndly) ST. ADELAIDE of Burgundy ; (2) 
Henry, duke of Bavaria ; (X) St. Bruno, 
born 928, archbishop of Cologne, chan 
cellor of the empire; called the Duke 
Archbishop, because he held for a time, 
in his brother s interests, the dukedom 
of Lorraine ; he is called by Widukind 
of Corvei, " the great Bishop ; " Bruno 
was a very learned man, and as capable 
and faithful a servant and subject as any 
king ever had: he died Oct. 11, 9ii."> ; 
(4) Gerberga, married (1st) in 928, 
Gislebert, duke of Lorraine, and (2ndly) 
Louis IV., king of France, called 
d Outremer; (5) Hed wig, married Hugh, 
count of Paris, they had a son Hugh 
Capet, ancestor of the kings of France. 

Matilda s chief foundations were 
monasteries at Quedlinburg, Nordhausen 
(to benefit the souls of her husband and 
her son Henry), Enger and Polden. 
Quedlinburg as well as Herford, where 
she was brought up, enjoyed the privi 
lege of RdchsunmittelbarJcvit, that is, none 
but the Emperor had authority over it. 
This privilege ceased only with the 
dissolution of the empire in 1802. 

AA.SS. Giesebrecht, Deutschlands 
Kaiserzait. Claras, Die Heilige Mathilde. 

B. Matilda (2), Feb. 6 or 7, + 999. 
Eldest child of Otho the Great by his 
second wife ADELAIDE (3). Matilda was 
abbess of Quedlinburg, founded in 966 
by her grandmother MATILDA (1). It 
was one of the great, rich, important 
monasteries, whose abbess was almost 
always a princess of the royal or im 
perial family and was ex officio a 
powerful personage, having a seat in 
the diets and councils of the empire. 
Her nephew Otho III. made her Eegent 
of Germany during his absence in Italy ; 
which office she filled with great wisdom 
and dignity. She died with reputation 

of eminent piety, a few months before 
her mother, who leaned much on her 
for advice and comfort. She is called 
Saint by Lahier. Stadler. 

B. Matilda (:J), May 21, Nov. 4, 
-f- c. 1025. The Emperor Otho II., 
son of ADELAIDE (3), married the 
beautiful and learned princess Theo- 
phano and had one son, Otho III. ; and 
three daug liters, Adelaide, Sophia and 
Matilda. By their mother s wish, Ade 
laide and Sophia took the veil and 
became abbesses of the two grand monas 
teries of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim, 
a dignity which gave to each a seat in 
the imperial diet and made of each a 
great power in the empire. Matilda 
lived with her brother, the young and 
beautiful Emperor. No prince at his 
court, no neighbouring king was great 
enough to aspire to her hand ; never 
theless, Count Ehrenfried loved her. 
One of Otho s favourite companions, he 
was of noble Saxon descent and ex 
celled in every accomplishment of the 
youth of that time. Otho was pas 
sionately fond of chess, and was ac 
counted the best player in Europe. 
Ehrenfried was one of the few who 
nearly equalled him. They had played 
many games together for high stakes ; 
Ehrenfried sometimes won, but much 
more often the Emperor was the victor. 
At last they agreed to try who should 
win three games in succession, the victor 
to choose what gift he would have from 
his opponent. Ehrenfried commended 
himself to the Holy Trinity. He won 
two of the games and the third was 
played in breathless anxiety. They sat 
long at the board, until the game was 
nearly done and the Emperor thought 
himself sure of victory. It was Ehren- 
fried s turn to move. Could he win ? 
His head swam, he shut his eyes and 
lifted up his soul and prayed for the 
success of his love. Then stretching 
out his hand he moved his piece, and 
lo ! he had checkmated the Emperor. 
According to the agreement, he was 
bidden to ask what gift he chose. " I 
ask for your sister, the Princess Matilda 
for my wife." The Emperor was both 
surprised and displeased, for Ehrenfried 
was scarcely a match for her, but his 



word was pledged. The princess was 
sent for and asked whether she would 
marry Count Ehrenfried. She said she 
would. All the Emperor could do to 
make the marriage less unequal was 
to give additional rank and estates to 
his future brother-in-law. They be 
came Count and Countess Palatine. 
They had three sons distinguished in 
German history: Ludolph, who died 
before his parents, Otho, Duke of 
Swabia, Herman, Archbishop of Cologne 
and Chancellor of Italy; and seven 
daughters, one of whom was ST. RIXA, 
queen of Poland, the rest were nuns. 
It is said that Otho on his death-bed 
gave the regalia to Archbishop Heribert 
to give to Ehrenfried. 

Ehrenfried and Matilda founded the 
monastery of St. Nicholas at Bruwylre 
or Brawiller near Cologne, where their 
eldest son Ludolph was buried. Ehren 
fried survived Matilda about ten years ; 
both died in the odour of sanctity and 
miracles honoured their tombs. They 
are commemorated with their daughter 
Rixa, May 21, and Matilda is honoured 
alone, Nov. 4. AA.SS., May 21. Giese- 
brecht. Ditmar. 

St. Matilda (4) or MALD, Queen of 
England, May 1, April 30, June 10, 
Aug. 7, Sept. 18, Dec. 26, "the Good 
Queen Maude," "the Holy Queen," c. 
1082-1118. It is said that she was 
christened Edith and took the name 
of Maud or Matilda on her marriage. 
Daughter of Malcolm III., king of 
Scotland, and his second wife, MARGARET 
(6). As soon as possible after the 
death of Malcolm and Margaret (in 
1093) Edgar the Atheling, brother of 
Margaret, consigned their daughters, 
Matilda and Mary, to the care of his 
sister, CHRISTINA (7), in the Benedictine 
monastery of Rumsey. With her they 
remained until 1100, when Henry I. 
succeeded to the throne, and took the 
politic step of linking himself with the 
family of the Saxon kings whom his 
father William the Conqueror had 
ousted and married Matilda. Christina, 
who hoped to make both her nieces 
nuns, strenuously opposed the marriage, 
but the young princesses never intended 
to be nuns. William of Malmesbury, 

who was nearly contemporary, says that 
they had worn the dress of the cloister 
by their aunt s wish and for protection, 
that they might not be given in marriage 
to any one of inferior rank. When the 
king s offer was made, Matilda declared 
that she had never professed nor taken 
any vows ; that her father had never 
wished her to be a nun, but had said 
she was to marry ; that her aunt, who 
was a despotic woman, had insisted on her 
wearing the black veil and had enforced 
her command with blows and violent 
language, but that when she was not 
present, she, Matilda, had torn it off, 
and trampled on it. 

Later writers, Matthew Paris, Robert 
of Gloucester and others living long 
after her time, say that she was a nun, 
and that she married unwillingly and 
invoked a curse upon her offspring, 
which was fulfilled in the drowning of 
her son in 1120. 

To go back to 1100, Archbishop An- 
selm called a chapter in which it was 
decided that Matilda was free and should 
be married to the king. The wedding 
was solemnized with great magnificence. 
Anselm always remained one of the chief 
friends of the queen. During the long 
quarrel between the king and the arch 
bishop she wrote to the latter begging him 
to come back to England. Dean Hook 
(Archbishops of Canterbury) says : " The 
letters of Queen Matilda evince an inti 
mate acquaintance with Scripture; and on 
scriptural grounds, though in terms the 
most respectful, she presses upon the 
archbishop the paramount duty of re 
turning to his diocese." She apologizes 
for characterizing his conduct as hard 
hearted, and says that she desires his 
return with all her heart. The corre 
spondence is preserved in the third and 
fourth books of Auselm s epistles. 

She was universally beloved and 
" revered for her curtesie, humilitie, 
scileus, and othir good manneris." She 
walked in the steps of her holy mother. 
She was extremely charitable, not only 
giving to the poor but serving them with 
her own hands. In 1101, soon after her 
marriage, she established a hospital for 
forty lepers, under the patronage of St. 
Giles, who was much venerated in her 



native country. She founded Christ s 
Hospital and the Priory of St. Augustine 
at Aldgate, 1108. She built "a faire 
stone bridge over the Lue at Stratford- 
upon-Bow, and gave goodly mannours 
and lands to the abbey of Barking in 
Essex for maintayning of the same." 

Her brother, David I., king of Scot 
land, when on a visit to her, reproved 
her for washing and feeding the beggars 
and lepers and kissing their sores ; but 
she said it became mortal kings and 
queens to kiss the feet of the King of 
kings in the person of His beggars and 

She was buried at Westminster and 
worked miracles. She had two children: 
William, who was drowned in 1 1 2< >, in 
crossing over from Normandy ; and 
Matilda, who married first, Henry V. 
Emperor, secondly Geoffrey, son of 
Fulk, Count of Anjou. The son of 
this second marriage was Henry Planta- 
genet, afterwards Henry II. 

Matilda was never canonized, but she 
appears in Watson s English Martyrology 
and is called Saint by several writers, 
among whom are Bucelinus, Paul La- 
croix, in at least two of his books, Vie 
Militaire and Louts XII. ; Mayhew, 
Trophea Anglicana ; Wion, Lignum Vitse; 
Migne, the Manipulus given by the 
students of the English College at Rome 
to Christina, Queen of Sweden, in 1055 ; 
Analecta. Other authorities for her 
history are Turgot s Life of her mother 
St. Margaret, tr. by Mr. Forbes Leith. 
Butler, " St. Margaret." Skene, Chron. 
of the Scots. Matt. Paris. Eadmer. 
William of Malmsbury. Miss Ecken- 
stein. Hume. Memorial of Ancient 
British Piety. 

St. Matilda (5) of Spanheim, Feb. 2(3 
Daughter of Eberhard, friend and vassal 
of Stephen, count of Spanheim. Her 
mother s name was Hiltrude. Matilda 
had a brother Bernhelm, a monk of 
St. Alban s near Maintz ; as long as he 
remained there, she lived in a tell 
near the same monastery. When Count 
Stephen built a monastery at Spanheim, 
and appointed Bernhelm abbot of it, 
Matilda with permission of the bishops 
of both places, removed to a hermitage 

close to the new monastery. Several 
holy maids wished to join her. She 
chose five of them. Ferrarius thinks 
she is the same as MATILDA (0). Hen- 
schenius considers that unless this sup 
position is correct, there is no ground 
for including her among the Saints ; 
she is, however, so included by Wion 
(Lignum Vitse), Bucelinus, and other 

St. Matilda (6) of Andechs, May ;J 1 , 
July (5, + 1100, abbess of Diessen and 

Three times did the counts of Andechs 
found a monastery at Diessen in Bavaria. 
In li:>2, Count Berthold and Sophia his 
wife gave their castle of Diessen for a 
double monastery, of which Hartwick 
was the first abbot. Their daughter 
Matilda was five years old when they 
placed her there, and she eventually 
became the first abbess. Only once in 
her life did she eat meat and drink 
wine ; it was when her father came to 
pay a visit to Abbot Hartwick and the 
monks, and at Matilda s request, gave 
them an estate which was to have been 
her dowry. The abbot invited her and 
her mistress and other nuns to dine with 
the monks to meet her father. They 
went, and by command of the abbot, 
whom she was bound to obey, she ate 
meat and drank wine. Like Daniel, 
she looked as well and as pretty on her 
scanty fare as those who had the best 
and most varied food. She insisted as 
much on cleanliness as on seclusion. 
When she had ruled the nuns of Diessen 
for a few years, it happened that the 
ancient monastery of Oettelstettin, iu 
Swabia, had sunk, under gross mis 
management, to a deplorable state, both 
as to its worldly and spiritual affairs. 
The princes, nobles, bishops, and nuns 
interested in it held a council and sent 
a request that Matilda would come and 
take it in charge. She declined, and 
nothing less than a papal brief induced 
her to yield. The nuns were in the 
habit of receiving numerous visitors of 
both sexes, a custom quite contrary to 
their Rule, but Matilda reformed this 
and other abuses. She found that during 
the time of neglect that preceded her 
coming, some property belonging to the 


monastery had been seized by neigh 
bouring potentates. She appealed to 
the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. At 
first he would not move in the matter ; 
then, as he was anxious to see a woman 
so famed for her good qualities, he said, 
" If my cousin has anything to ask of 
me, let her come herself and pay me a 
visit." So Matilda had to go to the 
court at Begensburg and stay there some 
time. She sat at the Emperor s table 
with the other guests, but arranged to 
be served with vegetables and water ; 
the water turned into wine for her. 
When she had completed the business 
about which she went, she returned to 

About 1160, finding herself dying, 
she begged the nuns to take her back 
to Diessen to die and be buried with 
her own family. 

She had splendid hair of extraordinary 
length : a proof, says Wattembach, that 
she was not under any strict Rule. She 
concealed it all her life, but after her 
death it was regarded as a precious 
relic and used to be hung out from a 
high tower to ward off storms. Several 
miraculous cures were attributed to her 
during her life. 

Besides her sister EUPHEMIA (14) and 
her brother St. Otho, bishop of Barn- 
berg, many saints came of the same 
family. HEDWIG (3) was a daughter of 
the house of Andechs. AA.SS. Kuen, 
Collectio Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum. 
AVattembach, Dcutscldands Gescliicltts- 

B. Matilda (7), V. of Lapion, April 
12, + c. 1200 or rather later. She was 
daughter of a King of Scotland, and had 
four brothers ; a duke, who left his wife 
and went into voluntary poverty and 
exile ; a count, who became a hermit ; 
an archbishop, who left that office to 
become a Cistercian monk; the fourth 
was Alexander, who succeeded to the 
kingdom at the age of sixteen. Matilda, 
who was twenty, said to him, " All your 
brothers are going to save their souls ; 
ijou have nothing but an earthly king 
dom. It is very pleasant to be a king, 
but you are losing your soul." So they 
went away together and she taught him 
to milk cows and make butter and cheese. 

They went to Fogny in the diocese of 
Laon, and there she placed him as a 
dairy boy and he was found to excel in 
making cheese, and was taken by the 
monks as a lay-brother. Matilda repre 
sented to him that their gain was great 
in having left their country, family, and 
rank, but that it was incomplete as long 
as they did not also separate from each 
other. He wept, for he felt this to be 
harder than all the sacrifices he had 
hitherto made, but he was accustomed 
to be led by her. She went to Lapion, 
arid lived in a little hut and maintained 
herself by the labours of her hands. 
She would not glean with the other 
poor people, but after them, among the 
pigs. She used no pillow, and had 
scarcely anything to lie upon between 
her and the ground. She took her food 
on her horny knees. She spent all her 
time in devotion and gave her whole 
soul and attention to prayer, to such 
an extent that during a tremendous 
storm she neither heard the thunder nor 
saw the lightning. She was recognized 
nine years before her death by some 
soldiers who had seen her in Scotland ; 
whereupon she would have fled from 
Lapion, but the people insisted on her 
remaining amongst them. She wrought 
miracles both before and after her death. 

Only on his death-bed did Alexander, 
at the command of the prior, reveal his 
history. Colgan, Jan. 1, Brit. Sancta. 
Wilson, English Mart. AA.SS. 

B. Matilda (8) de Bierbeke, May 7, 
+ 1272. She was third abbess of the 
Cistercian cloister of Florival. She is 
called Blessed in Gallia Christiana. 

St. Matilda (9) or MECHTILD of 
Magdeburg, 1212-1277. She was born 
in her father s castle near Magdeburg, 
and was brought up at Court. She had 
a brother Baldwin, a Dominican monk 
of Halle. She was too clever and sin 
cere to be content with the lukewarm 
religion and the abuses in practice which 
prevailed. When she was twenty-four 
she fled from her home and desired to 
become a nun in her own town, but she 
would not tell who she was, and as they 
would not receive an unknown person 
into any monastery, she took refuge 



with tbe Beguines, and lived among 
them for thirty years, during which she 
preached, nursed the sick, and took a 
lively interest in all things in the outer 
world. She saw visions, and besides 
songs and other verses, she wrote de 
nunciations of the clergy and the abuses 
in the Church. A peculiarity of her 
spiritual impressions was, that instead of 
one guardian angel, she had two good 
angels and two devils in constant attend 
ance on her. One devil tempted her 
to desire to be honoured as a saint on 
account of her visions ; the other tempted 
her with animal instincts. She wrote a 
book called Mittheilungen, in which she 
describes the torments of hell and purga 
tory and the bliss of paradise ; speaks of 
the Holy Trinity, the creation, redemp 
tion, etc., and points out signs of the 
end of the world. She boldly and earn 
estly denounced the degenerate clergy 
of Magdeburg. She wrote a letter to 
Dietrich, the newly elected dean, in 
which she recommended him to wear 
hard stuif next his skin, to sleep on 
straw, to keep two brooms beside him 
with which to beat himself on awaking. 
In this way, she made enemies of many 
persons in authority and they threatened 
to burn her book, which, however, was 
not done. She did not fear this, as she 
said " No one could burn Truth." When 
she had been thirty years a Beguine, her 
failing health and her troubles made her 
decide to be a nun. She entered the 
Cistercian nunnery of Helfta in 1265. 
The sixth and seventh parts of her book 
were written about this time. Her 
sympathies grew larger and wider, and 
she longed to go as a missionary to the 
heathen, like JUTTA or SANGERSHAUSEX, 
whom she had known and whose example 
greatly impressed her; but it was re 
vealed to her that her book was her 
mission, and was sent to all religious 
persons, bad and good. She wrote to 
the end of the sixth part with her own 
hand, and did not mean to write any 
more, but her revelations continued and 
she was compelled to go on, although 
she no\v had to avail herself of the eyes 
and hands of others. By Divine direc 
tion, she called the book Das fliexsende 
Liclit ch r Gottheit. It is thought to have 

been used by Dante, and conjecture has 
it that it was Matilda of Magdeburg 
whom he saw gathering flowers in Para 
dise. Preger, Deutsche Mystik im Mit- 

St. Matilda (10) or MECHTILDIS of 
Sweden, July 1, V. O.S.D. + 1LW. 
In the time of Pope Martin IV., Kudolph, 
king of the Romans, and Berger II., 
king of Sweden, lived Matilda, a virgin 
of one of the most illustrious families in 
Sweden. She was given in marriage 
against her will, having made a vow of 
celibacy. She fled a few hours after her 
marriage, with the assistance of INGRID, 
whom she joined in her pilgrimage. On 
their return Matilda lived and died a 
nun in Ingrid s convent. Vastovius, 
Vitis Aquilonia. 

St. Matilda (11) or MECHTHILD of 
Wippra, Nov. 19, Aug. 15, + 1299. 
She was the chief teacher of the excel 
lent school in the Cistercian convent of 
Helfta, under ST. GERTRUDE of Hacke- 
born, the second Abbess. In this school 
Latin, music and painting were taught, 
and that beautiful, careful writing which, 
in the middle ages, anticipated the use 
of printing. Matilda had an uncommon 
gift of teaching ; she was very eloquent, 
had a charming voice, a clear and per 
suasive manner of giving her lessons, 
and was much beloved. She had a 
special talent for singing, and this pro 
bably implies that she was a composer 
as well as a teacher of her art. Two of 
her pupils, Sophia and Elisabeth, were 
daughters of Hermann, count of Mans- 

On the death of St. Gertrude, Sophia 
von Querfurt succeeded as third abbess. 
She withdrew from the command in 
1298 and died 1299. From some un 
recorded circumstances, a successor was 
not appointed until 1303. Meantime 
the reins were held by Matilda von 

When she lay dying, all the nuns 
weeping and praying around her, the 
nun St. Gertrude saw her soul in the 
form of a lovely maiden, breathing into 
the heart of Christ through the wound 
in His side, which He rewarded by 
shedding a dew of grace over the whole 
of Christendom, and especially over the 



convent of Helfta. This was her reward 
for her anxiety for the salvation of the 
living and the dead. Then Gertrude 
saw the Lord crown her with a brilliant 
diamond ornament. Matilda von Wippra 
had visions and ecstasies, but was chiefly 
distinguished for her accomplishments 
and her power of teaching. Preger, 
Deutsche Mystlk. Compare with SS. 
GERTRUDE (12 and 13) and the other 
MATILDAS of Helfta. 

St. Matilda (12) MATHILDIS, MECH- 
TILD or MELCHTIDE von Hackeborn, April 
10, 1240-1310, commemorated with her 
sister GERTRUDE of Helfta, Nov. 15, 17. 
She was bom at the castle of Helfta when 
Gertrude was already a nun in the 
Cistercian monastery of Rodarsdorf, 
afterwards removed to Helfta. When 
Matilda was seven years old, her mother 
went to see her elder daughter Gertrude 
at the monastery, taking with her the 
little Matilda to be amused and edified 
by the visit. The child was so charmed 
with the place and the chapel and the 
nuns that she would not come away. 
She ran and hid among the nuns and 
implored them to keep her. She wept, 
she prayed, she declared she must re 
main for ever in that holy house ; until 
at last the mother had to go home alone, 
leaving both her daughters to be nuns. 
Matilda received a good education in the 
convent, thanks partly to her more 
talented sister Gertrude, for whom she 
had a great admiration, and whom in all 
her visions, she always saw immeasurably 
superior to herself. From the age of 
twenty-five, she was under the influence 
through her, of Dominican monks. 
This influence encouraged her leaning 
to a contemplative life; and promoted 
the wonderful converse with the Divine 
which her book shows. Always gentle 
and lovable, she was of a refined and 
emotional character, and does not appear 
to have had any of those combats with 
sensual nature that troubled so many of 
the saints. It was easy to her to free her 
self from outward things. During dinner 
she did not know she was eating, or 
what she ate. The nuns made innocent 
jokes on her absence of mind. She 
neglected her dress, she lived in the 

spirit. Thoughts moved her more than 
sights ; the visible image was to her 
only the symbolic clothing of the thought. 
Her thought-world is not very deep and 
rich, but it has a charm because it shows 
her peculiarly delicately strung charac 
ter. She sang sweetly, and was often in 
ecstasy ; her nervous temperament made 
her inspirations take this form. She 
once had frightful headache for a whole 
month and then a sense of being forsaken 
by God for a week, during which she 
screamed and was heard all over the 
house ; then she had a period of comfort 
and sweetness and often lay in a blissful 
state from Matins to Prime and from 
Prime to Nones. In this state she had 
visions and revelations of holy mysteries, 
and at last the feeling of bliss, of being 
so near the Lord, so overruled her that 
the graces she had hidden for so many 
years were now proclaimed to all who 
came to her, not only the sisters, but 
guests and strangers. At this time, 
Gertrude, her sister, died ; therefore we 
gather that these manifestations began 
1291. Perhaps it implies that while the 
practical Gertrude lived, she kept her 
more excitable sister quiet, and that she 
gave way to her natural impulses when 
this restraint was withdrawn. 

Matilda suffered much pain for thirty 
years, and all that time went on reveal 
ing her visions until 1310, when it is 
probable she died. While she suffered 
so dreadfully from headache and com 
plained of sleeplessness, the sisters 
thought she made a mistake as she often 
lay quiet for hours with her eyes shut ; 
but she explained that her soul was then 
swimming in the Godhead, like a fish in 
the water, and that the only difference 
between the union of her soul with God 
and that of the souls of the saints, was 
that they were in joy and she in extreme 
anguish. She was very sympathetic, and 
had comforting visions concerning her 
friends who were in sorrow or difficulty. 

Her book, Speculum Spiritualis Gratise, 
shows a fluency in Latin rare among 
the women of that time. Preger, Deutsche 
Mystik der Mittel Alter. In most of the 
collections of lives of Saints she is hope 
lessly confused with SS. Matilda (9 and 
11) who were her sister-nuns, and with 



SS. MATILDA (5 and (>) who lived more 
than a century earlier. She is not in 
the Roman Martyrology, but in many 
German and other calendars. Compare 
with SS. GERTRUDE (12, 13). 

St. Matriana, July 24, a nun at 
Albi, mentioned in the history of ST. 

St. Matricia, PATRICIA (2), Mother 

St. Matrona (1), May 8 (MATRONICA, 
MATRONIDA), M. with Acacius. (See 
AGATHA (2). ) 

St. Matrona (2), March l,5th, 
March 17, M. Servant to a Jewess of 
Thessalonica, named Plautilla or Pan- 
tila. Matrona went daily by stealth to 
church, until at last she was found out 
by her mistress and beaten to death with 
cudgels. E.M. AA.SS. 

St. Matrona (3), May 20, V. M. 
with THECUSA. EM. 

St. Matrona (4) or PATRONA, March 
20, M. with ALEXANDRA (3). E.M. 

St. Matrona (5), Feb. 22, M., sup 
posed to be mother of PEREGRINA ; both 
martyred with ANTIGA. 

SS. Matrona (6-15). Besides all 
those of whom something is known, ten 
martyrs named MATRONA occur in the 
calendars, many of them in long lists of 
martyrs who suffered at one time and 

St. Matrona (10), March 15, V. M. 
Patron of Barcelona. An orphan girl 
of Barcelona, brought up by a rich uncle 
who took her to Italy and settled in the 
neighbourhood of Kome. A persecution 
soon arose, and she could not be restrained 
from visiting her fellow Christians and 
frequenting their assemblies. She was 
soon seized by the governor gf the place, 
starved for several days in prison and 
then subjected to cruel tortures under 
which she died. This legend is given by 
Henschenius and Papebroch from a col 
lection of the Saints of Catalonia, printed 
in the dialect of that province in 1549. 
In the 1 7th century her relics were kept 
in a Capuchin convent near Barcelona, but 
nothing was known there with any cer 
tainty about her date or history. AA.SS. 
MATRONA (17) of Capua and MATRONA (2) 
of Thessalonica are commemorated on the 
same day. 

St. Matrona (17), V. of Capua, 

March 15, supposed in the 5th century. 
Princess of Portugal. Patron against 
dysentery. This is perhaps the MATRONA 
or MADRONA who is patron of Badajos. 
Called daughter of a king of Portugal, 
but it was not a kingdom in those days. 
For twelve years she was afflicted with 
dysentery. Her father tried every pos 
sible treatment for her, but in vain. 
At last it was said to her in a vision, 
"Matrona, go to Italy and stop in the 
Via Aquaria near Capua, and there you 
will meet two young unbroken horses ; 
doubt not the will of God, but take a 
rope with which to catch the colts, who 
every day separate themselves from the 
flock and go without fail to a certain 
spot. Dig carefully in the spot and you 
will find the body of St. Priscus, bishop 
and martyr, a disciple of Christ in an 
cient times. When you have taken out 
the relics and touched them, you shall 
be cured of your infirmity." Matrona 
related her dream to her parents who, 
delighted, chose twelve maidens and 
some very trustworthy men to accom 
pany her. They arrived at Capua, found 
the colts and the relics, and Matrona was 
cured. She then went to Borne to obtain 
leave from the Pope to build a church 
in honour of St. Priscus. She lived at 
Capua with her companions until she 
died. She was buried in a magnificent 
tomb of polished marble, out of which, 
through a little hole in the shrine, manna 
flowed from the body of St. Matrona. 

This story was not written by any 
contemporary writer, nor is the place or 
date of her birth known. The legend 
was represented in a series of pictures 
on the walls of the church she built and 
was well known around Capua, but being 
very much resorted to, the church was 
enlarged and the pictures destroyed. 

St. Matrona (18), of Perga in Pam- 
phylia, is also called OSSIA, Nov. 8, 5th 
century. She was born at Perga, married 
a nobleman named Domitian-, and had a 
daughter Theodota, whom she dedicated 
to God from her birth, and who was still 
a little child when they removed to Con 
stantinople. Here Matrona associated 
herself with ST. EUGENIA and spent her 



days in the churches. Her husband did 
not like her giving the whole of her time 
to devotion, and forbade her to go out 
of the house. After a time, however, 
she persuaded him, on one pretext or 
other, to let her go out. She flew to 
the church of the Holy Apostles, and 
having shaved her head and assumed 
male attire, she presented herself to St. 
Bassianus and was received into his 
monastery under the name of Babylas. 
She remained there some time, until the 
abbot discovered her sex. As he could 
not keep her in the house any longer, 
he sent her to Jerusalem. Thence she 
went to a nunnery at Emesa, where she 
became abbess, and afterwards returned 
to Jerusalem. Her husband meantime 
traced her from place to place and fol 
lowed her everywhere. She lay hidden 
for many days in a ruined heathen temple 
at Berytus. After her husband s death, 
she returned to Constantinople, accom 
panied by two deaconesses. Having now 
attained to great holiness and asceticism, 
she cured diseases of mind and body. 
The Empress Yerena showed her great 
esteem and kindness. She died at the 
age of a hundred. Menolocjy of Basil. 

St. Matronica or Matronida, 

St. Matthia ( 1 ), MATHIA, or MATHIASE, 
was the servant or slave of a baker, and 
used to give bread to the poor. One 
day her master suspecting what she was 
carrying, angrily seized her bundle and 
pulled it open. Behold, the loaves were 
changed into flowers ! She is thus repre 
sented. Cahier says she is the same as 
MASTIDIA, patron of Troyes in Cham 

B. Matthia (2) de Nazarei, June 30, 
March 1, Dec. 28, + 1300, was born at 
Matellica. She wished to become a nun 
in the Franciscan convent of St. Mary 
Magdalene, but the abbess, being a 
member of the same family, was afraid 
to give her the habit lest Matthia s 
parents should be offended. Matthia 
shaved her own head and put on rags. 
Her father was extremely angry, but at 
last consented to her becoming a nun. 
She was chosen abbess. Centuries after 
her death, a bloody sweat exuded from 
her body. A.R.M., Romano Seraphic 

Martyrology. The lessons for her day 
in the Officia Propria of the O.S.F. Her 
story is to be given by the Bollandists, 
Dec. 28. 

St. Matthia (3) of Meaco, O.S.F. 
Feb. 5, M. in Japan. A.EM. 

St. Mattidia, the legendary mother 
of St. Clement. His real parentage is 
unknown. She is called a relation of 
the Emperor Trajan, and wife of Faustus, 
a near relation and foster-brother of the 
Emperor. Mattidia and Faustus had 
twin sons, Faustinus and Faustinianus ; 
and another son, many years younger, 
who was St. Clement. Mattidia was 
pursued by the unholy attentions of her 
husband s brother ; to escape, she feigned 
to be acting in obedience to a dream, and 
taking the twins, set out for Athens. 
They were wrecked on the coast of 
Palestine. It was supposed that the 
children were drowned ; but, in fact, 
they were captured and sold to Justa, 
the Syrophoenician woman, who brought 
them up as her own, calling them Aquila 
and Nicetes. They became disciples of 
St. Peter. After, some years Faustus 
went to the East to look for them, and 
Clement being left alone, set off on his 
travels and met St. Peter. The whole 
family met at Laodicea. Faustus was 
the last to become a Christian. The 
legend is very old, but has no claim to 
authenticity. Bishop Lightfoot, Clement. 

St. Matura, June 3, Eoman martyr. 

St. Matutina, March 27, M. in 
Africa. AA.S8. 

St. Mauberta, MADELBERT. 

St. Maud, MATILDA. 

St. Maugina, a nun at Clogher in 
Ireland, -f- 593. Perhaps MANCINA ; per 
haps MUGIANA. Forbes. Lanigan. 

St. Maura (1), Feb. 13, patron of 
Torcello and of good children. Nurse 
of ST. FOSCA and martyred with her, 
about 202, at Eavenna. 

St. Maura (2), May 3, Dec. 19, M. 
3rd or 4th century. Wife of Timothy, 
a reader of the little town of Perapis in 
Thebais and son of Poecile, who seems 
to have been the chief Christian priest 
of the place. Maura was the daughter 
of a smith or carpenter. She was fifteen 
years old and had been married less than 


three weeks when the persecution ordered 
by the Emperors Diocletian and Maxi- 
mian reached Perapis. Timothy was 
accused of being a Christian and was 
commanded by Arian -- the governor 
of Thebais, afterwards a convert and 
martyr to sacrifice to the gods ; he 
answered that the Spirit of Jesus Christ 
dwelling in him, forbade him to do so. 
Arian ordered him to deliver up the 
sacred books of the Christian Church, 
as the Emperor s edict commanded them 
all to be burnt. Timothy replied that 
he would sooner give up his children if 
he had any. The judge, irritated by 
the boldness of the answer, ordered his 
eyes to be burnt out with hot irons, in 
order that he might have no hope of 
being able ever again to read his books. 
As he persisted in his refusal, he was 
hung up by the feet. Some one told the 
judge that Timothy was newly married, 
so he sent for Maura to persuade him to 
yield to the law. She was much attached 
to her husband and as yet weak in her 
devotion to Christianity ; so at first she 
tried to persuade him to save his life, 
adding to the bitterness of his trial by 
her lamentations and by her lukewarm- 
ness in religion, but he reproached her 
for her love of the perishable world and 
exhorted her to seek for a place in the 
kingdom of Christ, and for the crown 
of martyrdom. He succeeded so well 
that she followed the Governor, who 
had by that time gone home, and told 
him she and her husband were willing 
to die for their faith ; at the same time 
she brought him back the money that 
had been given to her as an inducement 
to shake her husband s resolution. Arian 
at first misunderstood her motives and 
bade her not regret the loss of this hus 
band as he would provide her with a 
better one ; but she said that Christ was 
more to her than all earthly considera 
tions and that she was ready to suffer 
everything for Him. After some vain 
endeavours to pervert her from her reso 
lution, Arian condemned them both to 
be crucified within sight of each other, 
and so fastened on their crosses that 
they should remain as long as possible 
alive ; they lived several days some 
say nine, encouraging each other and 


praying ; and on the tenth an augel camo 
for their souls. There are two versions 
of their Arts, both given by Papebroch in 
the AA.SS. In the shorter account they 
are said to have been nailed to the wall, 
instead of on crosses. RM. Bullet 
Kingsley s poem Santa Maura is based 
on the story of these two martyrs. 

St. Maura (3), worshipped in Con 
stantinople. Marrast, Vie Byzantine, 
regards her as a heathen goddess in the 
guise of a Christian saint. 

St. Maura (4). (See DOMXINA (6).) 

St. Maura (">), Jan. 15, with IJKI< ;I I> 
(14), July i;j. 

In ^ the sixth century there was near 
the city of Tours a mound in the centre 
of a thicket of thorns and weeds. Lights 
were sometimes seen near the place at 
night, and popular tradition said that 
two holy virgins were buried at the spot. 
They appeared in a dream to a man of 
that district and told him they could no 
longer endure to have the rain beating 
into their grave and the wind howling 
round their bones, and they must have a 
proper tomb and a church, or at least a 
chapel. He awoke and went about his 
daily avocations and forgot his dream. 
The holy virgins came again, and said 
that unless he attended to their wants, 
he should die within the year. He went 
immediately to the place with an axe 
and a spade, found the sacred bodies and 
with all haste built a chapel. As soon 
as it was ready, he went to Eutropius, 
the bishop, and begged him to come and 
bless the new building. Eutropius was 
old and feeble and the weather was ex 
tremely wet and cold, so that he said he 
was unable to come out. Xext night the 
two saints appeared to him and re 
proached him for his neglect. He then 
sent for several of his clergy, and con 
fessed his fault to them, and they went 
and held a service in honour of the holy 
maidens, who immediately brought lino 
weather, so that the aged prelate was 
able to go and bless the church. Martin, 
French Mart. 

St. Maura (10), Sept. 21, V. + c. 850. 
Daughter of Marianus and Sedulia. 
Born at Troyes in Champagne, about 
827. She was brought up in luxury, 
but preferred solitude and austerity to 



all the comforts of this world. Her 
example and influence converted her 
father from a worldy and careless life ; 
after his death she remained with her 
mother, spending her time in prayer and 
deeds of charity, and in work of divers 
kinds for the churches. She made an 
alb for St. Prudentius, after having 
bleached and spun the flax with her own 
hands. She had a brother Eutropius, 
whom she led to a holy life. Maura 
used to spend whole days in church and 
walk barefooted to other churches some 
miles from Troyes. She was remark 
able for her gift of tears ; she had only 
to throw herself on her knees and they 
streamed from her eyes in torrents. She 
died at the age of twenty-three, saying 
that SS. Peter, Paul, Gervasius, and 
Protasius were standing at the four 
corners of her bed, keeping off the 
demons who desired to have her soul. 
AA.SS., from a sermon by Prudentius, 
bishop of Tours, who had heard from 
eye-witnesses all that he had not himself 
seen. Butler. Baillet. Mesenguy. 

St. Maura (7) or MAUKE, Nov. 2, 
V. + 899. " In Scotland quhomfra 
kilmaures in cuninghame is callit, vnder 
k donald." She used to visit ST. VEY in 
the island of Cumbne and receive in 
struction from her, which she afterwards 
imparted to the nuns under her care. 
She died at Kilmavoris or Kilmaur. 
After her death her sanctity was attested 
by miracles. Canisius. Adam King, Ane 
catechism. Forbes, Scottish Kalendars. 

SS. Maurella and Nirilla, May 21, 
MM. with others, in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Maxellenda, Nov. 13, V. M. 670. 
In the time and diocese of St. Vindi- 
cianus, bishop of Cambray, lived a 
beautiful girl and nobly born, who had 
a vow of virginity. A young nobleman, 
named Hard win, tried in vain to persuade 
her to marry him. He got together a 
band of his companions, and choosing 
a time when her parents were gone to a 
feast, carried her off. Enraged at her 
determined resistance, he murdered her 
at the spot where now stands the Basilica 
of All Saints. As soon as he saw her 
blood he was struck blind. She was 
buried in the church of SS. Peter, Paul 
and Sulpicius, in a neighbouring village 

of Pomeriolas. Three years afterwards 
a noble matron, Amaltrude, by Divine 
direction went to St. Vindicianus and 
had the holy virgin translated to the 
spot of her martyrdom, which was al 
ready distinguished by miracles. Hard- 
win, who had repented during his 
blindness, went to meet the procession, 
and throwing himself before the bier, 
confessed and lamented his crime, where 
upon the departed saint forgave him 
and restored his sight. Le Mire, Fasti. 
Chroniques Beiges. 

St. Maxentia (1) or MASENZA, April 
30, 4- c. 400. Patron of Trent. A noble 
Roman lady who went from Rome with 
her three sons, SS. Vigilius, Claudian, 
and Majorian, when they went to preach 
Christianity at Trent, in the Alps. 
Vigilius became bishop of that place, and 
Maxentia was buried there. AA.SS. 

St. Maxentia (2), Oct. 24, Nov. 2, 
20, April 16 (MASENZA, MAIXENCE, 
legend is that she went from Scotland or 
Ireland to France and, after crossing the 
river Oise dry-shod, settled at a place on 
its bank, now called Pont Ste. Maixence, 
where she led an ascetic life and was 
favoured with visions. Here she even 
tually suffered martyrdom at the hands of 
a Spanish Moor or of a prince who had fol 
lowed her from her own country to compel 
her to be his wife. She is said to have been 
the daughter of a King of the Scots who 
is variously called Malcolm, Solnathius 
and Mordacus. She had a maid ST. 
ROSEBIE, and a man-servant St. Barban 
or Brabantius, who shared her flight. 
Her date varies from the time of St. 
Patrick to that of Charles Martel. She 
was honoured in the diocese of Beauvais 
in very early times, and the ford of St. 
Maxentia is said by Baillet to be men 
tioned by Fredegarius in describing the 
wars of Ebroin, 637. Bishop Forbes 
says the name of the place called Pont 
Ste. Maixence is derived from that of 
the Irish bishop Maximus or Mo-Easconn. 
MAXELLENDA is perhaps the same as 
Maxentia. Brit. Sancta. Adam King. 
Camerarius. Butler. Baillet. 

St. Maxima (1), Sep. 2, M. in the 
time of Diocletian. Godmother of St. 
Ansanus, Dec. 1, who was instructed and 



baptized without his parents knowledge, 
by Protasius, a Christian priest at Rome. 
The father of St. Ansanus denounced 
his son and Maxima as Christians, and 
she was scourged to death. RM. 

St. Maxima (2), Oct. l, V. M. c. 
. in.!, at Lisbon, with her brother and 
sister, SS. Verissimus and JULIA (23). 
R.M. AA.SS. 

SS. Maxima (3) and MACARIA (1), 
April 8, MM. in Africa with St. Janu- 
arius. R.M. 

St. Maxima (4), March 2(5, M. in 
the time of the Emperor Maximian. 
Wife of St. Montanus, a priest ; taken 
with him and forty other Christians at 
Sirmium, the capital of Pannonia, and 
thrown into the Save ; their bodies were 
found about nine miles from the city. 
These martyrs are erroneously claimed 
for Spain. R.M. 

St. Maxima(5J or MEME of Chartres, 
Aug. 25, V. M. Patron of Ste. Maxime, 
near Dourdan. Daughter of Dordauus, a 
heathen king of Chartres. When she 
was fourteen her father seized a certain 
Christian, kept him prisoner in his house 
and ill-treated him on account of his 
religion. Maxima secretly received in 
struction from the prisoner and adopted 
his faith ; her father tried by threats and 
promises to make her change her mind, 
promising among other inducements to 
marry her to the king of Castile. All 
arguments being in vain, her twin brother 
Maxirninius drew his sword ; Maxima 
gathered up her hair and presented her 
neck and her brother cut off her head : 
he afterwards became a Christian, did 
penance, led a holy life and became 
bishop of Orleans. Pinius, the Bollan- 
dist, judges the whole story to be fictitious. 

St. Maxima (6;. (See CAMILLA 

St. Maxima (7), Oct. Hi, V. 5th 
century. After the death of the aged 
St. Deogratias, bishop of Carthage, 457, 
Genseric, king of the Vandals, an Arian, 
continued to persecute the Catholics and 
to make many martyrs. A Vandal 
officer of his army, who commanded a 
regiment of 1000 men, had for slaves 
four brothers, two of whom were SS. 


Martiniau and Saturuian ; he had also u 
female slave named Maxima, a beautiful 
girl and a clover and faithful servant, 
who had the charge of his house. He 
had a great regard for Martinian, who 
was his armour-bearer, and he thought 
if he married him to Maxima, both would 
have additional reason to devote them 
selves to his service. Martinian was 
young, and as he had always intended to 
marry some day, he was well pleased 
with the arrangement ; but Maxima had 
made a vow of celibacy, so when they 
were married she said to him, " Brother 
Martinian, I have already dedicated 
myself to Jesus Christ, therefore having 
a God for a husband I can never bo the 
wife of a mortal man, but if you will 
follow my advice, you will consecrate 
yourself to the same Master, and you will 
think yourself happy in spending your 
life in His service." Martinian became 
a Catholic, converted his three brothers, 
and they all determined to save them 
selves by flight. The four men went to 
the monastery of Tabraca on the borders 
of Numidia, and Maxima took refuge in 
a convent which was near. In time they 
were discovered and brought back to 
their master, who treated them with great 
cruelty and tried to compel them to 
receive Arian baptism. When they were 
put to various tortures their wounds 
were miraculously healed, and some of 
the instruments designed t> inflict new 
sufferings on them fell to pieces. 
The Vandal, blind to this interposition 
of Providence, was smitten by Divine 
vengeance, and died suddenly, as did all 
his children, horses and cattle. His 
widow made haste to rid herself of the 
slaves who had brought so much trouble 
upon her, by presenting them to Sersaon, 
a relative of Geuseric, but they seemed 
to bring ill luck to his family also ; all 
his children and servants were afflicted 
in one way or another, and he thought 
the new slaves must have brought evil 
demons into his house; he applied to 
Genseric, who, to save himself all further 
trouble with these slaves, presented the 
four brothers to Capsur, a king of the 
Moors, a people more barbarous even 
than the Vandals ; as for Maxima, he set 
her at liberty, and she betook herself to 



a nunnery, of which she eventually 
became abbess. In their new abode 
Martinian and his brothers preached 
Christianity to hundreds who until then 
had never heard of it : they made many 
converts. Capsur sent an account of 
their proceedings to Genseric, who 
ordered them to be seized and each tied 
by the feet to the tail of a wild horse 
which was then made to gallop through 
thorns and thickets and over rough 
ground until they were killed. Maxima 
has a special worship at the church of 
the Petits Augustins at Paris. These five 
martyrs are commemorated with St. 

Eibadeneira gives this story with an 
account of the unbounded charity and 
self-immolation of the aged Bishop 
Deogratias and his exertions for the 
relief of the sufferers after the capture of 
Rome by Genseric. H.M. Baillet, from 
Victor de Vite s history of the persecu 
tion of the Church of Africa by the 

St. Maxima (8), May 16, V., sup 
posed to have been the superior of the 
nuns among whom she lived, in a country 
house at Galliano or Calidiano, in the 
diocese of Friuli. She died in peace, 
distinguished by many virtues. R.M. 

SS. Maxima. Besides the above, 
about twenty martyrs of the same name 
appear in the calendars, at various places 
and on different days. AA.SS. 

St. Maximilla, Feb. 19, one of twelve 
martyrs in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Maximiliana, mentioned by Pope 
Alexander III., in 1173. Guerin. 

St. Mayot, MAZOTA. Forbes. 

St. Mayra, July 28, V. M., occurs 
in a book of Spanish antiquities; but 
as no account of her exists and she is 
not mentioned by the Spanish hagiolo- 
gists, she is supposed to be the same 
as MERA. AA.SS., Preeter. 

St. Mazachia, V. M. with BA- 


St. Mazota, MAYOT, or MAKIE, Dec. 
23. Perhaps 8th century. MOCHOAT 
is probably the same. The most dis 
tinguished of the nine holy maidens 
who came from Ireland to Scotland with 
BRIGID (3) when, by the invitation of 

Graverdus, king of the Picts, Brigid 
settled at Abernethy on the Tay. 
Mazota and her companions remained 
at this place for the rest of their lives 
and were buried there. Mazota ex 
celled them all in sanctity, and many 
miracles were performed at her grave. 
Bishop Forbes, from the Aberdeen 

Dempster, who gives Boethius as his 
authority, says the nine maidens were 
the daughters of St. Donald, the first 
Scottish anchorite, who brought up all 
his children to the same ascetic life. 
Several holy men joined Donald and 
they lived at Ogilvy. After his death 
Mazota and her sisters obtained from 
King Granard an estate near Abernethy. 
Mazota was buried at the foot of a great 
oak, c. 717, and the place was much 
frequented by pilgrims. 

St. Mechtild, MATILDA. 

St. Mechtund or MONEGUND. (See 


St. Medana (1), Nov. 19, an Irish 
V. who fled from a soldier lover to 
Eyndis in Galloway, Scotland, accom 
panied by two maids. They lived in 
poverty by their labour. The soldier 
followed them. They floated thirty 
miles on a stone to a place called 
Fames. The soldier still pursuing 
Medana, passed her house without see 
ing it, but his attention was called to 
it by the crowing of a cock. Medana 
climbed a tree to get away from him. 
Finding that her eyes were what en 
chained the heart of the soldier, she 
plucked them out; he repented. As 
she came down from the tree, a fountain 
sprang from the earth and in it she 
washed her eyes. She died Oct. 31, 
but her day is the " 2nd of the Octave " 
of St. Martin. She is perhaps the 
same as MIDHNAT. Mr. Skene says she 
is possibly MODWENNA, who was called 
EDANA. Forbes. 

St. Medana (2), March 7, V. of 
Tuain, mentioned in the Irish Mar- 
tyrologies, is perhaps the same as 
MEDANA (1) or perhaps to be identified 
with one of the SS. Medan, Middan, or 
Modan, who preached among the Picts 
and Scots about 800, and who seem to 
be men. Forbes, " Modan." 


St. Medrissina, MEDRYSYME. 

St. Medrysyme, Nov. 22 (MADE- 
oured at Soissens. The Marty rology of 
Salisbury has on this day, "The feest 
of saynt MEDRYSYME, V. moche gloryous 
in myracles." 

St. Medula, Jan. 25, M., burnt with 
a companion. Guerin. 

St. Mefrida, MINVKR. 

St. Megetia, MERETIA, MIGENA or 
MIGETIUS, June 15, M. at Constantinople. 

St. M^gine, April 29, M. at Perugia. 

St. Meille, who gives name to a 
church in the diocese of Ausche, is 
perhaps EMILIA or EMILIANA. Chastelain, 
Voc. Hag. 

St. Melana, MELANIA. 

St. Melangel! or MONACELLA, May 
27, patron of hares. Founder and 
patron of the church of Pennant Melan- 
gell, near Llangnnog in Montgomery 
shire. The chancel and nave of this 
church were divided by a carved screen, 
on which was represented the legend of 
the tutelar saint. 

She was the daughter of an Irish 
monarch ; she had a vow of celibacy 
and fled to Wales to avoid being married 
to a nobleman of her own country. She 
lived unseen for fifteen years until 604, 
when Brochwel Yseythrog, prince of 
Powys, hunting in the neighbourhood, 
ran a hare into a thicket and found it 
nestling in her dress ; she, deep in 
prayer and meditation, had not heard 
the dogs or the horn. The prince in 
vited her to leave her solitude, but as 
that was not her wish, he gave her the 
adjacent lands on which to build a 
church. All the hares went to her for 
safety and followed her about. Hares 
were thence called Wyn MelangeU, Mona- 
cella s lambs. For centuries no one 
would kill a hare in the parish, and if 
any one shouted after a hunted hare, 
"God and Monacella be with thee," it 
was sure to escape. Blackwood s Maga 
zine, November 1875, "Legends and 
Folk-lore of North Wales." Eees, 
Welsh Saints, p. 209, says she was a 
Welsh woman, her mother Irish, and 
that her cell is to be seen in a rock 

near the church. Her relics were still 
shown in 1811. 

St. Melania (1), MELANA or ME- 
LANIUM, Oct. 22, Dec. 30, and perhaps 
June 8, -f c. 410, commonly called the 
Elder. A Roman lady of Spanish de 
scent, very rich and highly connected, 
the daughter or grand-daughter of Mar- 
cellinus, who had been consul. She 
was left a widow at twenty-two; two 
of her three children died in the same 
year as her husband. According to the 
custom of the time, she made a great 
funeral for them and, carrying her only 
remaining child in her arms, she followed 
to the family mausoleum, the bier on 
which lay the two little corpses. She 
did not, however, devote herself to her 
son. The motherly instinct was not so 
strong in her as the inclination to as 
ceticism and the attraction of the East 
with its holy places of pilgrimage. She 
left the infant Publicola to the caro of 
the Urban Prastor, an officer who had 
the charge of orphans; and thanking 
God that she was free, she set off to 
see the places and persons who BO 
strongly engaged her sympathies. Her 
action was much discussed in Rome. 
Many of the Christians disapproved, 
and many who were hesitating between 
Christianity and Paganism, liaviug been 
half-won over by the admirable lives 
of the Christian women, decided against 
a religion which seemed less favourable 
to domesticity than the ancient Roman 
customs. She travelled with a con 
siderable retinue. In her suite was a 
certain Rufinus, who seems to have had 
some influence over her, and who spent 
many years in her service. At Alex 
andria she made the acquaintance of 
St. Athanasius, who presented her with 
the sheep-skin that had been worn by 
the holy Marcarius. The desert of 
Nitria was the resort of innumerable 
hermits and communities of monks ; 
holes in the banks were used for cells, 
and hymns could be heard when no 
human form was to be seen. Melania 
obtained access to many of these saintly 
persons, begging their prayers and bless 
ing and making offerings such as they 
would accept. Among others she visited 
the Abbot Pambo, and found him plaiting 



palm-leaves; she presented him with 
some silver plate of the value of 300 
Roman pounds. The saint, without look 
ing up from his work, said to her, " May 
God reward you ! " Then he told his 
steward to take what this lady had given 
and distribute it to all the brothers in 
Libya, and in the islands where the 
monasteries were poor, but not to give 
any in Egypt where the country was 
rich. Melania watched him working, 
and stood waiting for him to give her 
his blessing or to say something com 
plimentary about her gift. At last, as 
he took no notice of her, she said, 
" Father, I wish you to know that there 
are 300 pounds of silver there." Pambo, 
without so much as looking at the 
cases which contained the silver, replied, 
" Daughter, He for whom you brought 
it has no need to be told the quantity. 
He can weigh the mountains and forests 
in His balance. If you made this present 
to me it might be well to tell me the 
weight and the value, but if you offer 
it to God, Who did not disdain a gift of 
two mites, be silent." 

She saw the aged St. Or, the father 
of a thousand monks, and after spending 
six months in these interesting and con 
genial visits she returned to Alexandria 
to see Didymus, the blind philosopher 
who influenced Rufinus and, through him, 
eventually tainted her with the doctrines 
of Origen. 

From Egypt Melania went to Palestine, 
and there she had an opportunity of 
exercising great charity and liberality 
towards the Catholics, who were suffering 
cruelly at this time at the hands of the 
Arians, under the Emperor Valens. At 
one time she was obliged to disguise 
herself as a slave, in order to obtain 
admission to the prisons of some of the 
confessors. She was arrested, but on 
making known her name and rank she 
was immediately liberated, treated with 
all possible deference, and permitted to 
visit whomsoever she chose. She built 
a monastery at Jerusalem, and presided 
there for twenty-seven years, much as 
sisted by Rnfinus in all her arrangements. 

Meanwhile, her son Publicola had 
grown up and married ALBINA (6), an 
exemplary young Christian lady of one 

of the noblest Roman families, and sister 
of Volusianus, prefect of Rome. They 
had a son Publicola, and a daughter 
MELANIA the Younger. 

Melania the Elder had been more than 
thirty-five years absent from Rome when, 
about 404, she thought herself called 
upon to return, in order to strengthen 
the holy purposes entertained by her 
grand-daughter. A number of illustrious 
persons came to Naples to meet her and 
escort her home. The Appian way was 
filled with the gilded carts (carrucse) of 
great ladies, and with the magnificent 
carriages and gold-embossed trappings 
of the horses and mules of nobles, her 
relations and friends. The carrucde used 
by so many of the rich Romans were 
sometimes of solid silver or covered 
with silver or gold. Melania, the object 
of this gorgeous reception, in her rough 
coarse gown on a poor horse, headed the 

Her first visit was to her nephew or 
cousin, St. Paulinus and his wife TAKASIA, 
at Nola on the way to Rome. She was 
the bearer of a priceless gift from the 
Patriarch of Jerusalem to Paulinus a 
piece of the Cross of Christ. After 
spending a short time with her family 
she again went to Africa, and while 
there she heard of the death of Publi 
cola. She returned to Rome and found 
her grandson-in-law and granddaughter 
so congenial to her tastes that she lived 
some years with them in Rome, but find 
ing the noise and the number of visitors 
distracting, not long before the Gothic 
invasion of Rome, she returned to Jeru 
salem and died thei^, aged about sixty. 

St. Jerome in several letters calls her 
the holy and devout Melania, but after 
his quarrel with Rufinus, as she sided 
with her own friend, he speaks of her 
as "she whose name of blackness attests 
the darkness of her perfidy." 

It is often asserted that the elder 
Melania has never been placed by the 
Church among the Saints, partly on 
account of her sympathy with Origen, 
who although reckoned among the 
Fathers of the Church, is never styled 
Saint. Melania is called Venerable by 
Guerin. She is highly commended by 
St. Augustine and St. Paulinus, and her 


life is in every collection. She is per 
haps the St. Melania commemorated 
June 8 in a MS. calendar mentioned by 
Chiffletius and quoted by Fapebroch and 
Assemani. She appears with her grand 
daughter in the Martyrology of Salixbury, 
Oct. 22, and in the Grseco Slavonian 
Calendar, Dec. 30. 

Same authorities as MELANIA (2). 

St. Melania (2) the Younger, Dec. 
31, Oct. 22, c. 383-430. Granddaughter 
of MELANIA THE ELDER, being the only 
daughter of her sonPublicola,who married 
ALBJNA (6), sister of Volusianus, prefect of 
Rome. The young Melania was brought 
up to regard her grandmother as a very 
holy and venerable person ; she was 
married at thirteen to Pinian or Apini- 
anus, who was about seventeen. Their 
wealth was prodigious ; they had wn- 
mense estates in Italy, Spain, Gaul, 
Britain, Sicily and Africa. They had a 
son and a daughter, both of whom died 
in infancy. Soon after the loss of her 
two children, Melania, who was hardly 
more than a child herself, fell danger 
ously ill. Pinian made earnest prayers 
and vows for her recovery, which being 
granted, the young couple dovoted them 
selves entirely to the service of God, 
the Church and the poor. It was at 
this point in their lives that the elder 
Melania, hearing of the holy disposi 
tions of her granddaughter, determined 
to return to Rome to strengthen her in 
her pious resolve, lest other influences 
should hold her back amid the interests 
of the great gay world which for the 
moment she was disposed to leave. She 
wished the pair to separate. This they 
refused to do. They made vows of 
celibacy, but continued to live together, 
helping and encouraging each other in 
asceticism. As long as Publicola lived 
he would not allow them to leave Rome 
entirely or betake themselves to the life 
of hermits ; but they denied themselves 
every luxury and enjoyment, fasting to 
excess, making their house a refuge for 
pilgrims and paupers, visiting the prisons 
and releasing those who were detained 
there for debt. They built monasteries ; 
they spent lavishly on churches and 
church ornaments and on all kinds of 
charity, sending help to sufferers in Asia 

and Africa as well as to those nearer 
home. Among the pilgrims who shared 
their hospitality were several priests and 
learned men from distant places ; one 
of these was Pulladius, bishop of Heleno- 
polis and author of the Lnusinca ; his 
taste for asceticism and admiration for 
its votaries drew them together, and 
doubtless had its influence on the young 
pair, and he remained their gnest for 
nearly a year. Pinian s brother and 
heir was seriously alarmed when he saw 
the prodigality with which the family 
possessions were being squandered. He 
seized upon some of the estates. The 
Empress Mary, wife of Honorius, having 
a great regard for Melania, offered to 
have him compelled to restore the pro 
perty ; but Melania, perhaps seeing some 
justice in his complaint, begged that he 
might be allowed to keep what he had 
taken. After the death of Publicola 
they sold a great deal of their property 
in Italy ; they tried to sell their palace, 
but no one was rich enough to buy it. 

About 4<>7, Melauia, Albina and Piuian 
being free to follow their inclination, and 
much impressed by a prophecy that Rome 
would be sacked about this time, went 
first to Nola to visit their kinsman St. 
Paulinus, whom they regarded as their 
spiritual father, then to Sicily to sell 
their estates there. Sicily was much im 
poverished by the mal-admiuistration of 
its prefects, and they found great need 
for their usual charity. Thence they 
sailed for Carthage. A frightful storm 
came on. Melania thought it was the 
will of God that they should go some 
where else, and so she ordered the 
sailors to let the ship go wherever the 
winds might drive it. They came to 
an island, probably Malta, where they 
found a number of slaves who had been 
taken by pirates ; these they set free, 
and after bestowing their charity on all 
in the island who stood in need of it, 
they resumed their voyage to Carthago 
with a favourable wind. Afterwards 
they visited Tagaste, where St. Alipius, 
friend of St. Augustine, was bishop ; they 
stayed there some time and built two 
monasteries, one for men and the other 
for women. St. Augustine, hearing that 
they wished to make his acquaintance, 



sent them a warm invitation. They 
went with Alipius to Hippo (now Bona), 
to visit him. Here the clergy and people 
rose in tumult and demanded that Pinian 
should become their priest; Augustine re 
fused to ordain him against his will, but 
Pinian was compelled to promise that he 
would remain at Hippo and would not 
be ordained in any other church. Soon 
afterwards they were robbed of the greater 
part of their African estates by Hera- 
clian, the rebel count of Africa, and being 
then very much poorer, their presence 
was no longer so eagerly desired by the 
inhabitants of Hippo, and they were suf 
fered to depart. 

Melania increased her austerities and 
spent much of her time in reading the 
Holy Scriptures, with which she became 
perfectly familiar. She particularly ex 
celled in transcribing, and made many 
copies of the sacred books. Her conver 
sation was so edifying that philosophers 
sought her acquaintance. Her example 
impressed a number of young people ; 
and she converted many heretics and 
idolaters. The subject of slavery at this 
time excited great compassion amongst 
Christians, and many of them liberated 
numbers of their own slaves and re 
deemed many captives. Melania is said 
to have given liberty to eight thousand. 
At last, not being content with her 
mortifications, she had a cell built for 
her so low that she could not stand up 
right in it, and so narrow that she could 
hardly turn round. She had a little hole 
in the wall through which she talked to 
those who came to receive her instruc 
tions. She lived for about a year in this 

In 417, after spending seven years in 
Africa, Albina, Pinian and Melania went 
to Jerusalem. Passing through Alex 
andria, they visited St. Cyril. On their 
arrival in Palestine, they gave away the 
last of their riches and lived henceforth 
on what Melania earned by transcribing 
books. Pinian and Melania then visited 
the hermits in Egypt ; but Albina, find 
ing herself unable to join the expedition, 
remained at Jerusalem. She built a her 
mitage for her daughter on the Mount of 
Olives ; Melania, on her return shut her 
self up there, only receiving visits once 

a week from her mother, husband, and 
a cousin, probably AVITA (2), whom she 
had induced to follow her example. Here 
she remained fourteen years, but on the 
death of her mother in 433, she retired 
to another cell more secluded dnd more 
uncomfortable. Here she passed a year. 
She could not prevent the fame of her 
sanctity from attracting a number of ad 
miring imitators, so that she was obliged 
to build a monastery, into which she 
received ninety virgins and a great 
number of women who wished to re 
nounce the vanities of the world. She 
prescribed rules of heavenly wisdom for 
the guidance of her community, but 
absolutely refused to take any authority 
of precedence over them. St. Pinian 
died about this time (435), and she wished 
to build another monastery for men in 
his honour that she might be useful not 
only to her own sex. She had no money 
but holy persons provided what was 

About 437 her uncle Volusianus was 
at Constantinople, whither he had been 
sent by Valentinian III. to negotiate his 
marriage to Eudocia, the only daughter 
of Theodosius II. Volusianus had dis 
cussed the doctrines of Christianity with 
St. Augustine, but had never definitely 
accepted them. His sister Albina (6) 
and her family had tried to influence 
him, and he had been almost per 
suaded to be a Christian. He was 
growing old and in failing health. He 
sent an urgent invitation to his niece 
Melania to come to him. She went and 
was received with great consideration 
and lodged in one of the palaces, as a 
relation of the imperial family and a 
person deserving of the highest respect 
for her virtues and piety. During her 
residence there she awoke in the Empress 
Eudoxia a desire for the life of devotion 
and proximity to the Holy Sepulchre 
which made the joy of Melaiiia s own 
life. She found Volusianus very ill 
and longing for her gentle presence and 
consolation. She had the happiness of 
leading him to complete conversion, 
and in this she was much assisted by the 
holy patriarch Proclus, of whom Volu 
sianus said that if there were three such 
men, paganism would cease to exist. 



Proclus baptized him, and he died a 

Melania then returned to Jerusalem. 
Before very long the Empress Eudoxia 
followed her ; she fell ill and was cured 
by Melania. In 439, Melania went from 
her convent in Jerusalem to spend 
Christmas Day at the Holy Crib at Beth 
lehem. There she took a chill, and on 
her return became very ill. Many monks 
and holy persons came to see her and 
hear her last words. She died on the 
last day of that year. 

R.M., Dec. 3 1 . Mart, of Salislury, 
Oct. 22. Greek Meneas. Baillet. PJba- 
deneira. Lecky, Morals of Europe. Gre- 
gorovius, Aihenais. 

St. Melari, NONNA, mother of St. 

St. Meld, MELLA. 

St. Melechilde, MENEHOULD. 

St. Melitina, Sept. 15, M. 2nd or 
3rd century. She was found preaching, 
and having confessed that she was a 
Christian, she was beaten, then led to 
the temple to sacrifice ; but the idol fell 
down and was broken, in answer to her 
prayers. In consequence of this, many 
of the spectators were converted, among 
them the wife of the Governor. Meli 
tina was again scourged, and after being 
imprisoned for some time and horribly 
tortured and insulted, she was led back 
to the temple. Again the idols fell down 
and were broken. She was then be 
headed at Marcianopolis in Thrace. A 
good man of Macedonia, named Acacius, 
begged to have her body to take to his 
own country ; he died at sea, and the 
sailors buried the two corpses at the 
island of Lemnos. EM. AA.SS. 
Menology of Basil. 

St. Meila, MELD, or MELLE, March 9, 
31, Gth or 8th century. Abbess of Doire 
Melle, i.e. the oak grove of Melle. She 
was of the family of Macgnai or Macnae, 
and was mother of two saints, Cannech 
or Kenneth a priest, one of the great 
Irish saints, and Tigernach an abbot. 
On the death of her husband, Tiger 
nach resigned to her his monastery on 
Lough Melve or Melge in Leitrim. She 
there collected a number of pious women 
whom she governed for many years, ac 
cording to Colgaii, in the 8th century. 

Another MELLA was mother of St. Abban 
and sister of St. Coemgin, early in the 
Gth century ; and there was a St. Mel, a 
man, a disciple of St. Patrick. Lanigau. 
Colgan. Forbes. Mart. <>f Tallaght. 
St. Melosa, Juno 1,M. with ACCEOA. 
St. Mema, MEMMA (1), Jan. 21 or 
24, M. AA.SS. 

^ B. Memalia, May 13, 22, sister of 
St. Servais, tenth bishop of Tongres. 
Chron. of Baldwin of Ninove. Chroii. 

St. Meme, May 7, V. M. Under this 
name MAXIMA (f>j is honoured at Dour- 
dan near Paris. Cahier. 

St. Memesse, V. mentioned by 
Jocelin. Guerin. Perhaps MAXIMA. 

St. Memma (1) or MEMA, Jan. 21 
or 24, M. AA.SS. 

St. Memma (2) or MEMMIA, Oct. 17, 
M. in Mauritania, probably 304. AA.SS. 
St. Memma (3), V. In 1243, on 
the 4th of the Kalends of June (May 
29), the church of St. Memma the Vir 
gin was dedicated, at Sconin, by the 
Bishop of St. Andrews. Bishop Forbes 
says she is perhaps HODWENNA. Cosmo 
Innes, Lectures on Scotch Legal Antiqui 
ties, "Register of the Priory of St. 

St. Memmea, MAMEA or MAMMEA, 
Oct. 9, M. Queen. Mother of the Em 
peror Alexander. AAJSS., Prseter. 

St. Memmia (1), Aug. 8, March 10, 

M. 3(J3, with JULIANA (G ), CYKIACIDE and 

DOXATA, disciples of St. Cyriacus, deacon. 

Memmia and Juliana were put to death 

at Rome by their affianced husbandly 

Tarpeius and Persius, because they would 

neither be married to them nor sacrifice 

to the gods. Their faithful servants 

Largus and Smaragdus shared their fate. 

Then Tarpeius and Persius were afraid 

that Cyriacus would have their crime 

punished as it deserved, so they lay in 

wait for him and beat him to dea h. 

These martyrs were among those buried 

bySx.LuciNA. AA.SS. Butler. Baillet. 

St. Memmia (2), NIMOMA. 

St. Memmia (3; or MEMMA, Oct. 17, 

M. in Mauritania, probably 304. AA.SS. 

St. Memmia (4). (See SOTERIS (2).) 


St. Menadina, May 20. Guerin. 

Perhaps same as MINDINIA. 



St. Menehould, MAGENHILD, MANE- 
MENOU, Oct. 14. 5tli or 6th century. 
Menehould is patron of Orgonne or 
Argonne, and of a little town called by 
her name. She was the youngest of the 
seven sainted daughters of Sigmar. Ca- 
hier. Baillet. Collin de Plancy. Com 
pare with SS. LUTRUDE, HOYLDA, etc. 
Menehould may signify MENXA and 

St. Menifride, MINVER. 
St. Menna or MANNA is mentioned 
in a Litany used in England in the 7th 
century. Mabillon, Vetera Anal < eta. 

SS. Menodora, Metrodora and 
Nymphodora, Sept. 10, VY. MM. 
They were very beautiful sisters who 
lived as recluses in a tumulus at Pythiis, 
where there are hot springs. Many 
persons resorted to the saints, to be 
cured of diseases and evil spirits and to 
be edified by their conversation. Fronto, 
the assessor of Maximian, sent for them, 
and after the usual threats and bribes, 
finding they were devoted to each other 
and willing to suffer martyrdom together, 
he had the two youngest led away and 
had Menodora beaten to death by four 
lictors, who from time to time advised 
her to givo way and accept the clemency 
of the assessor. .She neither winced nor 
uttered a cry, until finding her life de 
parting, she called out to her Saviour to 
receive her, and so died. After four 
days Metrodora and Nymphodora were 
brought again before Fronto. He or 
dered the naked and disfigured corpse of 
their sister to be laid at their feet. In 
stead of being frightened or grieved, 
they rejoiced as if they had come to their 
sister s bridal, knowing that she was a 
martyr and that they would soon share 
that honour with her. Nevertheless, 
Fronto still hoped to persuade them to 
abjure their religion, telling them that if 
they would sacrifice, he would instantly 
write to the Emperor, who would endow 
them with riches and find them husbands 
worthy of their beauty. As they re 
mained firm, Metrodora and Nympho 
dora were tortured for some hours and 
finally broken and crushed with iron 

A Greek hymn, addressed to these 
holy martyrs for the day of their fete, 
says, " Therefore, Martyrs, you were 
admitted with the five virgins into the 
nuptial chamber in heaven, and you 
remain constantly before the King of 
kings with the angels." 

H.M. Pitzipios, Eglise oriental e. Men. 
Basilii. AA.SS. Metaphrastes. 
St. Menoil, MENEHOULD. 
St. Mera, July 20, V. said to have 
suffered martyrdom at Auscios in Spain. 
A church at Lectora in Aquitaine is 
named after her. She is not mentioned 
in the older Martyrologies, but in the 
Breviary of the Auscitanian Church, 
printed 1533. AA.SS. Probably same 
as MAYRA. 

St. Meraele or EMRAILA, Jan. 9, M. 
in Ethiopia. Cahier. Guerin. 
St. Mercuria. (See AMMONAEIA.) 
Ste. Mere. In Guienne the name 
of a man St. Eniere is corrupted into 
Ste. Mere. Chastelain, Voc. Hag. Com 
pare with MERA. 

St. Merence, EMERENTIANA. Guerin. 
St. Meretia, MEGETIA. 
St. Merewenna, MERWIN. 
St. Merita (1) or EMERTTA. (See 

St. Merita (2), Aug. 20 (MARETA or 
MARTHA), eldest daughter of BRIGID (19) 
of Sweden and sister of CATHERINE (4) 
of Sweden. Married and had children 
and died in Norway. Vastovius. 

St. Mermina, Oct. 29, Abbess. 

St. Merofleta, Jan 16, Y. AA.SS., 
SS. Merona, Sodepha, Rodofia 


July 5, MM. at Tomis in Scythia. AA.SS. 
The EM. calls the Martyrs of Tomis 
in Scythia, Marinus, Theodotus, and 

St. Merpwyn, Feb. 10, Y. "in 
the territory of Eone." Mart, of Salis 
bury. Perhaps same as MERWIN (2). 

St. Merryn, MERWIN (1). 

St. Meruvina, MERWIN. 

St. Merwin (1) or MERRYN. Same 
as, or sister of MORWENNA. 

St. Merwin (2), April 27, May 13, 
WINNA, perhaps MERPWYN), Y. Abbess 

B. MIC 1 1 KM N A 


4- c. 070. Appointed, about 007, by 
King Edgar tbe Pacific, abbess of a 
convent at Romsey, founded by his 
grandfather Edward the Elder. ELFLKDA 
(3) was her pupil; they are com 
memorated together, Oct. 20. AA.SS. 
Wilson, Eng. Mart. May 1 3. Bucelinus, 
April 27. 

St. Messalina, Jan. 23, V. M. c. 
254, a native of Foligno, and pupil of 
St. Felician. When she was about 
eighteen, the Emperor Decius came to 
Foligno on his way to Rome, for his 
triumph after the victory over the Modes 
and Persians. Charmed with the beauty 
of the place and the richness of the 
surrounding country, he tarried there 
awhile. During that time he heard that 
Felician led away many, not only at 
Foligno but in all parts of Italy, to 
renounce the worship of evil spirits and 
idols and become followers of the One 
God. Deeitis cast Felician into prison, 
and ordered that no one should visit 
him or bring him food, on pain of 
torture and death. No one dared to 
succour him except Messalina, who 
showed her gratitude to her master by 
ministering to his wants, counting it 
gain if she should lose her life in his 
service. She prayed in the church of 
St. John the Baptist (which Felician 
had built) for courage and strength, that 
her tender years and her sex and her 
small strength might not prevent her 
carrying out her pious intention. She 
went daily to the prison, and managed 
to obtain access to the holy man. She 
envied him the chains he wore for 
Christ s sake, and fortified with his 
blessing, she dedicated herself to God, 
hoping to be found worthy to be 
numbered among the martyrs. Very 
soon she was caught by the gaolers 
in the act of carrying food to their 
prisoner. At first they offered to let 
her go in consideration of her youth, 
provided she would renounce her re 
ligion; but as she bravely refused to do so, 
they beat her to death. The Christians 
took her and buried her in the church 
of St. John the Baptist, afterwards called 
the Cathedral of St. Felician. AA.SS. 

St. Messence, MAXENTIA, Nov. 20. 

St. Metrodora, Aug. 8, Sept. in, 

V. M. at Nicomedia. B.Jf. AA.SS. 

St. Metrona, April 20, M. at Peru 
gia. AA.SS. 

St. Meuris, Dec. 10, M. 250. A 
holy woman of Gaza, tortured with ST. 
THKA, in the persecution under Decius. 
Meuris died in the hands of the tor 
mentors, but Thoa lived in prison tome 
time afterwards. Their relics were 
deposited in the church of St. Timothy 
at Constantinople. It has been sup 
posed that Meuris is MAURA (2), and 
that Thea is St. Thea, companion of St. 
Valentine, the relics of all of whom may 
have been transported to Gaza, and after 
wards to Constantinople. A St. Timothy 
was martyred at Gaza 3<>4, and a church 
in his name was there in the 4th century. 
E.M. Butler, "St. Nemesion," from a 
Life of St. Porphyry of Gaza, written 
in the 4th century. 

St. Mica, June 16, M. in Africa. 

St. Micca, Jan. 17, M. in Africa. 

B. Michele of Fiesole had the reve 
lation of the Corona del Signore, which 
the Church has so liberally indulgencecl. 
Faber, Essay on Lives of the Saints. 

B. Michelle, MICHKLINA. 

B. Michelina or Mi< H^LINA, in 
French MICHELLE. Jnne 10, widow, 
O.S.F., + 1350. Patron of Pesaro in 

Michelina was born in 1:510, of a 
wealthy family in Pesaro, where the 
women are famed for their beauty. She 
married in 1328 and had one son. 
became a widow at the age of twenty, 
having been married eight years. At 
that time (about 1330) a good and 
religious woman, a member of the Third 
Order of St. Francis, came as a pilgrim 
to Pesaro. She called herself Syriaiw, 
and was probably a native of Syria, or 
one who had long been in that country, 
and who, having renounced earthly re 
lationships, wished ttMConceal her name. 
She devoted herself to works of piety, 
begging her bread from door to door m 
the town. She would then pass the 
night in the house of some charitable 
person, arising at midnight for prayer 
and meditation, and while praying very 



earnestly, she was sometimes seen to be 
miraculously raised from the earth. One 
day, when Syriana was begging as usual, 
she accepted the hospitality of the young 
widow Michelina, and as she prayed, 
her hostess was deeply impressed by 
seeing her repeatedly suspended above 
the earth. 

On the feast of Pentecost, Michelina 
observed that her guest remained pray 
ing with her eyes fixed on heaven, and 
as she forgot to take her food, she said 
to her, " Why do you not eat to-day ? 
This is a feast day ; it is not right to 
fast." Syriana replied, " Oh ! Miche 
lina, if you could only taste for a little 
while the gifts of God, the things of the 
world would appear bitter to you. You 
would despise them and study more 
how to please God and to receive a 
crown in paradise when this life is 
over." Michelina answered that this 
talk was all nonsense, and showing the 
box in which her money and jewels 
were kept, added, "Paradise lies in 
these things. I never saw any one come 
back from the dead to persuade me of 
the truth of what you say." Syriana 
said so much to her of the vanity of 
earthly things, that at last Michelina 
said that but for the love of her child, 
she could renounce the world and her 
riches and give herself entirely to the 
service of God. Syriana proposed that 
they should pray to God that the boy 
should live if it were best, and that 
if not, he should die. They went to 
gether to St. Francis s church and 
prayed before the crucifix, until they 
heard a voice from the image of Christ, 
saying to Michelina, "I will %t thy 
son be with Me in paradise, and thus 
I set thee free from the love of him ; go 
in peace." Michelina went home, much 
frightened, and hastened to her child s 
room, where she had left him sleeping. 
Here she saw two shining angels, carry 
ing his innocent soul to heaven. She 
took his lifeless body in her arms and 
said to herself, " What dost thou hope 
for in this world, Michelina?" Then, 
by the advice of her friend Syriana, she 
took the habit of the Third Order of St. 
Francis and gave all her wealth to the 
poor. Her relations were very angry, 

but Christ told her that all she had 
done for the poor was done for Him. 
She begged from door to door, and was 
often sent away with rude and abusive 
words. She made a pilgrimage to Jeru 
salem, and during a storm on the way 
home she saved the ship by her prayers. 
She cured with a kiss a leper whom no 
one else dared to approach. 

In the early days of her conversion, 
she was seized with a great longing for 
some roast pork. As she was accus 
tomed to good living, she begged some 
of a rich neighbour, who willingly 
bought it for her as she could not get 
it for herself. While it was roasting, 
she smelt it and began to enjoy it in 
anticipation ; but all at once, remember 
ing the life of self-denial on which she 
had entered, she resolved not to turn 
back to sensual pleasures, so when it 
was ready and the maid called her to eat 
it, instead of going to the dining-room, 
she went to her own room and beat 
herself with an iron chain until the 
blood ran down, reviling herself for 
her sensuality and saying with each 
blow, " Dost thou still want roast pork, 
Michelina ? Oh ! sinner, dost thou 
want any more roast pork ? " The vice 
of gluttony then departed from her for 
ever. She died at the age of forty, and 
many cures were wrought at her tomb. 

Syriana is never heard of from the 
time she procured the conversion of 
Michelina, and is therefore believed 
by some to have been an angel in the 
guise of a pilgrim, and is, by Arturus, 
called Blessed, and commemorated Dec. 
;n. A.E.M. Papebroch in AA.SS. 

St. Mida, ITA (1). 

St. Midabaria, Feb. 15, 22 or 23, 
sister of St. Fintan, afterwards called 
Berach, abbot and bishop of Glendalough 
in the ancient Irish Church. Date 
uncertain, perhaps 6th century. AA.SS. 

St. Midhnat, Nov. 18, Y. of Cill 
Liuchaine, now Killucan in West Meath. 
Possibly the same as MEDANA (1). Forbes. 

St. Mietia, July 16, appears in the 
Mart. Augustanum. AA.SS. 

St. Migdonia or MYGDONIA, May 27. 
1 st century. One of the converts of St. 
Thomas in India. She was the wife of 


Karish, a kinsman of Mazdai the king. 
She was very beautiful, possessed of great 
wealth and of greater ability than her 
husband. Hearing of the miraculous 
actions and the wonderful teaching of 
the apostle, she went in her palauquin, 
amongst the multitude, " to see the new 
sight of the new God who was preached 
and the new apostle who was come to their 
country." She could not get near the 
preacher at first, on account of the dense 
crowd, but having sent to her husband 
for more servants, at last, by dint of 
trampling down and beating back the 
people, they carried her to St. Thomas. 
He protested against this ill-treatment 
of the people, and she alighted from her 
palanquin and threw herself at his feet, 
thinking that he was the Lord Jesus of 
Whom he had been speaking. She was 
inspired with the desire to lead a new 
and holy life, and she went daily to hear 
him and lost all taste for her former 
occupations. Karish was much distressed 
by the change, which undermined his 
influence over her, but he seems to have 
treated her with great forbearance and 
kindness, affectionately entreating her 
not to leave his society and go after this 
strange man whom he considered as a 
sorcerer. Mazdai and Karish had St. 
Thomas arrested and beaten, but he sang 
in the prison and Migdonia went with 
Narkia, her nurse, and bribed the gaolers 
to let her visit him there. Treptia, the 
wife of King Mazdai, remonstrated with 
Migdonia, characterizing her conduct as 
unworthy of her free birth ; but Migdonia 
reasoned with her so well that she went 
away half converted. Migdonia begged 
Narkia to bring with her one whole loaf 
of bread, a mingled draught of wine and 
water and a little oil, " even if it be but 
in a lamp." But as they were setting 
out, they met St. Thomas, who had been 
miraculously released from prison on 
her account. The apostle anointed her 
head with the oil. He baptized her " in 
the basin of the conduit," and after that 
he let her partake of the table of the 
Messiah and of the cup of the Son of 
God. Narkia also was baptized, and 
the apostle having given them his bless 
ing, returned to his prison, where he 
found the doors open and the watchmen 

asleep. In the morning Karish went 
to see what Migdonia was doing, and 
found her and Narkia praying and Ray 
ing, " New God, Who hast come hither 
by a strange man, Who art hidden from 
all the Indians . . . save us from the 
anger of Karish ; stop his lying month 
and cast him beneath the feet of Thy 
believers." Karish, although naturally 
annoyed on hearing this prayer, still 
tried the tenderest persuasions ; but 
when she had lectured him and had 
again utterly refused to return to con 
jugal life, he went to the king and 
together they visited St. Thomas and 
entreated him to remove his spells from 
Migdonia, threatening him with death 
in case he did not do so ; but Thomas 
only went to his other converts and bap 
tized and strengthened them. The king 
related the whole affair to his wife, and 
she went to her friend Migdonia and 
found her sitting on the ground in sack 
cloth and ashes, praying for forgiveness 
of all her sins and a speedy release from 
this world. Treptia reproached her and 
affectionately begged her to consider her 
family and have pity on her husband. 
Migdonia, however, explained the matter 
so well to her friend that the queen 
became a convert. Vizan, the king s 
son, was converted also, and his wife 
Manashar, who had been a helpless 
invalid for six or seven years, was cured 
and joined the Christians. When I 
Thomas had anointed and baptized and 
communicated them, he gave them all his 
final exhortation and blessing. Return 
ing to the prison, he found the ioldieri 
waiting to put him to death, and told 
them to fulfil the commands of their 
master. Then they all struck him at 
once and he fell down and died. Mazdai 
and Karish brought home their wives, 
Treptia and Migdonia, and afflicted them 
much ; but, encouraged by the apparition 
of Thomas in a dream, they persevered 
in their new course, and their husbands 
seeing that they would not be persuaded, 
left them to walk in their own way. 
Long after these events, Mazdai also 
believed in Christ and St. Thomas. 

Apocryphal Acts of Judas Thomas (or 
the Twin), translated from Syriac MS. 
bv Dr. W. Wright. St. Thomas is calle 



Judas and Thomas indifferently through 
out the Acts. 

The Bollandists found the translation 
of Migdonia entered on May 27 in an 
old martyrology, with notes by a Car 
thusian monk at Brussels, but not know 
ing who she was, they placed her among 
the prsetermissi. 

St. Migena, MEGETIA. 
St. Migetius, MEGETIA. 
St. Migina, MAGGINA. 
St. Milada, MLADA. 
St. Milburga, or MILDBURGA or 
WINBUHG, Feb. 23, + 722. Abbess of 
Wenlock. Daughter of ERMENBURGA or 
DOMNEVA, abbess of Minster. Sister of 

Milburga was consecrated abbess of 
the monastery of Wenlock, on the bor 
ders of Wales, by Archbishop Theodore, 
its founder. A neighbouring prince at 
tempted to compel her to become his 
wife, and with that intent pursued her 
with an armed force. She fled across a 
river, which at once rose into an impass 
able flood and discouraged her pursuers. 
A poor widow came to her in her 
oratory, bringing the body of her little 
dead son. Throwing herself at the feet 
of the abbess, she besought her to raise 
the child to life. Milburga said, " You 
must be mad ! how can I raise your 
child ? Go and bury him, and submit 
to the bereavement sent you by God." 
" No," said the sorrowing mother, " I 
will not leave you till you give me back 
my son." The abbess prayed over the 
little corpse, and while doing so, she 
suddenly appeared to the poor suppli 
cant to be raised from earth and sur 
rounded by lovely flames the living 
emblem of the fervour of her prayer. In 
a few minutes the child recovered. 

Milburga s monastery was destroyed 
by the Danes ; but in the twelfth century 
it was rebuilt and inhabited by Cluniac 

EM. Montalembert, Monks of the 
West. Lechner. 
St. Mildgyda, MILGITHA. 
St. Mildred, July 13, also called 


by modern peasants OLD DAME MIL. 7th 
and 8th century. V. abbess of Minster or 
Menstrey in Thanet. Patron of Tenterden. 

Represented in an old calendar carry 
ing a church in her left hand ; at her 
right side walk three geese. Protector 
against damage by wild geese. Daughter 
of Merowald, a prince of Mercia, and 
MILBURGA and MILGITHA, and related to 
several of the other famous English 
sainted princesses of the Anglo-Saxon 
period. Her mother sent her to be 
educated at Chelles in France (founded 
by ST. BATHILDE), where many English 
ladies were trained to a saintly life. 
A story of Mildred s school days at 
Chelles is recorded in Britannia Sancta, 
on the authority of Capgrave, Legenda 

A young nobleman, related to the 
abbess, entreated her to arrange that he 
might marry this English princess. The 
abbess tried to persuade her, but Mildred 
said her mother had sent her there to be 
taught, not to be married, and all the 
abbess s advice, threats and blows failed 
to persuade her to accept the alliance 
offered to her. Montalembert remarks 
that this part of the story is too different 
from all other such narratives not to 
have some foundation in truth. At last 
the abbess shut her up in an oven in 
which she had made a great fire ; but 
after three hours, when she expected to 
find not only her flesh but her very 
bones burnt to ashes, the young saint 
came out unhurt and radiant with joy 
and beauty. The faithful, hearing of 
the miracle, venerated Mildred as a 
saint; but the abbess, more infuriated 
than ever, threw her on the ground, beat, 
kicked and scratched her and tore out 
a handful of her hair. Mildred found 
means to send her mother a letter, en 
closing some of her hair, torn from her 
head by the violence of the abbess. 
Ermenburga sent ships to fetch her 
daughter. The abbess, fearing that her 
evil deeds should be made known, would 
on no account give permission for her 
departure. Mildred, however, fled by 
night, but having in her haste forgotten 
some ecclesiastical vestments and a nail 
of the cross of Christ, which she valued 
extremely, she went back for them and 
brought them safely away. When she 
got to England she landed at Ebbsfleet, 


where she found a great square stone 
miraculously prepared for her to step 
on from the ship. The stone received 
and retained the mark of her foot and 
was afterwards removed to the Abbey of 
Menstrey and kept there in memory of 
her, and many diseases were cured for 
centuries after, by water containing a 
little dust from this stone. It was often 
removed from its first situation and 
always came back, until an oratory was 
built for it. 

With her mother s consent, Mildred 
was consecrated Abbess of Menstrey, by 
Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, who 
gave the sacred veil, at the same time, to 
seventy nuns. 

On St. Ermenburga s death, Mildred 
succeeded her in the government of 
the community, to whom she set a holy 
example and by whom she was much 
beloved. It is recorded that one night, 
while she was praying in the church of 
her monastery, the devil blew out her 
candle, but an angel drove him away 
and relighted it for her. This incident 
is recorded of ST. GENEVIEVE of Paris 
and other saints. 

Mildred died of a lingering and pain 
ful complaint and was succeeded by ST. 
EDBUEGA (5), who died about 759. The 
death of Mildred must be placed some 
years before that. 

During the rule of Edburga it hap 
pened that the bell-ringer fell asleep 
before the altar. The departed Mildred 
awoke him with a box on the ear, ex 
claiming, "This is the oratory, not the 
dormitory ! " 

She continued to be an extremely popu 
lar saint, eclipsing, says the Count de 
Montalembert, the fame of St. Augustine, 
in the immediate neighbourhood of her 
monastery, where the place that used to 
be proudly pointed out as that of his 
landing, came to be better known as "St. 
Mildred s Eock." Miss Arnold-Forster 
says that Mildred had more influence 
than any other English saint. In 1033, 
St. Mildred was translated to St. Augus 
tine s at Canterbury. She is honoured 
as an English nun at Deventer in Hol 
land, July 17; but her day in England 
is July 13. 

AA.SS., Hrit.Sancta. Butler. Florence 

of Worcester. Moutalumbert. Eckon- 

Milgidra, MILOITHA. 

St. Milgitha, Jan. 17 (MILDGYDA, 


MILVIDA,MILWYDEJ, 7th century. Daugh 
ter of Merowald and EKMKNBUKGA and 
younger sister of Mi LDHKD and MILHUKOA. 
Nun near Canterbury, at Estrey, built 
by Egbert, king of Kent. AA.SS. 
Butler. Florence of Worcester. 

St. Milguie, French for MILGITHA. 

St. Milia, Jan. 2."), V. (See ELVIUA.) 

St. Milice, Milissa, or Milisa, 
March Hi, M. at Nicomedia. Guerin. 

St. Militza, ANGELINA (2), Queen 
of Servia. 

St. Milvide, or MILWIDE, MILGITHA. 

St. Mina, July 4, M. at Tomis. 
Martyrology of Corbie, third prefatory 
volume of AA.SS. 

St. Minalia, April 12, M. AA.SS. 

St. Mindina or Mundino, May 
20, M. with others. AA.SS. 

St. Mindinia, May 2:>, M. in Tuderto 
(Todi). AA.SS. Old Martyrologies in 
" praefationes," vol. iii. Perhaps same 

St. Minerva, DARIA (2). 

St. Mingarda, or MIONGHAK, 5th 
century. Sister of St. Sillau or Sillao. 
Of royal birth in Counaught. They went 
as pilgrims to Rome. Miugarda then 
went to Lucca, where she married God 
frey, a rich man. She left him and ended 
her days as a nun. After her death Sillan 
came to Lucca and was received by God 
frey, but found him too rich and great, 
and preferred to go to the sanctuary 
where Mingarda had died, and there he 
too departed in peace. Stokes, Six 
Months in the Apennines. 

St. Minver, July 24, 13, Nov. 24 
(MEFUIDA, MENIFKIDB), V. in East Corn 
wall. Miss Arnold-Forster, Dedications. 
Sdiictorale Cdtholicnm. 

St. Mionghar, MINGARDA. 

St. Mircella, NIRILLA. 

St. Mirella, NIUILLA. 

St. Misa, DISTA. 

St. Misia, or MISSIA, March 27, M. 
in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Missia, MISIA. 
Mitila, Feb. 28. Mart, of Reich<>nau. 


St. Mitina, Apr. 19, M. at Militina 
in Armenia. AA.SS. 

St. Mitricia, PATRICIA (2), mother 


St. Mittiana, perhaps same as 


St. Mituana, June 3, a Komaii mar 
tyr. AA.8S. 

St. Mlada Bolesla, Feb. 8, March 
28, + c. 995, O.S.B., called also MADLA, 
MADILA, MILADA, and in religion MARY. 
Princess of Bohemia. Founder and 
first abbess of the nunnery of St. 
George at Prague. Daughter of Boles- 
las the Cruel, duke of Bohemia 
(936-967). Great-granddaughter of ST. 
LUDMILLA. Sister of Boleslas II. the 

Mlada was devout and learned. She 
went to Rome to pray at the places 
consecrated by the footsteps of the 
apostles and the blood of the martyrs. 
She remained there a considerable time, 
and learned monastic rule. When she 
had given sufficient proof of her good 
disposition and ability, Pope John XIII. 
sent her back to Prague to confirm the 
still new Christianity of her own coun 
try. He considered Mlada a barbaric 
name, and found it difficult to pro 
nounce ; he therefore gave the princess 
the name of Mary, with the Benedic 
tine rule and the staff of an abbess, and 
charged her with apostolic letters to her 
brother, the Duke. In the letter of John 
XIII. to Boleslas II., preserved by 
Mabillon, the Pope enjoins him to uphold 
the Roman Church and not to suffer the 
Slavonian rite in any of the churches he 
builds. On her return, Mlada built the 
Benedictine nunnery of St. George, in 
the cftadel of Prague, about the year 
986. Here she presided over many nuns 
and helped to Christianize the nation 
until her death. She is buried in the 
chapel of St. Anne, in the great church 
of St. Vitus and St. Wenceslaus, which 
was constituted an episcopal church by a 
bull obtained by her from the Pope. 
And there she is commemorated, Feb. 8, 
by the nuns in their very ancient private 
breviary. AA.SS.O.S.B. Chauowski, 
Vestigium Bohemiae Pise. Palacky, 
Bohmen. Wion, Lignum Vitee. Eneas 
Silvius, Hist. Bohemise. 

St. Mocca, May 10, M. in Africa. 

St. Mochoat, supposed by Mr. Skene 
to be the same as MAZOTA ; but possibly 
Machutus, bishop of Aleth in Brittany, 
6th century. 

St. Mocholla, March 23, May 25, 
V. An ancient Irish saint, daughter of 
Damas. AA.SS., Prseter. Mart, of 

St. Moderata, April 5, M. at Alex 
andria. AA.SS. 

St. Modesta (1), March 13, V. M. 
Daughter of SS.Macedonius and PATRICIA 
and martyred with them at Nicomedia. 
They are mentioned in the old Mart, of 
St. Jerome. EM. Stadler. 

St. Modesta (2), 7th century. 
Abbess of Habend or Remiremont. A 
near relation of ST. GERTRUDE of Nivelle, 
who appeared to her at the moment of 
her (Gertrude s) death. Sometimes con 
founded with MODESTA (3). Henschenius, 
De tribus Dagobertis. 

St. Modesta (3), Nov. 4, 5, 6, Oct. 
6, March 7, Aug. 12, V. 8th century. 
Second or third abbess of Horres, near 

The history of this saint is somewhat 
obscure. Perhaps one of her numerous 
days belongs to her namesake the abbess 
of Habend. Some accounts say she was 
sister of St. Willibrord, a native of 
Northumbria, first bishop of Utrecht. 
She is sometimes claimed as Irish or 
Scottish. She has been said to have been 
preceded or followed as abbess by her 
sister PRIMINA, but this is thought to be 
a confusion with ST. IRMINA (1), first 
abbess of Horres, who may be called her 
spiritual sister or mother. The worship 
of Modesta is very ancient. She is men 
tioned in a litany of the tenth century. 
She is worshipped specially at Treves, 
Nov. 4. 

B.M., Nov. 4. AA.SS., on the above- 
mentioned days. Saussaye calls her 
second abbess, Oct. 6. 

St. Modette, MUNDANA. 

Modevenna, MODWENNA. 

Modovena, MODWENNA. 

St. Modwenna, July 5, 6 (MODE- 
MOWENA ; perhaps DARERCA (2 ), EDANA, 


GOLINIA). Modvveima is made contem 
porary with persons living centuries 
apart, from St. Patrick to Alfred the 
Great. Whenever her legend crosses 
that of any other saint the result is con 
tradiction and a general muddle of dates 
and places. (Compare ATEA, OSITH, 
EDITH (3).) One legend speaks of 
Modwenna as the virgin whose name 
was Darorca and whose surname was 
Moninna, and says that she died the day 
that St. Columkille was born: this is 
generally said to be in 521. This early 
Modwenna received the nun s veil from 
St. Patrick, and was soon at the head of 
a small community which rapidly in 
creased. They lived at one time on an 
island in Wexford harbour; afterwards, 
at Faughart, where she ruled over a 
hundred and fifty nuns. She removed 
for greater quiet to a desert place called 
Sleabh Cuillin or Slieve Gullion. (Com 
pare DARERCA (2).) Modwenna lived to 
the age of one hundred and thirty, or 
some say one hundred and eighty. When 
she was at the point of death King 
Eugenius sent a bishop to bargain with 
her to prolong her life for a year : he 
was sure she could obtain this favour 
from God if she would pray for it, and 
he offered to redeem her " life by a free 
maiden." Modwenna said that if he had 
asked this favour " two days ago or even 
yesterday " it would have been granted, 
but St. Peter and St. Paul had come to 
fetch her and she must go. At the 
same time, that which he and the Bishop 
had offered to give for her, they must 
now give for their own souls. Then 
she blessed the people and departed. 

She crops up again in (385, when she 
visits Aldfrid, king of Northumberland, 
at Whitby, and he requests her to in 
struct his kinswoman, the Abbess El- 
fleda. Modwenna s career is prolonged 
into the 9th century, by a mistake of 
Cap grave, who supposes this Aldfrid to 
be Alfred the Great, and substitutes for 
ST. ELFLEDA, ST. EDITH of Polesworth. 

Whatever her true date was,Modwenna 
left traces of her influence both in Eng 
land and Scotland, and went three times 
to Rome. She is said to have founded 
seven churches in Scotland, one of which 

was on the site now occupied by the 
Castle of Edinburgh, one on the ( astle 
Hill of Stirling, one at Longforgau in 
Perthshire. In England she founded 
the Monasteries of Burton-on-Trent, 
Stramshall in Staffordshire, and Poles- 
worth in Warwickshire. At Polesworth 
her memory is eclipsed by that of EDITH 
(3), for whom the establishment wag 
restored in the Oth century. At Burton 
the name of Modwenna is preserved iii 
the dedication, and it is one of the places 
where she is said to have died. 

Mr. Gammack thinks there were two 
Modwennas; Sir Thomas Duffus Hardy 
considers there must have been three ; 
Bishop Forbes holds that there was only 
one ; that it is quite credible that she 
established a Christian colony in Ireland, 
then penetrated to different parts of 
Scotland, then like many famous early 
saints made the pilgrimage to Home ; 
afterwards founded two religious houses 
in England, and eventually returned to 
die in her own land. 

Her brother St. Ronan and her adopted 
son St. Luger are said to have crossed 
from Ireland to England with Modwenna, 
Atea, and perhaps Osith. Luger s 
mother, as a young widow with a babe 
in her arms, became one of Modwenna s 
first nuns. 

Forbes. Gammack, in Smith and 
Wace. Capgrave. Butler. Broughton. 
Lauigau. Arnold-Forster. 

St. Moico. (Set ANNA (7).) 

Ste. Molac, or MOLAGGA, Jan. 20, 
mortc- en la Mornif. Guerin. 

St. Molnagund, MONEGUND. 

St. Molveda, EKMENBUKGA of Men- 

St. Momna, June 4, M. in Silesia, 
or Cilicia, or Sicily. AA.SS. 

St. Monacella, MELAXOEM,. 

St. Mondane, MUNDANA. 

St. Monegund (1) or MECHTUND. 

St. Monegund (2), MOHOON, or 
MOLNAGUND, Jnly 2, 4- - r >70. Patron of 
Chimay. Overcome with grief for the 
death of her two daughters, she tried to 
resign herself to the will of God. With 
the consent of her husband she shut her 
self up in a little cell and had the 
scantiest and coarsest food, given her 



through a window by a maid. The maid 
found the task troublesome and left her to 
starve, from which fate she was saved by 
a miracle. After a time, her reputation 
for sanctity brought so many visitors 
that she retired to Tours, and having 
paid her devotions at the tomb of St. 
Martin, shut herself up in another cell. 
Her husband brought her back to Char- 
tres ; but she persuaded him to let her 
return to Tours. There she collected 
round her a few pious women, who shared 
her life of austerity and devotion and 
consoled her for the loss of her children. 
AA.SS. from St. Gregory of Tours, who 
knew her personally. Yepez, Chron. 
Ben. Cahier. Baillet. 

St. Monenna, MODWENNA. Monenn. 
however, sometimes means St. Ninian. 
Skene, Celtic Scotland. 

St. Monessa, MUNESSA, MUXERIA, or 
NESSA, Sep. 4. 5th or 7th century. Irish. 

There was once a king who had a 
beautiful and amiable daughter, for whom 
he wished to arrange a very good mar 
riage, but she would not accept any of 
the princes who sought her alliance. 
The king and queen were very angry. 
They argued with her, scolded her, 
whipped her, and resorted to magic arts 
to change her inclination. But all to no 
purpose. She kept always asking her 
mother and nurse whether they had 
found the maker of the wheel by whose 
light the world was illumined, and when 
they told her that the sun was made by 
Him Whose seat was in heaven, she 
begged them to marry her to Him, as 
she* would have no husband but Him, 
Who gave such a beautiful light to the 
heavens. At last her parents hearing 
of the wisdom of St. Patrick, took her to 
him and consulted him how they should 
bring her to obedience. He asked her 
if she believed in God with her whole 
heart. She answered, * I believe." 
Whereupon he baptized her, and she 
then fell down and died. She was 
buried where she died, and St. Patrick 
foretold that on that spot there would 
some day be a cell where many virgins 
would be gathered together to serve God. 
And so it was, for not many years after 
that time, a church and convent were 
built on the spot and the memory of St. 

Monessa was held in honour amongst 

Constantino Suysken says she pro 
bably lived after 654. In that case she 
was not contemporary with St. Patrick 
who lived much earlier. AA.SS. from 
Probus Life of St. Patrick. 

St. Mongon, or MONGOND, MONE- 
GUND (2). 

St. Monica (1), May 4, 332-387. 
Widow. The Eev. H. C. G. Moule, in 
Smith s Dictionary of Christian Bio 
graphy, says that her name is written 
MONNICA in the earliest known copy of 
St. Augustine. 

St. Monica was of Phoenician descent, 
born in Africa, of Christian parents. 
The chief care of her, as a child, de 
volved upon an aged and discreet maid 
servant, of whom St. Augustine says : 
"the charge of her master s daughters 
was entrusted to her, to which she gave 
diligent heed, restraining them earnestly, 
when necessary, with a holy severity, and 
teaching them with a grave discretion. 
For except at those hours wherein they 
were most temperately fed at their 
parents table, she would not suffer them, 
though parched with thirst, to drink even 

As Monica grew older it became her 
duty to fetch wine from the cellar, for 
the household use. From drawing the 
wine she gradually fell into a habit of 
tasting and drinking small quantities, 
but, on being taunted by a servant with 
being a wine-bibber, she was overcome 
with shame and immediately renounced 
the habit. 

Monica was married young to Patri- 
cius, a citizen of Tagaste, an upright 
man but an idolater. She suffered much 
from his hasty temper, but she patiently 
and submissively endured her trials, 
never failing to be, as St. Augustine 
says, " reverently amiable and admirable 
unto her husband." When other wives 
complained to Monica of their husband s 
conduct, she would answer : " Lay the 
blame rather on yourselves and your 
sharp tongues." 

Augustine, her eldest and best loved 
son, was born in November, 354. She 
had besides, a son Navigius, and a 


After eighteen years of married life, 
during which she had not ceased to 
pray for her husband, Monica had the 
joy of seeing him converted to Chris 
tianity. He died the following year, 

It was Monica s great delight to serve 
the poor. She was ever a diligent 
student of the Scriptures, and " assisted 
daily at the holy oblation of the altar, 
. . . having eternity always in her 
thoughts." Her son, Augustine, was a 
source of great anxiety to her. Monica 
grieved much for his dissipation, and 
perhaps even more because he was en 
tangled in the Manichtean heresy, and 
for years she offered up her tears and 
supplications to the Almighty ; as St. 
Augustine says, " weeping to Thee for 
me, more than mothers weep the bodily 
deaths of their children. Thou de- 
spisedst not her tears, when streaming 
down, they watered the ground under 
her eyes in every place where she prayed. 
Her prayers entered into Thy presence, 
and yet Thou suffered st me to be yet in 
volved and reinvolved in that darkness." 
She was somewhat comforted by a dream, 
and still further by the words of the 
bishop of Carthage, who although he 
refused to argue with Augustine, said : 
" Go thy ways and God bless thee, for 
it is not possible that the son of these 
tears should perish." Which answer 
she took as if it had sounded from 

She folio wed Augustine to Milan, where 
he had been appointed professor of 
rhetoric. She found to her joy that 
St. Ambrose, bishop of Milan, " already 
known to the whole world as the best of 
men," had received him kindly, and that 
a friendship had sprung up between 
them ; and when Augustine told her that 
he was no longer a Manichaean, although 
he had not yet become a decided Catholic, 
she answered that she believed in Christ 
that before she departed this life she 
should see him a Catholic believer. 
Then she hastened the more eagerly to 
church, and hung upon the lips of 
Ambrose, whom she loved as an angel 
God, because she knew that by him her 
son had been brought to that unsettled 
state through which she confidently 


anticipated that ho would pass to the 
true faith and the peace of God. 
Ambrose valued her as a devout widow, 
full of good works and constant at 
church ; so that when he met Augustine 
he often burst forth in her praises, con 
gratulating him that he had such a 
mother. About that time, the Empress 
Justina, an Arian, persecuted St. Ambrose. 
His devoted followers kept watch in the 
church, ready to die with their bishop. 
Monica took part in those watchiugs. 
She continued, with renewed hope, her 
prayers for her son ; and the desire of 
her life was fulfilled when, at Easter, 
387, she saw St. Ambrose baptize him, 
with his friend Alypius and his son 
Adeodatus, then fifteen years old. 

With conversion to the true faith, 
Augustine, who had long been aspiring 
after perfection, lost all wish for worldly 
advantage ; fame, marriage, riches, were 
nothing to him now. He, his mother, 
and his handful of devoted friends 
resolved to return to Africa. On tbeir 
way, they made a short stay at Ostia, and 
while there, one evening as Monica and 
Augustine sat looking from a window 
over the garden, and talking of heavenly 
things, she said : " Son, for mine own 
part I have no further delight in any 
thing in this life. What I do here any 
longer, and to what end I am here, I 
know not, now that my hopes in this 
world are accomplished." Five days 
later, iMonica fell ill. She had previously 
ever been careful and anxious as to her 
place of burial, which she had prepared 
for herself by the body of lu-r husband ; 
but during her illness she h d no neb 
feeling, saying to her sons on the 
contrary: "Lay this body anywhere; 
let not the care for that any way disquid 
you : this only I request, that you would 
remember me at the Lord s altar, whore- 
ever you be." Despite the loving care 
of Augustine and his companions, Monica 
died on the ninth day of her illness, in 
the fifty-sixth year of her age, May 4, 

St Augustine has left a l>eautiful pic 
ture of his mother in his " Confession* 
He bears witness to the high order of 
her intellectual powers, " the fervour o 
her mind towards divine things, and 


especially of her devotion to him. After 
praying for her he beseeches God to 
inspire all who shall read his book, to 
remember at the altar, Monica and 

St. Augustine, Confessions. Butler. 
M.F.S. Stories of the Saints. 

B. Monica (2), July 12, M. 1620, at 
Nangasaki. Her husband, B. John Naisen, 
and her son, B. Lewis, aged seven, also 
suffered martyrdom. John and Monica 
had received Father Torres and other mis 
sionaries in their house, and were therefore 
tortured. The persecutors threatened to 
have Monica stripped ; she unclasped 
her band, and said, "I am ready to be 
stripped, not only of my clothes, but of 
my skin." Mondo, the judge, resorted 
to such horrible threats that John, in 
his terror, was ready to promise any 
thing. They then ordered Monica to 
take hot coals in her hand. She began 
doing so, and he retracted the order. 
John repented of his cowardice and re 
turned to prison, and was burnt alive 
on the same day that Monica and Lewis 
were beheaded. The little Lewis, as 
he passed the house of his grandfather, 
on his way to execution, threw a flower 
towards it, which was preserved as a 
relic. For the same crime cf enter 
taining the missionaries, BB. SUSANNA 
(18) and CATHERINE (21) were beheaded 
with Monica. Their husbands were burnt 
with John Naisen. Authorities the same 

St. Monice or MONICIA, April 16, 
M. Guerin. 

St. Moninia, MODWENNA. 

St. Moninna, July 6, DARERCA (2). 

St. Monnica, MONICA. 

St. Montaine, MONTANA (2). 

St. Montana (1), May 23, M. in 
Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Montana (2), Oct. 24, V. Abbess 
of Cave, or of Ferrieres. Daughter of 
Pepin, duke of Brabant. She took the 
veil from St. Amand. She gives her 
name to the village of Ste. Montaine, 
dep. Indre, diocese of Bourges. There 
is no doubt that she is worshipped, but 
her history is lost and it is supposed 
that ST. GERTRUDE of Nivelle is wor 
shipped under this name. AA.SS. 

St. Monyma, MODWENNA. 

St. Monynna of Newry, in Ireland, 
who died c. 518, received the veil from 
St. Patrick. She is said by some writers 
to be a different person from MONINNA, 
who is MODWENNA. 

St. Mora (1), M. Wife of St. 
Timothy, commemorated in the Abys 
sinian Church. Timothy was cooked 
in a cauldron till his body melted like 
water. AA.SS. Compare with MAURA 


St. Mora (2), of Benhor, Nov. 27, 
M. in Ethiopia. Gueriu. Perhaps the 
same as MORA (1). 

St. Morwenna or NORWINNA, July 6, 
5th century, was a daughter or grand 
daughter of Brychan. (See ALMHEDA.) 
St. Nectan was her near kinsman, per 
haps her brother. They were among 
the Welsh saints who crossed over to 
Cornwall. Nectan settled on Hartland 
point, whence, in certain conditions of 
the atmosphere, the coast of Wales can 
be seen. Morwenna had her cell and 
her well at Hennacliff (the Eaven s 
crag, afterwards called Morwenstow), 
near the top of a high cliff looking 
over the Atlantic, where the sea is 
almost constantly stormy. When she 
was dying, Nectan came to see her, and 
she bade him raise her up that she might 
look once more on her native shore. She 
has been confounded with ST. MODWENNA, 
and has also been called a contemporary 
of persons who lived in the tenth cen 
tury. Baring Gould, The Vicar of Mor 
wenstow. Blight, Grouses. An interesting, 
but much defaced, polychrome wall- 
painting was found on the north wall 
of the chancel of Morwenstow church. 
It represents a gaunt female clasping to 
her breast, with her left hand, a scroll 
or volume ; the right arm is raised in 
blessing over a kneeling monk. AthencuiH, 
Sept. 18, 1886, p. 378. Perhaps same as 
MERWIN (1). 

St. Mostiola, MUSTIOLA. 

St. Moteca, TECA. 

St. Motenna, V. Irish. 

St. Mouren, daughter of King 
Hungus and Queen Finch en, was born 
at Moneclatu, afterwards Monikie. The 
queen gave the place where Mouren was 
born, to God and St. Andrew, and Mouren 


was the first person buried in St. Andrew s 
church. Compare MUUEN. Forbes. 

St. Movena or MOWEXA, MODWENNA. 

St. Muadhnata of Caille in Ireland, 
Jan. 0. Oth century. Sister of SS. 
TALULLA, OSNATA, and Molaisse. (See 
OSNATA.) Lanigan. 

St. Muciana, June 8, M. at Cresarea 
in Cappadocia. AA.SS. 

St. Mugiana, Dec. 15. Perhaps 
MAUGINA. Perhaps an abbess of Cluain- 
buirren, where she is worshipped. 

St. Muirgel. (Sec MURIEL.) 

St. Mundana, MONDANE, or MODETTE, 
May f>, M. 6th century. Mother of St. 
Sardos, bishop of Limoges, also called 
Sardou, Sardot, St. Sacerdos, which is 
translated St. Pretre. Mundana was 
the wife of B. Laban, a nobleman of 
Aquitaine and subject of the pious King 
Anticius or Ecdicius, who was godfather 
to St. Sardos. Sardos was brought up 
by the holy Bishop St. Capuan, and 
eventually became abbot of Calabre on 
the Dordogne. His father and mother 
were so impressed by his sanctity that 
they divided all their possessions, giving 
half to the Church and half to the poor, 
and devoted themselves to a religious 
life. Some time after the death of Laban, 
Sardos was chosen bishop of Limoges. 
He died there about 530 and, according 
to his request, his body was brought 
back to Calabre, in a boat on the Dor 
dogne. When the boat came near the 
house where Mundana lived, she went 
down to the river to meet the funeral 
procession of her son. She was now 
blind and was led by her maids, but as 
soon as she arrived at the edge of the 
water, her sight was restored. Many 
years afterwards she was massacred by 
the Vandals, who overran that region. 

St. Mundicorda, BONA (1). 

St. Mundino, MINDINIA. 

St. Muneria, MONESSA. 

St. Munessa, MONESSA. 

St. Munna is mentioned in some 
ancient litanies of the Anglican Church, 
found by Mabillon in the Library of 
Kheims, in Anglo-Saxon characters. Be 
sides St. Gregory and other early saints, 
they contain the names of SS. Patrick, 

Brendan, Carnach, Colnmkill, BKIDOKT, 
etc., but none of the names of later saint*, 
famous in England in the 7th century, 
as Cuthbort, Aidan, Wilfred, etc. Ma- 
billon, Vfttra Aannlctn. Lanigan. 

St. Muren, Oct. 17, V. in whoso 
honour was built one of the seven 
churches of Chibrimont or St. Andrews, 
in which were fifty virgin nuns, all of 
royal birth. She was a nun for eleven 
years, and was buried in the east part 
of the church. Compare MOUUEN. 
AA.SS. Forbes. 

B. Murenna, May 26. Four ab 
besses of Kildare bore this name. Only 
the second is expressly called Bhwd. 
She was the daughter of Suart, and died 
in 91 ii. Colgan. 

St. Murichach is commemorated 
among virgins and widows in the Dun- 
keld litany. Forbes. 

St. Muriel is commemorated among 
virgins and widows in the Dunkeld 
litany. Probably same name as the 
Irish MriuoEL. Forbes. 

St. Murina, May 27, M. at Touiis 
on the Black Sea. AA.SS. 

St. Musa, April 2, V. 6th century. 
A little girl, sister of Proculns tho 
servant of God, mentioned in the dia 
logue of St. Gregory, lib. 4, chap. 17. 
One night she had a vision in which tho 
VIRGIN MARY appeared to her and showed 
her girls of her own age in white raiment. 
While Musa longed . to join them and 
did not dare to approach, the Blessed 
Mary asked her if sho would like to 
be with them and be ruled by her. 
The child said she would. The Holy 
Virgin bade her therefore at. stain from 
all childish and frivolous ainuscni-nt>. 
promising to come for her in thirty days 
and place her among the children she 
had seen. Her parents soon observing 
a change in her behaviour, questioned 
her about it and sho told them her 
dream. On the twenty-fifth day sho was 
seized with fever. On tho thirtieth day, 
as the hour of her death drew near, sho 
again saw tho Virgin Mary, and diod 
exclaiming joyfully, " Ecce Domini, 
Ven w" AA.SS. 

St Musca, sister of CYRIA (2 

St. Muscula, April 12, M. at Capua, 
in Italy. AA.SS. 



St. Musta, April 12, M. AA.SS. 

St. Mustia (1), July 3, MUSTIOLA. 

St. Mustia (2) or MUSTULA (1), 
April 12, M. AAJ38. 

St. Mustila (1), Feb. 28, M. with 
many others, at Alexandria. AA.88. 

St. Mustila (2), MUSTULA. 

St. Mustiola, July 3 (MOSTIOLA, 
MUSTIA, MUTIOLA), Matron, M. 275. 

Eepresented with a scourge or whip 
as one of her tortures. 

St. Ireneus, the deacon, being thrown 
into prison at Chiusi, because he had 
buried St. Felix the priest, a Christian 
matron of high rank, named Mustiola, 
heard of it and went every night to the 
prison and bribed the guards to allow 
her to visit the Christians who were 
there. She washed their feet, dressed 
their wounds and gave them food. This 
was told to Turcius, the governor, who 
had been appointed to that office in 
order that he should exterminate the 
Christians. When he had vainly re 
monstrated with her, he ordered all the 
Christian prisoners to be beheaded ex 
cept Ireneus, who was put to death by 
horrible tortures in presence of Mustiola. 
She upbraided Turcius, and told him 
that he had sent St. Ireneus to heaven, 
but he himself would have his dwel 
ling in eternal fire. Turcius, enraged, 
had her beaten to death with leaden 
scourges. EM. AA.SS. 

St. Mustula (1) or MUSTIA (2), 
April 12, M. AA.SS. 

St. Mustula (2), Feb. 2, M. at Rome, 

with CAPPA, CASTULA, and many others. 

SS. Mutiana and Landaia, July 26. 

St. Mutiola, MUSTIOLA. 

St. Mwynen, granddaughter of 
Brychan. Miss Arnold-Forster, Dedica 

St. Mygdonia, MIGDONIA. 

St. Myroblite. The women who 
brought spices and ointment to embalm 
the Saviour are called SS. Myroblitse, 
the holy ointment-bearers. There is 
also a ST. THEODORA (15), the Myroblite, 
a nun in the 9th century. 

St. Myrope, Dec. 2, 4, July 13. 
A matron of Chios who went to Ephesus, 
in the reign of the Emperor Decius, 
and there cured several sick persons 
with ointment from the relics of the 
apostles and martyrs, and notably from 
the tomb of St. HEKMIONE. Returning 
to Chios, she witnessed the martyrdom 
of St. Isidore and soon stole his relics. 
Many persons being accused of the theft, 
Myrope gave herself up and was cruelly 
beaten and consigned to prison, where 
she died after being comforted by the 
apparition of St. Isidore. She is one of 
those saints whose real name is unknown, 
her name of Myrope being derived from 
the miraculous ointment with which she 
effected her cures. She is praised at 
reat length in the Menology of Moscow. 
Martinov, Dec. 2. Menology of Basil, 
July 13. Ferrarius, Dec. 4. 


St. Nadedjda or NADEZDA. (See 

St. Namadia or NEOMAIE, Jan. 13, 
4th century, wife of St. Calminius, a 
senator. Guenebault. 

St. Nanecchia or NUNECHIA. (See 

St. Nannita, NONNA, mother of St. 

St. Nantilda or NANTHILDIS. One 
of the wives or mistresses of Dagoberfc I., 
king of France, 628-038. Mother of 
ST. NOTBUEG (1). Nantilda is sometimes 

called Saint, but does not seem to have 
any recognized worship. 

St. Natalena or NATALINA, LENE 


St. Natalia (1), NATALIE, NOELE, 
and perhaps NOYALE, Dec. 1, March 4, 
Sept. 8 and Aug. 26. Beginning of 4th 
century, under Diocletian or Licinius. 
She was the wife of St. Adrian, who is 
patron of executioners and gaolers. She 
is honoured and represented with her 
husband, who has an anvil, a sword, or 
keys ; occasionally with a lion, to denote 


their courage and magnanimity. (Cahier, 

Adrian and Natalia were natives of 
Nicomedia. Natalia certainly was of 
Christian parentage, but was afraid to 
confess Christ because the tenth persecu 
tion was so fiercely raging. They saw 
Christians tortured, and wondered why 
they endured such agony, but soon they 
were both converted. Adrian was an 
officer of high rank in the Roman army. 
He remonstrated with the Emperor Maxi- 
mian on his injustice and cruelty to the 
Christians, and implored those who were 
writing down the names of the proscribed 
Christians to add his to the list. 

Natalia, who had been married little 
more than a year, heard that her hus 
band had been taken and imprisoned 
among the other confessors. She visited 
the gaol and encouraged them to bear 
everything for Christ s sake, kissing her 
husband s chains and rejoicing in the 
honour that was come to him. lie praised 
her as the right sort of wife. 

In accordance with Natalia s wish, 
Adrian promised to send for her when 
the time came for him to be led to the 
torture ; so when the prisoners were 
condemned to death, he bribed the gaolers 
to let him go to fetch his wife. She was 
grieved when she saw him coming to her, 
because she feared he had renounced 
Christ, or at least had fled from the pros 
pect of immediate martyrdom. She cried 
out to him not to come near her, lament 
ing that after having gloried in being 
the spouse of a martyr, she now found 
herself the wife of an apostate. But 
when he explained the true reason of his 
coming, she let him into the house _ and 
then went with him to the prison, 
where she remained seven days. While 
there, she kissed the chains of the cap 
tive Christians, and dressed their wounds, 
sending her maids for linen and oint 

After the confessors had been ques 
tioned one by one and sent back to 
prison, Natalia returned with her hus 
band to dress his wounds and to lighten 
his sufferings in every way she could 
The rest of the prisoners were attended 
by their relations and by deaconesses 
and other pious women. The Emperor 

heard of it, and issued an order for 
bidding women to enter the prison. 
Natalia cut off her hair and disguised 
herself as a man, and thus was able to 
go on devoting herself to the consolation 
of her husband and the rest of the suf 
ferers. When the other women dis 
covered the noble example set them by 
this brave matron, they also cut off their 
hair, put on men s clothes, and went to 
relieve the distress of the saints. Natalia 
sat at her husband s feet, and bade him 
not forget her when he arrived in the 
presence of the Lord ; but make it his 
first request that Ho would take her also 
to heaven and not leave her alone in that 
wicked place. 

When the tyrant knew the way in 
which his order had been evaded, and 
yet that the martyrs were dying of their 
wounds, he was enraged, and declared 
that they should not die the death of all 
men, but ordered that their feet should 
be laid on an anvil and their legs broken 
witli an iron bar. 

Natalia went with Adrian to the pliwo 
of execution, and begged the lictors tlmt 
ho might be tortured first, lest while he 
was waiting for his turn, his own courage 
should be shaken if he saw the other 
confessors suffering frightful pain, 
took her husband s feet and tretehed 
them on the anvil ; the lictors cut off 
his feet and broke his legs. But as the 
martyr still breathed, Natalia said to 
him, "I pray you, servant of Christ, 
stretch out your hand and let the heathen 
cut it off, that you may bo like the 
saints, and while you still breathe, give 
your arm to be broken, in honour of Him 
Who set us the example of suffering 
Then the lictors cut off his hand and 
broke his arm, as they had done with Ins 
feet and legs, and he died. His brave 
wife took the severed hand and hid 
her bosom. Afterwards the other mar 
tyrs suffered, meeting their death v 
equal courage. 

The Emperor ordered that, lest the 
Galileans should take the bodies of 1 
murdered Christians to worship them as 
gods, they should be burnt in his pre 
sence, the wives of the martyrs stood 
a little way off, and when the Ixxli 
were cast into the furnace, they prayed 



their hnsbands to remember them before 
God. A heavy shower of rain fell and 
put out the fire ; the executioners seeing 
this, ran away and some of them fell 
down dead. Natalia and all the women, 
assisted by other Christians, collected as 
much of the blood of the martyrs as they 
could ; took the bodies out of the furnace, 
and put them into a ship belonging to 
Byzantium. Afterwards the Christians 
gave large sums for pieces of cloth and 
even for scraps of the clothes of the 
executioners, stained with the blood of 
the martyrs. Natalia embalmed the hand 
of her husband, which had been cut off ; 
wrapped it in a precious purple cloth, 
and laid it on her pillow. Soon after 
she had become a widow, a tribune, a 
great man of the city, obtained the Em 
peror s permission to marry her, and sent 
to ask her, for she was one of the great 
ladies of the place, very beautiful and 
very rich. Her answer to the messengers 
was that she accepted his offer, but must 
have three months to prepare for so 
grand a marriage. However, instead of 
preparing, she fled to Byzantium, carry 
ing Adrian s hand with her. Her life 
there was spent in devotion, but her time 
was not long in this world, for she was 
wearied out with the voyage, following 
on all her other sufferings. Adrian 
called her to heaven, and she fell into a 
sweet sleep to awake in Paradise. E.M., 
Dec. 1. Men. Baa., Aug. 26. AA.SS., 
" St. Adrian," Aug. 26. Butler. Baillet. 
March 4 and Sept. 8, are anniversaries 
of translations of St. Adrian s relics. 

St. Natalia (2) or NATHALIA, July 
10, honoured at Grandmont in the 
diocese of Limoges, and supposed to be 
a companion of ST. URSULA. The Bol- 
landists think she is ANATOLIA (3). 
AA.SS., June 9. 

St. Natalia (3), NOELE, SABITHA, or 
SABIGOTHO, July 27, Oct. 20, M. about 
852. Wife of Aurelius, who was the son 
of a Moor of Cordova in Spain, by a 
Christian slave ; he adopted his mother s 
faith and chose Natalia for his wife on 
account of her virtue and piety. Both 
husband and wife, during the persecu 
tion under Abder Eahman III., prepared 
for martyrdom by constant self-denial. 
St. George !the deacon was their friend 

and fellow-martyr. At the same time 
St. Felix, his wife LILIOSA, and several 
other Christians were put to death. 
Aurelius and Natalia left two little 
daughters. St. Eulogius, who was pre 
sent at the execution and to whom we 
owe the history of the persecution, -un 
dertook the care of these orphans. The 
youngest, who was only five years old, 
begged him to write the history of her 
father and mother, and describe their 
martyrdom ; so he said, " AVhat will you 
give me if I do that for you ? " " Para 
dise," answered the child, " which I will 
ask of God for you." EM., July 27. 
Eulogius, Memorials Sanctorum. Baillet. 

St. Navida, May 7, M. in Africa. 

St. Navigia. Honoured at Saint- 
Etienne d Auxerre. Guerin. 

St. Neducia, or EEDUCTA, June 2. 
One of two hundred and twenty-seven 
Roman martyrs commemorated together 
in the Martyrology of St. Jerome. AA.SS. 

St. Nefydd. Daughter of Brychau 
and wife of St. Tudwal Befr. SS. Cynin 
and If or were her sons. Nefydd was 
founder of Llannefydd in Denbighshire. 
She is sometimes confounded with her 
nephew of the same name, and is perhaps 
also identical with ST. GOLENDYDD. Rets. 

St. Nefyn was one of the alleged 
daughters of Brychan, but more probably 
she was his granddaughter. She mar 
ried Cynfarch Oer, and is perhaps the 
founder and patron of Nefyn in Carnar 
vonshire ; but this is uncertain, as is her 
right to the title of Saint. Rees. (See 

St. Nega. This saint is not found 
in the calendar. The name comes from 
ncgare, to deny. To vow one s self to 
St. Nega is to determine to deny every 
thing, through thick and thin. Prosper 
Merimee, Colombo,, p. 194. At p. 92 
he says, " St. Nega is there to pull him 

St. Nemata or NEMETA, NONNA, 
mother of St. David. 

St. Nemoie, NEOMADIA. 

St. Nennoc, NENOK, or NENOOE, 


St. Neomadia, Jan. 14 (LEOMAIE, 


so. These holy women, with the ap 
proval of the Patriarch, secluded them 
selves from the society of Constantinople, 
which was extremely frivolous and lux 
urious, leading a life of great asceticism 
and spending their time in prayer, 
manual labour, and the care of sick 
women. Chrysostom gave great offence 
to the Empress Endocia, and his friends 
were involved in the persecution which 
befell him in consequence. Nicarete 
was reduced to comparative poverty, but 
she was so good an economist that she 
continued to provide for the wants of 
the community, and always had some 
thing to give to the poor. When Chry 
sostom was banished in 404, she left 
Constantinople rather than acknowledge 
the new patriarch, Arsacius, who was 
set up in his stead. She was then an 
elderly woman. The date and place of 
her death are not known. E.M. Butler. 
Smith and Wace. Massini. 

St. Nicas or BICCA, June 28, M. in 
Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Nice (1), M. (See CHARIESSA.) 
St. Nice (2), April 25, M. with SS. 
Eusebius, Neo and others. Martmov. 
St. Nicea, NICETA. 
St. Nicerata, NICARETE. 
St. Niceta (1), NIC^BA or NICEA, and 
St. Aquilina, July 24. c. 250. MM. 
LENIA are sometimes substituted for NI 
CETA, sometimes for AQUILINA. 

They were either two women who were 
leading a sinful life, or two soldiers, at 
Amon or Samon, in Lycia, in the time 
of the Emperor Decius. They were 
employed to turn away St. Christopher 
from the Christian faith: instead of 
which, he converted them both, and they 
forsook their bad ways, gave their ill- 
gotten gains to the poor, and were put 
to death for the faith, by being transfixed 
with awls from the feet to the shoulders 
until their martyrdom was accomplished. 
AA.SS. Smith and Wace. 

St. Niceta (2), NICEA, or NITICA, 
July 20, M. in Africa. AAJSS. 
St. Nicetria, DOMINICA of Trow* 
St. Nicia (1), April 28 V M. in 
Africa. Mentioned in the oldest exist 
ing copies of St. Jerome s Martyrology. 

St. Nicia (2), May 2:1, M. in Africn. 

St. Nicole, Hth century, Abbess of 
Almeneches. Laurent, Hist. <le Maryuc- 
rite dc Lorraine. 

St. Niconia, May H, M. at Constanti 
nople with St. Acacius. (See AGATHA (2).) 

St. Nida, Feb. 24, M. at Nicomedia, 
with forty-six others. AA.SS. 

St. Niemyne, NONNA, mother of St. 

St. Nimmia, NIMONIA. 
St. Nimonia, NIMMIA OFMEMMIA; in 
French, NINGE, Aug. 12, 804. M. with 
and about twenty-five others, either the 
same day as ST. APKA of Augsburg or a 
few days afterwards, on the same day as 
her mother ST. HILAIUA and the three 
maid-servants. AA.SS. B.M. Gnerin. 
SS. Nina (1-s), MM. AAJSS. 
St. Nina (i) NlNO - 
Nine Maidens, July 12, about 7Ki. 
There appear to have been two sets of 
nine maidens. 

The nine daughters of St. Donald led 
a religious life in the Glen of Ogilby 
in Forfarshire ; and after their father s 
death, went to Abernethy. FIM-ASA is 
the best known. Boece makes them to 
be only seven. The other nine were 
holy virgins who came with ST. BUIGID 
from Ireland and settled at Aternethy. 
MAZOTA was the most famous of these. 
St. Ninfa(l),NYMi>HA. 
Santa Ninfa (2). The name given 
to some pools thirteen miles from Rome, 
where ST. MARTHA (5) was drowned 

St. Ninge, NIMONIA. 
St. Ninna, May ,, M. at Milan with 
many others, under Maximiau. AA.bS>. 
St. Ninnita, June 4. One of many 
martyrs commemorated in several 
martyrologies. The place of their death 
has its name so variously written as 
leave it doubtful whether it was Nev< 
Noyon, Nogent, or Nineveh. AAM. 
Ninnie NONNA, mother of b 
St. Ninnoc, NINNOCHA, Nis 
or 6th century. V. and abbe.s. 
Founder of the monastery of Laii 
nennoc in Plemeur, Brittany. Cuhier 



says that Blemur, near Quimperle, is 

Represented with a stag taking refuge 
at her feet, supposed to mean a Bre- 
tonne princes^ fleeing from the pursuit of 
a nobleman. 

There was once a prince called Brochan, 
who lived in Combronensia. He was 
of the family of King Gurthiern, and 
was respected throughout the whole of 
Britain. This Brochan was very rich 
and often made thank offerings to God, 
as he knew that he owed all his wealth 
and power to Him alone. He married 
Meneduc, daughter of Constantine, king 
of the Scots, who was descended from 
Julius Cassar. 

Brochan and Meneduc had fourteen 
sons. As these boys grew up, they re 
membered that Christ had said, " Whoso 
ever shall renounce the world and all that 
is therein for My sake, shall receive an 
hundredfold and shall have eternal life." 
So they left their father s home and went 
as missionaries into different countries, 
preaching the gospel everywhere, and 
living as saints of God in the uttermost 
parts of the earth. Their father and 
mother, however, grieved to lose them, 
because they hoped that their sons would 
succeed them as princes in their own 
land. Accordingly, the king vowed to 
present on the altar, a tenth of all his 
possessions, if God would grant him 
another child, that he might have one to 
reign over his territory after him. 

At last an angel appeared to him in 
a dream, and bade him be of good cheer, 
for his prayer was heard, and he should 
have a daughter whose birth should be the 
cause of great joy throughout all Britain. 

Soon after her birth, the future saint 
was christened Ninnoc Guengustlee, and 
given to her god-parents to be brought 
up. When she was fifteen, a Scottish 
prince came to Brochan to ask for his 
daughter in marriage ; but Ninnoc wished 
to devote herself to Christ and not to any 
king s son. 

About this time, St. Germanus was 
sent from Ireland to France, by St. 
Patrick, the archbishop, and came on 
his way, to the Court of Brochan. 
Ninnoc listened dutifully to his instruc 
tions. When the kalends of January 

came round, the king made a great 
supper to celebrate his birthday, and 
invited to it all his lords and great 
men, St. Germanus among them. As 
they were sitting at table, the prin 
cess came in and threw herself at her 
father s feet, begging him to grant what 
she was about to ask in presence of all 
the assembled nobles. Brochan having 
promised, she declared that lands and 
gold, or any other kinds of wealth, were 
nothing to her ; she only begged for her 
father s permission to leave the kingdom 
and go to Letavia, with as many of her 
friends and servants as would volunteer 
to accompany her, to do as she herself 
did for the love of God. 

At this announcement, a great sad 
ness fell on the whole party, the queen 
gave way to despair ; but St. Germanus 
comforted the king and exhorted him 
not to oppose that holy vocation, to 
which his daughter had been called, even 
before her birth. So the king made 
answer to Ninnoc, " Beloved daughter, 
I have hitherto cherished the hope that 
in you I should reign over my kingdom, 
even after my own death ; but since you 
have chosen the kingdom of heaven 
rather than an earthly dominion, I give 
you leave to go wherever you please, 
and may my blessing go with you. 
You shall have ships, and money, and 
attendants, and all that you require." 

When it became known throughout 
the kingdom that the king had allowed 
his daughter to depart, many persons 
sold their possessions and gave all they 
had to the poor, and joined the expedi 
tion. Brochan himself went to the port 
to take leave of his daughter. He con 
fided her to the care of her godfather 
and godmother, gave her his blessing, 
and returned sorrowfully to his house. 
Then the army of God set sail, and 
arrived in due time at Letavia (Brit 
tany), and landed at a place called Pul- 
lilfin. Thence they sent envoys to 
Gueric, the king of the country, to tell 
him who they were and to beg that 
Ninnoc, the daughter of Brochan, king 
of the Combrones, might be allowed to 
settle in Gueric s dominions and serve 
God in peace. The king made them 
welcome and gave them a settlement 


in a desert place, called Penmur, on the 
southern coast of Brittany. 

There St. Ninnoc built a church and 
convent. She wrought miracles during 
her life and after her death. To this 
day, the remains may be seen, of the 
little monastery she built for the holy 
men who accompanied her to Lctavia. 
Many of them built other churches and 
shrines in different parts of that country, 
and are still held in veneration by the 
pious inhabitants. 

Ninnoc planted many trees and sowed 
useful seeds and taught the natives of 
Penmur the arts of cultivation and of 
sea-fishing, so that she furnished them 
with the means of living in plenty and 

About three years after Ninnoc had 
settled in Brittany, it happened that 
Gueric was hunting near her church, 
and a stag that the dogs had nearly 
caught, bounded across a river and took 
refuge in the church which was on the 
further side. Gueric followed and saw 
the holy monks and nuns singing their 
psalms and prayers, with the wild stag 
lying meekly at the feet of Ninnoc. 
He remained seven days at the monas 
tery, and commended himself to the 
prayers of this holy virgin. After his 
departure, he gave her for herself and 
her successors, the whole of the district 
called from her, Lan-Ninnoc ; he also 
gave her other places, three hundred 
horses, and much cattle. 

St. Ninnoc is mentioned in a litany 
used in England in the 7th century, 
given by Mabillon, Vetera Analecta, p. 
G69, and quoted in an English Martyr- 
ology of the 8th century. Baert, m 
AA.SS., says her Acts bear in them 
selves the proofs of their falsehood, 
although her worship was very early 
established in Brittany. Albert le 
Grand, Vie de St. Efflam. Monta- 

Baring Gould, Book of the West, says 
she had four bishops under her com 
mand, and that she must have been the 
hereditary head of the ecclesiastical 

St. Nino, Jan. 14, Dec. 15. 4th cen 
tury. The apostle of Iberia (now Georgia), 
was a Christian captive, and is always 

called NINO by the Russians ; the Ar 
menians call her NOUNI; Latin historians 
call her NINA, NUNIA ; and she IK alao 
CHIUSTIANA-CAUTIVA, the Christian cap 
tive or slave ; etc. 

Represented : ( 1 ) praying, while a 
large pillar is suspended slanting in the 
air. ^The story of this miracle is that 
during the building of the first Christian 
church in Georgia, when two fine pillars 
had been erected, the third defied all the 
efforts of the builders to set it in its 
place or make it stand upright : the 
people began to doubt the power of Nino s 
God, but the saint spent the night in 
prayer, and when they reassembled in 
the morning, they saw the great pillar 
gradually rise from the ground without 
human agency and stand firm on its 
proper pedestal) ; ( ->) as a captive, con 
verting a king. 

In the time of Constantino, the inhabi 
tants of Iberia were almost savage. The 
country had preserved its independence 
and had never become subject to the 
great empires which existed in Asia. 
The Christian religion had not pene 
trated there, but after the conversion of 
Armenia, that of Iberia was inevitable. 
During the persecution under Diocletian 
and his immediate successors, several 
Christian virgins had fled from the 
Roman empire and sought an asylum in 
Armenia ; but as Tiridates, the king, had 
not yet renounced idolatry, they wra 
not safe there. (See RIPSIMA.) They 
lived hidden and dispersed in Armenia. 
Nino, one of them, either fled to Iberia 
or was taken there as a captive, 
fame of her virtues and the miraculoi 
cures she wrought soon acquired for h 
the veneration of the people, 
the custom that when any woman h 
sick child, she carried it from hous 
house to see if any one could cure it. 
When Nino was appealed to, she at 
tempted no treatment but merely prayed 
for the little sufferer. In this way B 
cured many sick babies, and at last one 
that belonged to Mihran, king of 
country. His wife also was very ill, and 
sent for the Christian slave, who cui 
her and taught her to believe in ( hrwt 
The conversion of the queen was speedily 



followed by that of the king. Their 
example was followed by all the great 
men of the country. Christianity spread 
through Iberia, and thence through the 
Caucasus, and to the shores of the Cas 
pian sea, and the vast plains lying to the 
north of Iberia. The great temple of 
the god Ormuzd, in the capital of the 
country, near the modern Tiflis, was 
pulled down, notwithstanding the oppo 
sition of some of the chiefs, and Nino 
raised on its ruins, a great cross which 
was transported to Petersburg, in 1801, 
by Prince George Bagration, but which 
the Emperor, Alexander, sent back to 
Georgia, where it had been revered 
for centuries as the palladium of the 

The king built a church and sent an 
embassy to Constantino to propose an 
alliance with him and to ask for priests 
to instruct his people. Constantine 
gladly complied with this request, and 
the Church of Iberia long kept the faith 
untroubled by the heresies and disputes 
which vexed the ecclesiastical body of 
the empire. 

The historians of this century speak 
of the conversion of the Iberians, but the 
Georgian and Armenian authors are the 
only authorities for the name of the Saint 
and of the King. According to the 
Georgian chronicles, Mihran was son of 
the king of Persia ; probably Schahpour, 
the second of the Sassanides who were 
then reigning in Persia. 

Nino s body lies among the mountains 
in Georgia, in the little church of Sig- 
nakh, said to have been built in the 
fourth century. She is said to have 
preached in the neighbouring countries 
and converted Sophia, queen of Cachetia. 

Lebeau, JBas Empire, Neale, Holy 
Eastern Church. Milman, History of 
Christianity. Martinov, Annus Ecclesi- 
asticus. Azevedo. 

St. Niria, May 8, M. at Constanti 
nople, with St. Acacius. (See AGATHA 
(2).) AA.SS. 

MiitCELLA, MARCELLA) and Maurella, 
May 21, MM. with others, in Africa. 

St. Nisia, June 28, M. in Africa. 

St. Nitasse, Dec. 25, the great Martyr 

St. Nitica, NICETA (2). 

St. Nitouche. An imaginary saint, 
invented as patron of hypocrites. 

St. Noaleun or NOALUEN, NOYALA. 

St. Nobilis, Sept. 28, M. in Africa. 

St. Noetburg, NOTBURG. 

St. Noflede or NOFLETA, ANNO- 


St. Noguette, or NORGUETTE, hon 
oured in Bretagne. Guerin. 

St. Noitburg, NOTBURG. 

St. Nominanda, Dec. 31. EM. 

St. Nomititia, June 2, one of two 
hundred and twenty-seven Eoman mar 
tyrs commemorated together in the Wart. 
of St. Jerome. AA.S.S. 

St. Nomoize, NEOMADIA. 

St. Nona (1), Oct. 30, 1st century. 
M. at Leon in Spain, where a well and 
hermitage preserve her memory. AA.SS. 
Espana Sagrada. 

St. Nona (2). (See BERLENDIS.) 

St. Noninna, July 6, V. in Ireland. 
Supposed to be MODWENNA. AA.SS. 

SS. Nonna (1-0), MM. at different 
times and places. 

St. Nonna (7), Aug. 5, + c. 374. 
Mother of St. Gregory Nazianzen. 
Daughter of Phillatius and Gorgonia. 
Wife of Gregory, who had an estate at 
Arianzus, near Nazianzus in Cappadocia ; 
he was a heretic, of the sect called Hyp- 
sistarii, but was converted by his wife 
and became a staunch Catholic, and 
eventually bishop of Nazianzus. They 
had a daughter, GORGONIA (2), but Nonna 
prayed earnestly that she might have a 
son. Her prayer was answered by the 
birth of her famous son, St. Gregory 
Nazianzen. She dedicated him to God 
from his birth, presented him in the 
Church before he could speak, and con 
secrated his hands by making him touch 
the sacred books. She had another son, 
Cesarius; she brought them both up 
with the greatest care, but did not have 
them baptized ; both were sent to school 
at Csesarea, and there Gregory began his 
lifelong friendship with St. Basil the 
Great. Afterwards, at Athens, Julian 
the Apostate was one of his fellow- 
students, It seems that Gregory was 



about thirty when lie was christened. 
In 371 Nonna had a severe illness and 
appeared to be at the point of death. 
Gregory was on his way to pay a visit to 
his friend Basil, but hurried to his mother, 
who, meantime, began to mend and had a 
vision, in which he gave her cakes marked 
with the sign of the cross, and blessed 
by him. Nonna and her husband lived 
to be very old. St. Gregory Nazianzen 
became bishop of Constantinople and a 
doctor of the Church. What we know 
of his parents is chiefly derived from his 
epistles and orations, in which he speaks 
of them with great reverence and aft ec- 
tion. EM. Tilleuiont. Baillet. Smith 
and Wacc. 

St. Nonna (8), March 1, 2 (MELABI, 


a native of Pembroke in the second half 
of the 5th century. 

She is called by Rees, Welsh Saint*, 
NON, daughter of Gynyr of Caregawch 
and wife of Sandde ab Ceredig ab, etc., 
by whom she was mother of St. David, 
patron of Wales. The common legend 
is that she was not married but, although 
a good and pious girl, she fell a victim 
to the lawlessness of the age and the 
violence of Sandde (Latin, Xanthus). 

Shortly before the birth of the great 
Saint, Nonna went to church to make an 
offering and to pray for her safe delivery 
and for the welfare of her child. A 
certain learned man was preaching ; 
when Nonna entered the church he sud 
denly found himself unable to proceed. 
After he had been silent a few minutes, 
the congregation asked what was the 
matter and why he did not go on. He 
was much embarrassed, and confessed 
that, although he had not lost the power 
of speech, that of preaching was sud 
denly taken from him. He desired all 
the people to go out of the church that 
he might try to preach when left alone. 
As the difficulty remained, he cried out, 
" Some one is hiding in the church ! I 
implore him to show himself that I may 
know who it is, whose presence afflicts 
me in this manner." St. Nun crept from 
behind a pillar and confessed that she 
had hidden herself there to escape the 

observation of the congregation, as she 
was,< although unmarried, about to be 
come a mother. At the request of the 
preacher, she wont out of the church and 
the people returned, leaving her ontsido 
the door. The doctor finished his sermon 
and afterwards questioned Nonna, who 
told him her story, from which ho fore 
told that her son should be more eloquent 
than any one else in Britain, and should 
be a famous servant of God. 

Certain magi told tho Prince of Pom- 
broke that a child would be born at that 
time in his territory, who should have 
power over the whole land, and be 
greater than the descendants of the said 
prince. The tyrant accordingly ascer 
tained the time and place where this 
child should come into the world, and 
resolved that if any woman was found 
even sitting down to rest there, she 
should immediately be put to death. 
When the time came, however, a fright 
ful storm prevented the prince or any of 
his men from going out of the houses in 
which they happened to be ; but perfect 
calm and sunshine reigned in the spot 
where Nonna gave birth to David. In 
her pain, she grasped a stone that was 
near her, and the marks of her fingers 
remained impressed in it, as if it had 
been wax. 

A well, named after Nonna, in the 
parish of Pelynt in East Cornwall, where 
she is also called St. Ninnie, is visited 
for superstitious purposes, ainl pins are 
thrown in as gifts by the visitors. 
This well is commonly known as the 
Piskies or Pixies Well, an older dedica 
tion probably than the Christian one. 
(Bright s Ancient Crosses.) Nonna s well 
at St. David s is resorted to for the cure 
of madness. 

Butler says that St. Nun lived and 
died the spiritual mother of many re 
ligious women. Capgrave says she WBH 
second daughter of Bragan, king of 
Brecknock (see ALMIIEDA). 

St. Nonnica, June 28, M. in 202, 
with St. Potainiwna, at Alexandria. 

St. Nonnina or NUNNINA, July 20, 
M. in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Nonnita, NOXNA, mother of St. 



followed by that of the king. Their 
example was followed by all the great 
men of the country. Christianity spread 
through Iberia, and thence through the 
Caucasus, and to the shores of the Cas 
pian sea, and the vast plains lying to the 
north of Iberia. The great temple of 
the god Ormuzd, in the capital of the 
country, near the modern Tiflis, was 
pulled down, notwithstanding the oppo 
sition of some of the chiefs, and Nino 
raised on its ruins, a great cross which 
was transported to Petersburg, in 1801, 
by Prince George Bagration, but which 
the Emperor, Alexander, sent back to 
Georgia, where it had been revered 
for centuries as the palladium of the 

The king built a church and sent an 
embassy to Constantiue to propose an 
alliance with him and to ask for priests 
to instruct his people. Constantine 
gladly complied with this request, and 
the Church of Iberia long kept the faith 
untroubled by the heresies and disputes 
which vexed the ecclesiastical body of 
the empire. 

The historians of this century speak 
of the conversion of the Iberians, but the 
Georgian and Armenian authors are the 
only authorities for the name of the Saint 
and of the King. According to the 
Georgian chronicles, Mihran was son of 
the king of Persia ; probably Schabpour, 
the second of the Sassanides who were 
then reigning in Persia. 

Nino s body lies among the mountains 
in Georgia, in the little church of Sig- 
nakh, said to have been built in the 
fourth century. She is said to have 
preached in the neighbouring countries 
and converted Sophia, queen of Cachetia. 
Lebeau, Bas Empire, Neale, Holy 
Eastern Church. Milman, History of 
Christianity. Martinov, Annus Ecclesi- 
asticus. Azevedo. 

St. Niria, May 8, M. at Constanti 
nople, with St. Acacius. (See AGATHA 
(2).) AA.S8. 

MIRCELLA, MARCELLA) and Maurella, 
May 21, MM. with others, in Africa. 

St. Nisia, June 28, M. in Africa. 

St. Nitasse, Dec. 25, the great Martyr 

St. Nitica, NICBTA (2). 

St. NitOUChe. An imaginary saint, 
invented as patron of hypocrites. 

St. Noaleim or NOALUEN, NOYALA. 

St. Nobilis, Sept. 28, M. in Africa. 

St. Noetburg, NOTBURG. 

St. Noflede or NOFLETA, ANNO- 


St. Noguette, or NORGUETTE, hon 
oured in Bretagne. Guerin. 
St. Noitburg, NOTBURG. 
St. Nominanda, Dec. 31. EM. 
St. Nomititia, June 2, one of two 
hundred and twenty-seven Eoman mar 
tyrs commemorated together in the Mart. 
of St. Jerome. AA.S.S. 
St. Nomoize, NEOMADIA. 
St. Nona(l), Oct. 30, 1st century. 
M. at Leon in Spain, where a well and 
hermitage preserve her memory. AA.SS. 
Espana Sagrada. 

St. Nona (2). (See BERLENDIS.) 
St. Noninna, July 6, V. in Ireland. 
Supposed to be MODWENNA. AA.SS. 

SS. Nonna (!-<>), MM. at different 
times and places. 

St. Nonna (7), Aug. 5, + c. 374. 
Mother of St. Gregory Nazianzen. 
Daughter of Phillatius and Gorgoma. 
Wife of Gregory, who had an estate at 
Arianzus, near Nazianzus in Cappadocia ; 
he was a heretic, of the sect called Hyp- 
sistarii, but was converted by his wife 
and became a staunch Catholic, and 
eventually bishop of Nazianzus. They 
had a daughter, GORGONIA (2), but Nonna 
prayed earnestly that she might have a 
son. Her prayer was answered by the 
birth of her famous son, St. Gregory 
Nazianzen. She dedicated him to God 
from his birth, presented him in the 
Church before he could speak, and con 
secrated his hands by making him touch 
the sacred books. She had another son, 
Cesarius; she brought them both up 
with the greatest care, but did not have 
them baptized ; both were sent to school 
at Cffisarea, and there Gregory began his 
lifelong friendship with St. Basil the 
Great. Afterwards, at Athens, Julian 
the Apostate was one of his fellow- 
students. It seems that Gregory was 



about thirty when he was christened. 
In 371 Nonna had a severe illness and 
appeared to be at the point of death. 
Gregory was on his way to pay a visit to 
Ms friend Basil, but hurried to his mother, 
who, meantime, began to mend and had a 
vision, in which he gave her cakes marked 
with the sign of the cross, and blessed 
by him. Nonna and her husband lived 
to be very old. St. Gregory Nazianzen 
became bishop of Constantinople and a 
doctor of the Church. What we know 
of his parents is chiefly derived from his 
epistles and orations, in which he speaks 
of them with great reverence and affec 
tion. EM. Tillemont. Baillet. Smith 
and Wace. 

St. Nonna (8), March 1, 2 (MBLABI, 


a native of Pembroke in the second half 
of the oth century. 

She is called by Kees, Welsh Saints, 
NON, daughter of Gynyr of Caregawch 
and wife of Sandde ab Ceredig ab, etc., 
by whom she was mother of St. David, 
patron of Wales. The common legend 
is that she was not married but, although 
a good and pious girl, she fell a victim 
to the lawlessness of the age and the 
violence of Sandde (Latin, Xanthus). 

Shortly before the birth of the great 
Saint, Nonna went to church to make an 
offering and to pray for her safe delivery 
and for the welfare of her child. A 
certain learned man was preaching ; 
when Nonna entered the church he sud 
denly found himself unable to proceed. 
After he had been silent a few minutes, 
the congregation asked what was the 
matter and why he did not go on. He 
was much embarrassed, and confessed 
that, although he had not lost the power 
of speech, that of preaching was sud 
denly taken from him. He desired all 
the people to go out of the church that 
he might try to preach when left alone. 
As the difficulty remained, he cried out, 
" Some one is hiding in the church ! I 
implore him to show himself that I may 
know who it is, whose presence afflicts 
me in this manner." St. Nun crept from 
behind a pillar and confessed that she 
had hidden herself there to escape the 

observation of the congregation, as she 
was,* although unmarried, about to be 
come a mother. At the request of the 
preacher, she wont out of the church and 
the people returned, leaving her outside 
the door. The doctor finished his sermon 
and afterwards questioned Nonna, who 
told him her story, from which he fore 
told that her son should be more eloquent 
than any one else in Britain, and should 
be a famous servant of God. 

Certain magi told the Prince of Pom- 
broke that a child would be born at that 
time in his territory, who should have 
power over the whole land, and be 
greater than the descendants of the said 
prince. The tyrant accordingly ascer 
tained the time and place where this 
child should come into the world, and 
resolved that if any woman was found 
even sitting down to rest there, she 
should immediately be put to death. 
When the time came, however, a fright 
ful storm prevented the prince or any of 
his men from going out of the houses in 
which they happened to be ; but perfect 
calm and sunshine reigned in the spot 
where Nonna gave birth to David. In 
her pain, she grasped a stone that was 
near her, and the marks of her fingers 
remained impressed in it, as if it had 
been wax. 

A well, named after Nonna, in the 
parish of Pelynt in East Cornwall, where 
she is also called St. Ninnie, is visited 
for superstitious purposes, and pins are 
thrown in as gifts by the visitors. 
This well is commonly known as the 
Piskies or Pixies Well, an older dedica 
tion probably than the Christian one. 
(Bright s Ancient Crosses.) Nonna s well 
at St. David s is resorted to for the cure 
of madness. 

Butler says that St. Nun lived and 
died the spiritual mother of many re 
ligious women. Capgrave says she was 
second daughter of Bragan, king of 
Brecknock (sec ALMHEDA). 

St. Nonnica, June 28, M. in 202, 
with St. Potamicena, at Alexandria. 

St. Nonnina or NUNNINA, July 20, 
M. in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Nonnita, NONNA, mother of St. 



B. Noppurg, NOTBURG (4). 

St. Norguette, NOGUETTE. 

St. Norrice or NORRIS, same as ST. 
BALSAMIA, nurse of St. Eemigius. 

St. Notburg (1), daughter of Dago- 
bert I., a very popular hero of French 

The historical novelette by M. du Bois 
de Beauehesne, called " La me et la 
Legende de Madame Sainte Notburge" 
Paris, 18G8, professes to have gathered 
the story of St. Notburg from the people 
of the valley of the Neckar, and gives in 
an appendix, many pieces justificatives. 
This legend makes Notburg the daughter 
of Dagobert, by NAN TILDA ; and also 
makes her a friend of SS. Pepin, IDA 

Notburg had a pet white deer, named 
Nisus, which saved her life and did her 
many good services. It carried her 
across the Neckar on its back, and when 
she lived hidden in a cave for fear of the 
invading Slavonians, it brought her 
loaves of bread on its head. Her father 
killed her by pulling off her arm ; but 
when he sent Pepin to bury her quietly, 
Pepin found that she had put her arm 
on again and was alive and preaching. 
She converted a great many of the 
Germans, and taught them cooking and 
other useful arts. 

Notburg died in her cave, and the 
people laid her upon a new wooden cart 
thickly covered with white roses. It 
was drawn by two young white bulls ; 
the stag attended, wearing a wreath of 
white roses and lilies. A great crowd 
of people accompanied the cart until the 
stag laid down its wreath on the ground 
and the bulls stood still, and there the 
saint was buried. 

It is most likely that there was no 
St. Notburg, daughter of Dagobert, and 
that this is either a distortion of the 
story of Notburg, niece of Pepin, or a 
pure fabrication. 

St. Notburg (2), NEITBURG, NOET- 


End of 7th century. Of noble descent 
among the Franks. Daughter of a sister 
of ST. PLECTRUDE, whose sons Drogo and 
Grimoald wished to marry her, either to 
one of themselves or to some other 
prince or noble ; but she, having vowed 

her life to her Saviour, prayed that she 
might die rather than be compelled to 
become the wife of a mortal man. She 
died, and her holiness was attested by 
lights, which appeared from heaven and 
stood at her head and feet as she lay on 
the bier. She was buried at Cologne, 
in the church of the monastery of our 
Lady of the Capital, which had been 
Plectrude s palace. Another corpse 
being laid beside hers, came to life and 
declared the miracle was caused by the 
merits of Notburg; in consequence of 
this, Notburg s worship became very 
popular among the people of Cologne, 
and they called the church by her name. 
She was afterwards translated to the 
Carthusian monastery of St. Beatus near 
Coblentz. Canisius calls her daughter 
of Pepin and Plectrude, and calls Pepiu 
the king. "Item zu Coin am Rein die 
l)egrebnusz der Iteiligc Jwnck frawcn Noit- 
burge, weJche em tochter war der Franck- 
reichiscJien kilnigs Pipini des erstcn. Ir 
muter Plectrudis hat das Betthauss zu 
Coin welcli damals dcs Icunigslurg war zu 
einer ~kirclte weihen lassen" He tells of 
the miracle of the lights and of her 
translation to Coblentz. Surius, Le 
Cointe. Brower. Greven and Molanus, 
Auctaria. Migne, CXXIV. 641, etc. An 
earlier Notburg is probably a fictitious 
person, or rather a misdated and other 
wise garbled version of this one. 

St. Notburg (3), Jan. 26. Patron 
of Constance and of Sulzen. 9th 

Represented holding eight infants in 
her arms, another lying dead at her 

St. Notburga was a Scottish, i.e. pro 
bably Irish, princess. She was married 
about the age of eighteen, and became a 
widow almost immediately. She found 
herself and her expected child liable to 
great dangers from wicked people, 
possibly they were her husband s heirs, 
so she fled from her own country, and 
after much wandering, came to Kleggow 
in Germany, and there, at a place not 
far from the right bank of the Ehine, in 
the county of Sultz, where the village of 
Buella afterwards stood, Notburga gave 
birth to nine infants. 

As she had no water with which to 



cliristen her babes, she told her faithful 
maid to take her stick and strike the rock, 
whereupon a clear stream gushed forth, 
even to this day it heals many diseases. 
Unfortunately, one of the children died 
before they could baptize it ; however, 
they christened the remaining eight, and 
they, with their mother Notburga, lived 
and died in great sanctity. The only 
one whose name is preserved is ST. 
HIXTA or YXTA, who was buried near 
Buella at Jestelen. where a chapel and 
altar were dedicated in her name ; and 
before the Reformation, many persons 
went there to worship this St. Ilixta. 
AA.SS. Eckenstein. 

B. Notburg (4;, Sep. i:> ot u, Nov. 


NUPPUKG, 1265 or 1266-1313. Patron 
of Brixen in Tyrol, of women in labour, 
and of cattle, and a favourite saint of the 
peasantry throughout Bavaria. 

Represented (1 ) with a sickle, either 
in her hand or suspended in the air, a 
bunch of ears of corn in her hand, a 
bunch of keys at her girdle ; (2) sur 
rounded with children, because she 
took care of her master s numerous 

Notburg s parents were vassals of the 
lords of Rottenburg in the Tyrol. At the 
age of eighteen, she went as cook into 
the service of Count Henry of Rotteuburg 
and his wife Gutta ; and after their 
death remained with their son Henry and 
his wife Odilia. The old count 8nd 
countess had encouraged Notburg to give 
the remnants of the food of the house 
hold to the poor, but Odilia and her 
husband were very stingy and uncharit 
able, and forbade the poor to come to the 
castle. Notburg, however, saved her 
own food on Fridays, and took that to 
the poor. One day Count Henry de 
tected her, and said, " What are you 
carrying ? " She confessed and showed 
him, but he saw instead of food, shavings ; 
and instead of wine, soap-suds. He then 
turned her out of the house, but just as 
she was going, Odilia suddenly fell sick 
of an illness from which she never re 
covered, and so Notburg stayed to nurse 
her and procured her conversion and 
happy death. But as soon as the wicked 
countess was dead, the good maiden took 

service with a peasant farmer, under tho 
express condition that she should be 
allowed to go to church on vigils, directly 
the bell rang. Tho place was Eben, 
between Metz and Valers, not far from a 
chapel dedicated to St. Rupert. 

Once, on a Sunday in harvest time, 
when the corn was ready to be bound 
into sheaves, the farmer urged Notburg 
to go on working, although sho heard 
the chapel bells ringing; the damsel 
lifted up her eyes to heaven, saying : 
" God be the Judge, this sickle will bo 
the witness of the agreement that I was 
to go." Having thus spoken, sho lifted 
it on high, and it was suspended in the 
air, like a lance-head hung on a nail, so 
that the reapers could see and take 
note of it. Then the farmer took the 
work-people home until Notburg had 
finished her prayers in St. Rupert s 
chapel. She never neglected the smallest 
of her duties, and was particularly atten 
tive to the animals ; she is, therefore, 
much resorted to by pious peasants as 
the protector of cattle. 

Countess Odilia, after her death, was 
compelled to haunt the pig-stye, grunt 
ing, because she had ordered Notburg to 
give the broken meat to the pigs instead 
of to the poor. 

After Notburg left the service of 
Count Henry of Rottenburg, everything 
went wrong with him. His lands were 
laid waste by civil war and he was 
reduced to poverty. His conscience 
told him that it served him right, for 
dismissing Notburg. Accordingly, he 
begged her to return to his service, 
promising that she should be a mother 
to the poor and give away as much as 
she chose. She was sincerely attached 
to the family, and yielded to his per 
suasions. So he presented the holy 
maid -servant to his second wife, Mar 
garet of Hoheneck, and from that time 
all went well with him : in five years 
he grew rich. Notburg served him 
as housekeeper for nineteen years, then 
she died. Two oxen were harnessed 
to the cart on which her coffin was 
laid ; . no one guided them, but they 
took their sacred burden at once to the 
chapel of St. Rupert near Ebon, where 
the saint used to resort for her devotions. 



A series of wood-cuts in the Acta Sanc 
torum represent the chief events of Not- 
burg s life, and her funeral. The last 
of them has angels lifting the coffin 
from the cart, to put it in the grave. 

Some time after Notburg s death, the 
castle of Eottenburg was burnt down, 
all except the chamber formerly occupied 
by the saint, which Count Henry had 
transformed into a chapel. 

AA.SS. Ott. Cahier. Wetzer and 
Welte. Miss Eckenstein remarks that 
the stories of NOTBUIIG of Eottenburg, 
EADIANA of Wellenburg, and GUNTILD 
of Biberach are precisely the same, but 
that they are considered to be distinct 

St. Noumeze or Noumoize, NEO- 


SS. Novella (1-3), June 1. Three 
martyrs of this name are commemorated 
with ST. AUCEGA. AA.SS. 

St. Novella (4), April 12, M. at 
Capua. AA.S8. 

St. No vita, NONNA, mother of St. 

St. Noyala or NOIALA, July 6, V. M., 
called in Brittany NOALUEN (white No 
yala), sometimes NOALEUN. She is the 
same as the Cornish ST. NEWLYN. Patron 
of Pontivy, in the diocese of Veunes in 
Brittany. The legend told at Pontivy 
is that St. Noyala came from England 
to France with her nurse, and that they 
crossed the sea on a leaf. The chapel 
of Le Beze, not far from Beignan, marks 
the spot where she was beheaded by order 
of the tyrant Nizon, unknown in secular 
history. After this event, Noyala jour 
neyed to Pontivy, carrying her head in 
her hands. During Lent many wor 
shippers from the surrounding country 
repair to her shrine. AA.SS. 

SS. Nubilita and Victuria, Oct. 1 7, 
MM. at Alexandria. AA.SS. 

St. Nun, NONNA, mother of St. 

SS. Nune and Mane, Oct. 28, 
worshipped by the Armenians. Nune 
is the same as ST. NINO ; Mane, her com 
panion, is only known to the Armenians, 
but there is to be an account of them 
in the AA.SS., Dec. 15. 

St. Nunechia or NUNEQUE. (See 

St. Nunia, NINO. 

SS. Nunilo and Alodia, Oct. 22, 
W. MM. 851. Patrons of Huesca and 
Leira. They were daughters of a Mo 
hammedan father and Christian mother 
in Spain, in the time of Abder Eahman. 
After their father s death, their mother 
married another Mohammedan ; in con 
sequence of this, the young women went 
to live with a Christian aunt at Vervete, 
supposed to be Castro Viejo, near Majara 
in Castile. Their piety and persistent 
celibacy attracted the attention of the 
Moors, who endeavoured to pervert them 
by many persuasions and threats, but all 
in vain. So at last they won the mar 
tyr s crown by being beheaded for the 
faith. E.M. AA.SS. Eulogius. Butler. 

St. Nunnina or NONNINA, July 20, 
M. in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Nuppurg, NOTBUIIG (4). 

St. Nurtila. Patron of a church in 
the diocese of Vienne in Dauphine- 
Guerin. Stadler. 

St. Nusca, otherwise NUSCIA, 
NUSTA, or NUSTKA, May 20, V. M. 
Commemorated with SS. BASIL A and 
AUREA. Supposed to have been 
martyred either at Eome or Ostia. 

St. Nutrix, June 16, 6th century. 
Nurse of St. Felix. Her name is 
not known. St. Maurus of Cassarea, in 
Syria, joined a company of Christians 
who were going to Eome. His wife 
Euphrosyne would not accompany him, 
but allowed him to take their little 
boy Felix with his faithful nurse. On 
the voyage, Maurus saved the whole 
party from shipwreck. Arrived in Italy, 
he settled at Spoleto, where he found the 
people terrorized by a dragon. He killed 
it. Nutrix and Felix died in one day. 
Maurus survived them twenty years, and 
became a friend and disciple of St. 
Benedict and first abbot of Spoleto. 

St. Nympha or NINFA, Nov. 10, her 
translation Aug. 1 9. 5th century. One 
of the four great patronesses of Palermo. 
The others were AGATHA, CHRISTINA and 
OLIVE (5). Nympha lived at Palermo, but 
when Sicily was invaded by the Goths, 
she fled to Italy and settled at Savona 



in Tuscany, where she died in peace. 
E.M. Butler. 

St. Nymphodora (1), NYMPHADOBKA, 
March 13, M. (See THEUSETA.) 

St. Nymphodora (2), Sept. 10. (See 

St. Nynnina, NONNA, mother of St. 

St. Nyphodora, NYMPHODORA. 

St. Obdulia, Sept. 5, Dec. 13, V. 

specially worshipped at Toledo, Sept. 5. 
She is probably the same as ODILIA of 
HOHENBURG. Possibly some relic of her 
was brought to Toledo this day. R.M. 
AA.SS. Stadler. 

St. Occilla, EULALIA. 

St. Ocella, ASELLA. 

St. Ochene, SCHBNE. 

St. Octavia, April 15, M. at Antioch 
in Syria. AA.SS. 

St. Oda (1), Oct. 18, 9, Feb. 16. 4th 
century. Sister of SS. LIBARIA, MANNA, 
GERTRUDE, and SUSANNA, and of the holy 
men, Eliphius and Eucharius. The two 
brothers and some of the sisters were 
martyred at Toul on the Moselle in 
302. Some of the names appear in 
another family of saints of later date. 
Compare HOYLDA. Stadler. Smith and 

St. Oda (2), 6th century. A Suabian 
by birth, mother of St. Arnold, bishop 
of Metz. Wife of St. Bodagist, a noble 
man of Austrasia who died in 588. Re 
presented as one of a group, of whom 
St. Arnold of Metz (July 18, -f 640) is 
the chief figure ; he is accompanied by 
his mother St. Oda, his wife ST. DODA, 
and his son St. Cloud of Metz. Besides 
St. Cloud, Ocla had a grandson Ansegi- 
sus, who married ST. BEGGA of Anden, 
ancestress of Charlemagne. Bodagist 
built the monastery of St. Martin-aux- 
Chenes ; Oda is said to have founded 
that of Hamaye or Amay, but this is 
perhaps a confusion with ST. ODA (3), 
wife of Boggo. Cahier. Baring Gould. 

St. Oda (3) or ODDA, Nov. 27, 
in Belgium Oct. 23. 8th century. + 
c. 723. Represented holding a palm 
and a church, or feeding the poor and 
lepers. Guerin calls her Ste. Oda de 
Mehaigne. She is said to be the 
daughter of Childebert III., king of the 
Franks (695-711). Oda married Boggo, 

VOL. ii. 

duke of Aquitaine. They had a son, 
Eudes, duke of Aquitaine (+ 735). 
Boggo died in 688, and Oda thencefor 
ward devoted her life to works of mercy 
and piety. She left Aquitaine and went 
with her husband s nephew, St. Hubert, 
the great hunter (bishop of Liege in 708), 
back to her own country Austrasia, 
where Pepin was ruling. She settled at 
Hamay on the Meuse, near Huy, and 
built a church there dedicated in the 
name of St. George, and beside it, a 
hospice where she attended to the sick 
and twice a day fed the poor. One day 
when she had given away all the food, 
a man came and asked for hospitality. 
She said, " Alas, there is not a morsel of 
food left." He sat down nevertheless, 
and bade her serve him. She flew to 
her shelves so lately empty, hoping 
some scrap might still be there, and lo, 
every table and cupboard was full and 
plenteous with all manner of store. 
She turned in wonderment to her guest. 
" Because thou hast done it unto these 
My brethren, thou hast done it unto Me," 
He said, and vanished. AA.SS. Smith 
and Wace. Martin. Biog. Liegeoise. 

St. Oda (4), Nov. 27, Feb. 27 (ODDA, 
ODE ; sometimes called JOTTE, JUTTA, 
OTHA, OTTA, also erroneously ODILIA), + 
713 or 726. Patron of Rhode, in Brabant. 
Represented with a crown and a magpie. 
This Oda was daughter of a king of Ire 
land. She was blind, and when she heard 
of the miracles wrought at the tomb of 
St. Lambert, bishop of Liege ( + 710), 
she made a pilgrimage to his sepulchre 
to be cured. The saint appeared to her 
and granted what she wished. In grati 
tude Oda consecrated herself by a vow 
to Christ, and led a holy life in Brabant. 
Consequently, in Belgium she is often 
confounded with ST. ODILIA (3) of Ho- 
henburg, who is invoked in Germany, 



for diseases of the eye. When St. Oda 
had cliosen a religious life after her cure, 
her father still tried to persuade her to 
marry, so she hid in a wood ; but the place 
of her retreat was revealed by a magpie, 
which drew attention to it by chattering. 
Because of the miracles wrought at Oda s 
tomb, she was translated, in 1103. Le 
Mire, Fasti. Cahier. Butler. Brit. 
Sancta. Mas Latrie. 

B. Oda (5), April 20, V. M. 1158. 
Prioress of Rivroelle, in Hainault. 
Daughter and heiress of Wibert and 
Thescelina, who arranged a marriage 
for her befitting their rank and wealth. 
The ceremony was intended to be 
solemnized with great magnificence ; 
numerous guests assembled, an im 
mense concourse of people crowded the 
church and the streets. The service 
began ; the priest asked the bridegroom 
three times, according to custom, whether 
he would take this woman, etc. Three 
times he promised to be a dutiful and 
faithful husband. The same question 
was then asked of the bride for the first 
time. Everybody listened, but not a 
word was heard. The silence became 
embarrassing. A matron who had the 
privilege of standing close to the bride, 
exhorted her in a low voice not to be 
afraid to speak, and reminded her that 
her silence was disrespectful to her 
parents and to her fiance. The priest 
then asked for the second time, whether 
she accepted Simon for her husband. 
Oda replied that she would not have 
him or any other mortal man, as she had 
already chosen Jesus Christ for her hus 
band. Simon, seeing himself rejected, 
left the church and returned to his own 
house with all haste. Wibert and Thes 
celina were very angry, and Oda, fearing 
that they would still insist on her marry 
ing this man or some other, disfigured 
herself by cutting off her nose with a 
sword. On this account, the Church 
places her among the martyrs. She 
soon afterwards took the veil, and even 
tually became prioress of a Prsemonstra- 
tensian convent of Rivroelle, attached to 
the monastery of Gode Hoge (Bona 
Spes), which was at that time governed 
by the Abbot Otho, and he, after some 
years, promoted Oda to be prioress. 

AA.SS. from a contemporary Life. Le 
Paige, Bib. Prsemons. 

St. Odemaris, May 7, M. in Africa. 

St. Odilia (l), Oct. 21, Nov. 21, 
Jan. 29, translation July 18. Patron 
of the crucifers of Huy. She was a 
companion of ST. UBSULA (1), and was 
translated from Cologne to the church 
of the Holy Cross at Huy, in Belgium. 
This Odilia is said to be the daughter 
of a ST. EULALIA, who went on the same 
expedition, and to have had a sister ST. 
DOIUA. Migne. Stadler. Potthast, 
who refers to a history of the translation, 
by Banelt. 

St. Odilia (2), ADILIA of Orp. 

St. Odilia (3), Dec. 13 (ODILA, 
OZILIA), + c. 720. First abbess of 
Hohenburg. Patron of Alsace and of 
Strasburg, and invoked against blindness 
and diseases of the eye. 

Represented (1) in white, as a canon- 
ess, holding an open book, on which lie 
a pair of eyes, one on each page ; (2) 
praying for the soul of her father, an 
angel is seen taking him out of the 
flames and leading him to heaven ; (3) 
with St. Erard or Everard ; (4) there 
exists on a stone, a representation of 
the presentation of the nunnery to her. 
In this, she wears a long black cloak 
and a veil, and has two long plaits of 

Odilia was the daughter of Adalric 
or Ethico, or Hettic, a leader of the 
Alemanni, and first duke of Alsace ; 
her mother was Bereswind or Berchsind, 
said to be a niece of St. Leodegarius 
(Leger). They lived at Oberenheim, 
about 20 miles south of Strasburg, at 
the foot of the hill of Hohenburg or 
Altitona. For years they had no chil 
dren. At last, in answer to many 
prayers, they hoped to have a son, but 
the joy of Adalric turned to rage when 
he found his child was not only a useless 
little female, but blind. He felt ashamed 
of it and ordered the infant to be killed, 
or at all events taken away and allowed 
to perish. At the same time he had 
it proclaimed with trumpets, that the 
duchess had given birth to a dead child. 
A pious woman took the babe and nursed 



it as her own at Scherweiler. About a 
year after, the child was given to a re 
lation in the nunnery of Bcaume (Palma) 
in Franche Comte, or by some variants 
of the legend, she floated down the 
river to Beaume in a chest. She was 
christened by Everard, abbot of the 
newly -built monastery of Eberheim- 
Miinster. According to Stadler, the 
story of SS. Everard of Ratisbon and 
his brother St. Hidulph and the miracle 
by which they were brought to Alsace, 
has been introduced by writers who 
did not know of the existence of the 
monastery of Eberheim. With the grace 
of baptism, Odilia received her sight and 
looked steadily at Everard, who said, 
" So, my child, may you look at me in 
the kingdom of heaven." Adalric and 
Beresvvind had several other children. 
When their eldest son Hugh was grown 
up, he went and found his sister, and 
without asking his father s leave, he 
brought her home. The duke was very 
angry and struck Hugh a fatal blow ; 
but horrified at his own violence, he 
received his daughter and did penance 
for his crime. A nun who came from 
England was hired at the daily wages 
of a servant, to attend on Odilia. Soon 
her parents planned a marriage for her, 
and as they disregarded her protest 
against such a step, she fled from her 
home and crossed the Ehine. Her 
father pursued her and at last tracked 
her to a cleft in a rock, which closed 
upon her as he approached ; the place 
is said to be at Muntzbach, in Breisgau. 
She returned to her father s house, for 
the next incident in her history is that, 
in (586, Adalric met her one day carry 
ing meal in an earthen dish, under her 
cloak, to make food for the poor. As 
he had already begun to give alms and 
endowments for the good of his soul, he 
gave Odilia his castle of Hohenburg or 
Altitona, with all its lands and revenues, 
that she might make it into a nunnery. 
The hill of Hohenburg rises over 2,000 
feet abruptly from the valley of the 
Rhine. It had a pre-christian wall 
round it, still called the heathen wall, 
and there was a plateau on the top, on 
which the monastery was built. In ten 
years the place was ready for habitation. 

She had a hundred and thirty nuns, 
amongst whom were three daughters of 
her brother Adelard, ST. EUGENIA (4) 
her successor, ST. ATT A LA, abbess of St. 
Stephen s at Strasburg, and ST. GUN- 
DELIND. Odilia was very ascetic ; she 
had a bear s skin for her bed. She had 
a special devotion to St. John the Bap 
tist, because she had received her sight 
in baptism, and she purposed to build 
a little church in his honour, with a cell 
near it. While she was undecided about 
the spot, she went out one night with 
only her niece Eugenia. The Baptist 
appeared and showed her the site and 
the extent of the chapel. She began 
the building next day. She charged 
Eugenia not to tell any one of the appari 
tion as long as Odilia lived. One day, 
during the building, a great cart of 
stones was coming up, and the driver 
lagged behind ; the cart with its four 
oxen fell over the cliff, a height of 
seventy feet ; the oxen picked them 
selves up and drew their load safely up 
by the right road. The chapel was 
called the Miracle-chapel or St. John s 
House of Prayer, and there they kept 
the relics which St. Everard had pre 
sented to her at her baptism. 

In the 7th and 8th centuries there 
were frequent pilgrimages to Rome and 
to various shrines in other places, from 
Britain, Ireland and elsewhere, but 
Odilia s hill was so high and steep that 
very few of the pilgrims climbed up to 
seek her hospitality ; so with the ap 
proval of her community, she built a 
new house, called Nieder Hohenburg, 
and afterwards Niedermiinster, at the 
foot of the mountain, and here she en 
tertained such numbers of pilgrims that 
very soon the two chapels which Adalric 
built were too small for the concourse 
of persons who passed through the place, 
and she begged him to build a large 
church, which he did in 690. He and 
his wife died very soon afterwards. 
Odilia attended to them dutifully as 
long as they lived, and after their death, 
she prayed with many tears for their 
salvation. On the ground formerly oc 
cupied by the garden, is the Zdlircn- 
capclle, the chapel of tears, where the 
stone on which she knelt in shown with 



great reverence, hollowed by her knees. 
Near this chapel is the tomb where once 
her body lay, but in 1793 it was de 
stroyed like many other sacred objects. 
Three lindens which she planted pre 
served her memory until very recent 
times, and the grass watered with her 
tears remained intensely green. Stadler 
says that her Will and some other 
writings are still extant. Miss Ecken- 
stein says that the cave, the well, the 
hill top and other points with which 
her name is connected had associations 
dating from pre-christian times. She 
says there was a nunnery on the Hohen- 
burg in or before the 9th century, but 
that the legends concerning Odilia s 
blindness and cure, her father, her re 
lationship to St. Leger, and other cir 
cumstances have grown up in later 
mediaeval times, and the worship of a 
heathen goddess has been transferred 
to a (perhaps mythical) Christian Saint. 
ST. OBDULIA is perhaps Odilia ; although 
she is called a consecrated Virgin at 
Toledo, it is conjectured that some relic 
of Odilia has been carried there and her 
name corrupted into Obdulia. 

RM. AA.SS.O.S.B. Stadler. Cahier. 
Ott. Guette, Hist, dc I Eglise de France. 
Hungari, Muster Prediyter, Vol. xx. 
" Predigt von P. Dinkel." Eckenstein. 

SS. Odilia (4) and Gertrude, ODA 
(1) and GERTRUDE. 

St. Odilia (5), Nov. 10 (OTHILIA, 
ADELAIDE), V. + 1197. Nun in Ger 
many. "Daughter of Henry of Creut- 
zenacht, a soldier. She joined B. 
UDEGEVA, a recluse then famous for 
her sanctity, asceticism and miracles. 
Odilia imitated and emulated her teacher 
so well that she also became a saint. 
Gynecseum. Guerin. Mas Latrie. 

B. Odislawa, ZDISLAWA. 

St. Odnata. An Irish saint, perhaps 
the same as OSNATA. 

St. Odrada, Nov. 3 (OLDRADA, 
ORADA). Perhaps 9th century. She 
was the child of rich nobles in Brabant 
and was born at Scheps, near Moll, not 
far from Gheel. She was beautiful and 
had many offers of marriage, but re 
solved to dedicate herself to Christ. 
Her mother died and, under the in 
fluence of a second wife, her father 

became unkind. One day the whole 
family went to the memorial service of 
the dedication of the church of Millegem. 
Odrada asked for a horse to ride with 
them. They said she could take one of 
the unbroken stallions that were running 
wild in the field. Every one was afraid to 
go near them, and it was as much as 
any one s life was worth to catch one. 
She went boldly into the field, and they 
all came quietly up and offered them 
selves to her. She mounted one and 
quickly overtook her father. He dis 
mounted and prostrated himself at her 
feet. On the same day she brought a 
well of healing water out of a sandy 
plain. Soon she died and, by her own 
wish, two colts were harnessed to her 
bier and carried her to the village of 
Aleym near Bois-le-Duc, where she was 
buried. She wrought so many miracles 
that a church was eventually built over 
the place. AA.SS. Le Mire, Fasti. 

St. Oeille is perhaps EULALIA. 

St. GEolana, YOLAND. 

St. Oeva, EVA of Avitina. 

St. Offa (1), ULPHIA. 

St. Offa (2). End of 10th or early 
in llth century. Recluse near Capua, 
and afterwards abbess of St. Peter s at 
Benevento. Her name does not appear 
in any of the Calendars, but her sanctity 
is vouched by Pope Victor III. (1086- 
1087) on the authority of Bella, his 
great-aunt, who had been a nun in the 
same convent from early youth to ex 
treme old age and died piously some 
years before Victor wrote. She was a 
pupil of St. Offa in her youth, and re 
lated many incidents which proved the 
holiness of the abbess. AA.SS.O.S.B. 
IX. p. 251. 

St. Offange, EUPHEMIA (1). 

St. Offrida, OSTHRIDA. 

St. Ognie (1), ANEGLIA. 

St. Ognie (-), MARY or OIGNIES. 

St. Ohnkummer or OHNKUMMER- 


St. Oilda, HOYLDA. 

St. Oine, Dec. 25, EUGENIA. 

Saints of these names, when met with in 
the south of France, generally mean 



St. Olda, HULDAH. 

St. Oldrada, ODRADA. 

St. Olga, afterwards HELEN, June 
11, -f 97cS,Bottiger says 969. Duchess 
of Kiew. First Christian sovereign of 
Eussia. Patron of Eussia. Wife of 
Igor, the son of Eurik from whom all 
princes in Eussia trace their descent. 
In the oldest records it is said that 
Oleg, the regent, brought Olga from 
Pleskof or Pskov to Kiew and gave her 
to Igor for a wife. More modern his 
tories say that she was of the same Va 
rangian race as Igor, but of a low class, 
and that Igor first saw her at Vouibout- 
skoy near Pskov, where he was hunting ; 
he was struck by her stately beauty and 
good sense. She was standing by the 
river when he expressed his admiration 
too warmly and she proudly declared 
she would drown herself there and then 
rather than submit to any indignity. He 
saw that she was born to be a queen. They 
were married in 908. Oleg continued 
to rule until ill 2, when Igor reigned 
alone until 945. He had perpetual wars, 
sometimes with the Greek empire, some 
times with the Petchenegues, the Drev- 
liaus and the various fierce nomad tribes 
who kept making raids into Europe from 
the lands which are now the eastern side 
of Eussia. He tolerated the Christians. 
There was already, in 945, a cathedral 
of St. Elia, at Kiew. Igor enriched 
himself and his boiars with the spoils 
of his enemies, but at last they carried 
their love of plunder too far ; the Drev- 
lians, who had for some years paid him 
tribute, rose against him at Korosthene, 
under Mai, their chief. They bent down 
two trees, tied him by one arm and one 
leg to each, and then let the trees spring 
back to their natural height, thus tearing 
the wretched Igor in pieces. Sviatoslav, 
the son of Igor and Olga, was very young, 
Imt his mother took the helm of the State 
in her strong hands. Her first care was 
to avenge her husband. In a woman of 
her nation and religion, it was a duty 
and a point of honour so to do. The 
Drevlians, proud of what they had done, 
and fearing not at all the woman and 
boy, who were then at the head of their 
enemies, conceived the project of seiz 
ing Kiew and making Olga marry their 

prince. They sent twenty ambassadors 
to say to her, " We have killed your 
husband because of his rapacity, but the 
Drevlian princes are magnanimous, their 
country is good, come and be the wife of 
our Prince Mai." Olga dissembled her 
anger, and pretended to accept their 
offer. " To-morrow," said she, " you 
shall receive all the honours that are 
due to you; return for the present to 
your boats, and when my people come to 
you, make them carry you in their arms." 
As soon as they were gone, she had a 
great pit dug in her court-yard, and next 
day she sent her men to fetch the am 
bassadors. According to her instruc 
tions, they said, " We will neither go on 
foot nor on horseback, carry us in our 
boats." " What can we do ? " said the 
men of Kiew as they carried the envoys, 
" We are slaves ! Igor is dead, and our 
princess consents to marry your prince." 
Olga was watching from her balcony ; 
she marked the proud looks of the un 
suspecting deputies. As soon as they 
came to the pit, her people threw them 
and their boats into it. The vindic 
tive princess asked them if they were 
content with this honour. The unfortu 
nates shrieked out their repentance, but 
it was too late, the earth was thrown 
back upon their living grave. Olga 
made haste to send a messenger to the 
Drevlians to say that they must send a 
number of their greatest men, as the 
people of Kiew would not let her leave 
them without a numerous and distin 
guished escort. The credulous Drev 
lians at once sent off their illustrious 
chiefs and citizens. As soon as they 
arrived they were shown to a bath, 
according to the custom of the country, 
and there they were shut in and burnt 
alive. Olga now sent word to the Drev 
lians to make ready the hydromel at 
Korosthene, as she was coming there, for 
before her second marriage she must 
celebrate funeral games on the tomb of 
her first husband. She went there, and 
watered the ashes of Igor with her tears, 
raised a cairn over his grave, and cele 
brated games in his honour. A ban 
quet was then held, of which the young 
Eussian warriors did the honours. The 
Drevlians soon asked these young men 



what their ambassadors were doing, and 
were told that they would arrive with 
Igor s guards. Before long the Drev- 
lians began to be tipsy. Olga rose from 
the table ; this was a signal for a mas 
sacre of the revellers. Five thousand 
of them were sacrificed round the tomb 
of Igor. Olga returned to Kiew and 
marched with an army against the Drev- 
lians. Her son Sviatoslav began the 
fight. The Drevlians fled and shut 
themselves up within their walls. The 
inhabitants of Korosthene defended their 
town desperately all the summer. Olga 
had recourse to a new stratagem. She 
sent them a conciliatory message : " Why 
prolong the struggle? All your other 
towns are in my hands ; already your 
compatriots are peacefully cultivating 
their fields, while you are determined to 
die of hunger. You have no need to 
fear my vengeance ; it was satisfied at 
Kiew, on the grave of my husband." 
They offered her a tribute of honey and 
furs. She affected the greatest gene 
rosity, and said she would be content if 
they would bring her three sparrows and 
a pigeon for each house. The besieged 
eagerly agreed to her demand and hoped 
to see the hostile army withdraw, but as 
soon as it began to get dark Olga s men 
fastened tinder to the birds, set it on 
fire, and let them loose. They flew back 
to their nests and set the whole place 
on fire. The inhabitants who sought 
safety in flight, fell into the hands of 
the Russians. The grand-princess put 
the most influential of them to death, 
condemned some to slavery, and imposed 
on the others a crushing tax. She tra 
velled with her son all over the con 
quered country, levying tribute for the 
Treasury of Kiew, but the inhabitants 
of Korosthene were ordered to send the 
third of the taxes to Olga herself, to her 
own estate of Vouichegorod, which it is 
supposed was settled on her by Oleg, 
as the wife of the grand-prince. The 
following year she travelled through 
Northern Russia, and everywhere made 
useful and benevolent regulations. She 
was universally remembered with affec 
tion ; even the Drevlians found their 
country improved by her wise adminis 
tration. Her sleigh was kept as a 

precious relic at Kiew, a hundred and 
fifty years after death. After these 
exertions she went and lived quietly 
with her son at Kiew. She saw the 
superiority of the Christian religion, and 
she listened to its doctrines and con 
versed with its priests, until she became 
convinced that this was the true faith, 
and resolved to accept it as hers. She 
went to Constantinople, the capital of 
the Greek Empire and religion. The 
Patriarch instructed and baptized her, 
giving her the name of Helen. The 
Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus 
was her godfather. He has left an ac 
count of her visit to his Court, and 
of the ceremonies of her reception. 
Many other particulars were added by 
story-tellers of later date. 

Laden with presents and compliments, 
she returned to Kiew. She ardently 
wished for the conversion of her son, 
and pressed him much on the subject, 
but he remained an obstinate heathen and 
savage. In 907, while he was fighting 
in Bulgaria, the Petcheneguestook advan 
tage of his absence to besiege his mother 
and children in Kiew. The garrison were 
nearly starved into surrender, but they 
managed to make the enemy believe that 
the redoubtable Sviatoslaf was at hand, 
and the Petchenegues fled in haste. 
When Sviatoslaf came back he drew 
such a picture of Pereyaslavetz (the 
ancient Marcianopolis), now Preslawa, 
of its riches of nature and art, that he 
nearly persuaded his boyars to remove 
thither with him and make it their 
capital ; but his mother, who was now 
old and infirm, said, " Just wait a very 
short time, and when you have buried 
me, you can go where you like." Four 
days afterwards, Olga died. She had 
expressly forbidden that any " Corpse 
Feast " should be held on her tomb after 
the manner of the idolaters. She was 
buried by a Christian priest. She was 
deeply mourned by her son and grand 
children, and all the people watered her 
grave with tears of gratitude. The 
Church calls her " Saint ; " history calls 
her " The Wise." Nestor says she was 
" the dawn and the star of salvation for 
Russia." Her example had great weight 
with her grandson Vladimir in deciding 



him to adopt the Christian religion. 
Karamsin, Hist, of Russia. Martinov, 
Annus Ecclesiasticus. Bottiger, Mittlerc 
Geschichte, III. 

St. Olive (1), OLIVIA, ULIVA, March 
5, V. M., 2nd century. The name of 
" St. Olivia " of Brescia is a corruption 
of "St. Illidius" but there is a tra 
dition that this saint was a virgin put 
to death for the faith, with various 
tortures, in the time of the Emperor 
Adrian. Her relics were kept in the 
church of St. Afra at Brescia in Italy. 
In the year 1597, a certain priest had 
a right to some property, but it was 
kept from him by a powerful adversary. 
Having spent nearly all his patrimony 
in trying to get possession of it, he made 
a vow to offer a precious gift to St. Olive 
in the event of his succeeding. He im 
mediately gained his cause without more 
trouble, and fulfilled his vow by offering, 
with all reverence and devotion, a golden 
olive branch with fruit on it, to the 
relics of the holy Saint, in the church of 
the Capuchins, at Salo, on the western 
shore of the lake of Benaco. AA.SS. 
Mas Latrie. 

St. Olive (2) or OLIVA, May 2,. V. M. 
claimed by Tamayo as a Spaniard. The 
Bollandists think it is the Saint of Anagni 
or Palermo. 

St. Olive (3) (OLIVIA ULIVA), was 
the daughter of " the celebrated Emperor 
Julian." He was bound by a promise 
to his deceased wife, never to take a 
second unless he could find a lady as 
beautiful [as the first. There was but 
one in the world and that was her 
daughter. The Emperor procured a dis 
pensation from the pope to permit him 
to marry his own daughter, but the 
princess refused. They had an argu 
ment. She said there were many women 
quite as beautiful as she. He said, " Yes, 
there are plenty of pretty women, but 
not one of them has hands like yours." 
So she cut off her beautiful hands and 
presented them to him. He was so 
angry that he ordered two of his servants 
to take her to the kingdom of Britain (or 
Bretagne ?) and there kill her. They took 
her to Britain and said they would spare 
her life if she would promise not to 
betray them to her father. To this she 

agreed and they left her. Presently the 
king of that country came out to hunt 
and found this maimed, yet beautiful 
damsel. He took her home to his wife, 
and they gave her the care of their 
infant son. One of the barons fell in 
love with her and took her by the arm 
to drag her away with him. As she had 
no hands to hold the baby with, it fell 
to the ground and was killed. The 
baron rushed to the king and told him 
Olive had dropped the baby and killed 
it. While the king and queen were 
weeping over the child, the Virgin Mary 
restored Olive s hands and guided her to 
a monastery, but here the devil entered 
into the priest, and Olive was accused of 
stealing the chalice from the altar. She 
was put in a box and thrown into the 
sea. Two merchants of Castile saw the 
box from their ship and took it on board. 
When they saw what a beautiful girl 
they had rescued from the deep, they 
brought her to their King Kobert. The 
king at once fell in love with her, and, 
although his mother objected, he married 
Olive. The old queen retired to a 

Very soon the King of Navarre invaded 
Castile and King Robert had to go and 
give him battle. In his absence Olive 
had a fine son. Sinibald, the regent, 
sent off a courier at once with a letter to 
the king. The messenger had to pass 
the monastery where the queen mother 
lived, and took the news to her. She 
commanded him to stay that night and 
to come back the same way and bring 
tidings of her son. While he slept 
she stole the letter and substituted 
another, saying that the queen had given 
birth to a horrible monster and that 
such a mother ought to be put to death. 
The good king attributed the misfortune 
to some sin of his own, and wrote that 
he was soon coming home victorious, and 
that meanwhile every care was to be 
taken of Olive. The courier again 
stopped at the monastery and the wicked 
queen gave him some money and a cup 
of drugged wine, and while he was in a 
deep sleep she stole the letter and re 
placed it by one, ordering the young 
queen and her son to be burned. The 
regent showed the letter to Olive, but 



said he would not execute the cruel 
sentence, but would make a pretence of 
burning a woman and would commit her 
again to the sea with her baby. This 
time the box floated to the mouth of the 
Tiber, and there she was found by two 
good old women who at once adopted 
her. Meantime the King of Castile re 
turned in triumph from the war and was 
surprised that the viceroy and all the 
barons came out in deep mourning to 
meet him. When the truth became clear, 
he sent and burnt the monastery to the 
ground with his mother in it. He re 
mained inconsolable for many years, but 
when his rage cooled he began to think 
he had committed a sin in killing his 
mother. He sent for the bishop and 
said that he had been too miserable for 
twelve years to think of Christ, but that 
now he wished to be restored by penance. 
The bishop said he must go to Eome 
and ask the Pope for absolution. King 
Robert sent an embassy to the Emperor 
to tell him his strange story and to 
announce his visit. Meantime he set off 
in the dress of a humble pilgrim. 

Olive in her retreat heard that the 
Emperor proclaimed that he expected a 
visit from Robert, king of Castile. She 
schooled her son to go and present him 
self to his father. At his first appearance 
the king did not believe what the boy 
said, but finally Olive was restored to 
her father and her husband, and the 
child to his father and grandfather, 
and the Pope gave his blessing to 
them all. 

This story occurs with variations in 
the literature of many countries. Only 
in Italy is the heroine called " Saint." 
Chaucer, in Tlie Man of Law s Tale, gives 
her the name of Constance. Migne, Die. 
des Legendes, has a similar narrative as 
La Belle Heleine. The legend appears 
in Hagen s Gcsammtabenteuer and many 
other collections. Alessandro d Ancona, 
La Rappresentazione di Santa Uliva. 
This last is a 16th century play occasion 
ally acted, within living memory, under 
the olive trees in rural places, where 
sometimes for want of stage machinery 
and suitable costumes, each actor has a 
piece of paper pinned on the front of his 
hat, bearing the name of the character 

he personates. Signer d Ancona s notes 
are of great interest. 

St. Olive (4), OLIVERIA. 

St. Olive (5), or ULIVA of Palermo, 
June 20, V. Probably 9th century. 
One of the chief patrons of Palermo. 
Olive was a noble maiden of Palermo. 
At thirteen she was accused of being a 
Christian, before the Mohammedan ruler 
of Sicily. As she could not be turned 
from her religion, and as the Saracens 
were unwilling to put a lady of her rank 
to death, she was banished, apparently 
to Tunis. Here she worked miracles 
and made converts, wherefore she was 
scourged and sent into the forest. The 
wild beasts, instead of tearing her in 
pieces, became tame and gentle to her. 
About seven years after her banishment, 
some princes who were hunting in the 
woods, found this beautiful girl in that 
solitude. As they were going to take 
her, she said, "Touch me not, lest He 
who has protected me for seven years 
should take you and destroy you." They 
were converted and told these marvels 
to the governor of the place, who sent 
for the holy virgin and after many 
tortures had her beheaded. It is possible, 
however, that the martyrdom of St. Olive 
happened under the Vandals and not 
under the Saracens. AA.SS. 

St. Olive (6) or OLIVA, June 3. Date 
unknown. Patron of Anagni and Cori. 
Her high-born parents prepared a suit 
able marriage for her, but her only am 
bition was to be numbered among the 
spouses of Christ. She therefore fled to 
a church and took the veil. She outdid 
her sister nuns in every kind of asceti 
cism, avoiding praise and bearing false 
accusations with meekness. Not content 
with ordinary self-tortures, she stuck 
thorns into her breast and would not 
pull them out until the wounds festered. 

SS. Oliveria (OLIVE) and Liberata 
(4), Feb. 3, VV. 6th century. They 
were of good birth and disciples of St. 
Berthaldus. It is mentioned in his Life 
that, instructed by him, they left their 
house at Alta Villa and lived as hermits 
about six leagues off, in the forest of 
Chaumont, in Bassigny, where two heal 
ing fountains bear their names. AA.SS. 



St. Olla, Oct. 9, 27. llth or 12th 
century. Lived and died at a village 
called after her, Ste. Olle, near Cambrai, 
on the road to Arras. AAJSS. Stadler. 
Destombes, Vws dc>s Saints . . . de Cambrai 
ct d Arras. 

St. Olphe, ULPHIA. 
St. Olympias (1), April i:>, M. 2/>l, 
with St. Maximus, at Cordula in Persia. 

St. Olympias (2), 4th century. Queen. 
One of forty-five martyrs for the Chris 
tian faith at Nicopolis. Dulaurier, Et/Iise 

St. Olympias (3) the Elder. Queen. 
Called, perhaps erroneously, a Martyr. 
Daughter of Ablavius, prefect of the 
prsetorium (1326-337 ), under Constantino 
and Constantius. She was betrothed to 
Constans, son of Constantino, and after 
wards emperor. Ablavius was deposed 
and put to death by Constantius, and 
Constans then took care of Olympias as 
long as he lived, but it is not known 
whether he married her. He died in 
).")( , and ten years afterwards Constantius 
gave her in marriage to Arsaces, king of 
Armenia, who died in 369. Baronius 
conjectures that she may have married 
again and been the mother of the younger 
and more famous ST. OLYMPIAS (5). 
Lightfoot and Daniel in Smith and 

St. Olympias (4), Jan. 12, M. 
supposed 5th century, with SS. Tigrius 
and Eutropius. Canisius. Perhaps the 
same as OLYMPIAS (2) or (3). 

St. Olympias (5), Dec. 17, July 25, 
c. 368-e. 410. Deaconess. Called the 
Glory of the widows of the Eastern 
Church. Daughter of Seleucus, a count 
of the empire and a man of illustrious 
birth and immense wealth. Olympias 
was the greatest heiress in Constanti 
nople; she was not more than a baby 
when she was left an orphan, fabulously 
rich. She came of a pagan family, but 
her uncle and guardian, Procopius, was 
a Christian and was both prudent and 
upright. He entrusted her education to 
Theodosia, sister of St. Amphilochius, 
bishop of Iconium. This step was taken 
probably by the advice of St. Gregory 
Nazianzen (son of St. NONNA (7)), an 
intimate friend of Procopius. He was 

related to Theodosia and pronounced her 
a pattern of Christian conduct. Gregory 
was archbishop of Constantinople for 
some part of the twelve years during 
which Olympias was the pupil of Theo 
dosia. He was much attached to the 
child and was pleased when she called 
him, "Father." Her intercourse with 
him, at this impressionable age, helped 
to make her the learned and serious girl 
who found the young women of her age 
and class too narrow and too frivolous to 
be interesting. She was married in 384 
to Nebridius, a young man of good 
character and high station. In 38(3 he 
became prefect of Constantinople, but he 
died in the same year, twenty months 
after his marriage. The Emperor Theo- 
dosius the Great planned to marry the 
beautiful young widow to a relation of 
his own, the Spaniard Elpidius. She, 
however, declared a steadfast intention 
to remain a widow. Elpidius hoped to 
tire out her resistance to his suit, and to 
this end persuaded the Emperor to de 
prive her of the administration of her 
property until she should arrive at the 
age of thirty. She thanked Theodosius 
for relieving her of the management of 
her revenues, and begged that they might 
be spent on the poor and on the churches. 
The Emperor was piqued that she did 
not eagerly acquiesce in an alliance 
with his family, and was easily persuaded 
by Elpidius to annoy her further, by for 
bidding her to go to church or to asso 
ciate with the bishops and learned clergy 
whose society was her delight. After a 
year or two Theodosius saw that her 
choice of a religious life was irrevocably 
decided and that it would be unjust to 
deprive her any longer of her rights. 
He therefore restored to her the full 
control of her estates. From this time 
she gave up herself and her wealth to 
objects of religion and charity. She 
allowed herself but the scantiest food, 
the poorest clothing and the minimum 
of sleep, and she denied herself the 
luxury of a bath, although in that age 
and country it was deemed a necessary 
of life. She devoted herself to the care 
of the poor and the sick, gathering 
around her a knot of like-minded women, 
among whom were SALVINA, Procula, and 



Pantadia. Her hospitable doors were 
always open to the bishops and other 
religious men and women who came from 
all parts of the empire to Constantinople. 
She was several years under the pre 
scribed age, when Nectarius consecrated 
her a deaconess of the church of Con 
stantinople. He did not allow her to 
devote all her energies to this office, for 
he consulted her on numerous ecclesias 
tical matters, in which she was better 
versed than he was, as he had been 
appointed to the primacy while yet but 
a catechumen. St. Chrysostom succeeded 
Nectarius in 897. He immediately saw 
the value of such a woman as Olympias, 
and of her influence over a large circle 
of the best and most distinguished ladies 
of Constantinople. He consulted her on 
many subjects, and allowed her to provide 
for his bodily needs. She could minister 
to his necessities, while sympathizing 
with his determination to avoid all self- 
indulgence and all splendour, and she 
was his active agent in many works of 
charity and piety in various parts of the 
world. By his advice, she became less 
indiscriminate in her gifts, as he repre 
sented to her that she was bound to use 
her great resources prudently, so as to 
do the greatest possible amount of good 
to proper objects, instead of giving to 
covetous persons who did not really 
stand in need of relief. With his ap 
proval, she gave hospitality to the 
Nitrian monks, when they were expelled 
from their desert cells, by the persecuting 
Theophilus. When Chrysostom s stormy 
primacy and long struggle with the 
Empress Eudoxia ended in his banish 
ment in 404, Olympias with a number 
of the women, who had been his faithful 
friends and admirers, assembled in the 
baptistery of the great church of St. 
Sophia to receive his parting blessing. 
That very night, the church, the senate 
house, and the palace were burnt down. 
Olympias and her friends were accused 
of having set them on fire. Optatus, the 
prefect, questioned Olympias very rudely. 
She completely disconcerted him by 
her fearless and witty answers. So he 
tried to compromise the matter by offer 
ing to drop the accusation, on condition 
of her receiving Communion from Ar- 

sacius, the new patriarch. She indig 
nantly declined to have the matter 
dropped. She was publicly accused of 
a crime which was quite foreign to her 
character and manner of life; she de 
manded that the insulting charge should 
be withdrawn before any terms of com 
promise could be considered ; and as for 
communicating with Arsacius, she re 
garded him as unlawfully intruded into 
the place of St. Chrysostom, her true 
bishop. After the excitement and fatigue 
of this episode, Olympias had a serious 
illness. As soon as she was able, she 
left Constantinople and went to Syzicus 
(Artaki), whether of her own will or 
under compulsion is not certain. After 
a time Optatus again sent for her and im 
posed on her a heavy fine for declining 
to enter into communion with Arsacius ; 
the women who had formed a happy 
circle around her were dispersed; her 
health was shattered ; she was sent some 
times to one place, sometimes to another, 
and she experienced the ingratitude and 
the rudeness of many on whom she had 
bestowed kindness, including some of 
her servants, who disliked her ascetic 
way of living and joined her persecutors. 
Notwithstanding all this spoliation and 
her profuse liberality, she still had pro 
perty from which she sent money to 
Chrysostom in his exile. The seventeen 
letters from him to Olympias which are 
preserved, show that their friendship was 
lifelong, but it is to be regretted that 
their dates cannot be positively fixed. 
For her consolation, he wrote a treatise 
on the theme that "No one is really 
injured except by himself." The time 
and place of Olympia s death cannot be 
ascertained. She was alive in 408 and 
was certainly dead before 420. Besides 
the eminent saints already mentioned, 
she counted among her friends, St. 
Gregory of Nyssa, St. Peter of Sebaste, 
St. Epiphanius of Cyprus, and other 
great and good men. Tillemont. 
Butler. Smith and Wace. Palladius. 

St. Omeranda gives name to a 
church in Agenois. Chastelain. 

St. Oncan, Oct. 20. Kirk Oncan, or 
Kirk Conchan, in the Isle of Man, is 
supposed to take its name from CONCESSA, 



mother of St. Patrick. Blundell, Hist. 
of the Me of Man. 

St. Oncommena, or ONTCOMMENA, 

St. Oneglia, ANGELIA. 

St. Onenne, OUENNE. 

St. Onesima, Feb. 27, V. of Cologne. 
History and date unknown. AA.SS. 

St. Onesta, HONESTA (2). 

St. Onofledis or ONOFLETTE, ANNO- 


B. Onofria, HONOFRIA. 

St. Ontcommera, WILGEFORTIS. 

St. Onzinia, or ONZIMIA. Perhaps 
ENVMIE. Cahier. Guerin. 

St. Ophenge, EUPHEMIA (1). 

St. Opportuna, April 22, patron of 
Paris and Almeneches. 

Represented (1) appearing to a drown 
ing man whom she saves ; (2) an angel 
standing beside her, in allusion to 
a tradition that when she entered the 
convent for the first time, the other nuns 
saw her guardian angel walking beside 

St. Opportuna, abbess of Montreuil, 
near Almeneches, was never known to be 
angry, and corrected the faults of her 
nuns with words instead of blows. Her 
brother, St. Chrodegand or Godegrand, 
bishop of Seez, went to Rome and Pales 
tine for seven years, entrusting his 
diocese and property meanwhile to his 
kinsman Chrodobert, who enriched him 
self at the expense of the people and their 
absent pastor. Opportuna prayed fer 
vently for her brother s return. As soon 
as he arrived in his native land, Chrode- 
gaud hastened to visit Opportuna, and 
was proceeding from Montreuil to Alme 
neches, where their aunt ST. LANTILDIS 
was abbess, when he was murdered half 
way between the two monasteries, at the 
instigation of his rival. Lantildis prayed 
that she might succeed in burying the 
saint in her own church ; Opportuna 
when she heard of the murder, prayed 
that the body might remain where it was 
until she came to take it. The murdered 
saint proved immovable until Opportuna 
arrived, when he at once allowed her to 
carry him with her own hands to her 
church, and bury him. She survived 
him one year, and died about A.D. 77<. 

Her Life, written in the following 
century by St. Aldhelm, is given by 
Mabillion, AA.SS. O.S.B. She is praised 
in the Acts of St. Chrodeyand, Sept. 3. 
AA.SS. Butler. Baillet. Cahier. 
St. Optata, June 1, M. with ST. 


St. Orada, ODKADA. 

B. Oranna, Sep. 15 (On AN A, ORANDA, 
URANNA, URBANNA), V. c. 1400, at Saar 
Louis in Lorraine. Invoked against 
deafness and vertigo. Her maid-servant 
is honoured with her. Their history is 
unknown, but their local worship is very 
ancient. Legend says that Oranna was 
deaf and was despised on that account, 
by her brothers. Her father gave her 
an estate at Eschweiler, where, with a 
faithful maid, she devoted herself to the 
service of God. Another legend is that 
she fled with her maid to lead a hermit s 
life, and they hid themselves at Esch, 
now Saar Louis. AA.SS. 

St. Orbana or ORBANNA. Five 
martyrs bore this name ; some of them 
are also called URBAN A. AA.SS. Migne. 

St. Orbata, Feb. 12, M. in Italy, 
with others. Mentioned in St. Jerome s 
Marfyrology. AA.SS. 

St. Orbilia, ORBILLA, or SERVILIA, 7th 
century. Appointed by ST. MODWENNA 
to succeed her in the government of her 
nuns at Fochard, in Ireland, when she 
left them to found other religious com 
munities. Lanigan. Perhaps this is the 
saint whom Dempster called ORBILLA, 
Jan. 2, 7(30. He makes her a native of 
Scotland and kinswoman of St. Abel, 
archbishop of Rheims, who summoned 
her from her own country to preside 
over a community of nuns at Rheims. 

St. Oreozela, July 20, M. probably 
at Constantinople. Honoured in the 
Greek Church. AA.SS. 

St. Orgonne sometimes means ALDE- 
GUND, sometimes RADEGUND. Cahier. 

B. Oria, AURIA. 

St. Oricula, Nov. 18 (OBICOLA, 
ORIQUE), M. c. 408. with her brother St. 
Oriculus or Orioles, and her sister ST. 
BASILICA or BASILISSA. They were all 
slain by the Vandals at Syndunum (now 
Senuc), a village of Doulcon in Cham 
pagne. According to Arturus a Monas- 
tero, their bodies arose miraculously 



from the earth without human aid, about 
the year 924. We have the higher 
authority of Ruinart (Belgian Manu 
scripts) for their martyrdom. They were 
translated into a great monastery in 
Eheims, and there reverently preserved. 

St. Orielda, April 19, wife of St. 
Angelinus and mother of SS. Paulinus 
and Gentilis, all of them early martyrs. 
Commemorated at the church of ST. 
AFRA at Brescia. AA.SS. 

B. Oringa, or CHRISTIANA (6), Jan. 
10, V. +1310. Born at Castello di 
Santa Croce in the valley of the Arno. 
As a little girl she took care of her 
father s cattle and used to command 
them not to touch the corn while she 
said her prayers. They always obeyed 
her. She never could endure to hear 
any profane or improper language. When 
marriage was discussed for her, it made 
her sick. Her brothers found they could 
not induce her by words to marry, so 
they resorted to blows. She went into 
the river many times to escape from 
them, and always came out quite dry. 
At last she fled to Lucca. She did not 
know the way, and towards evening she 
was tired and frightened ; but just then 
she found herself in a lovely meadow 
full of sweet flowers. She sat down to 
rest, and a hare came and played with 
her. She caressed it, and it lay on her 
lap all night and in the morning it ran 
before her and led her by the right road 
to Lucca. There she engaged herself to 
serve an honest and pious nobleman. 
She asked no other wages than a little 
food and the poorest clothing, but it was 
to be clean. She remained in his service 
some years. She always went barefooted. 
She made a pilgrimage with some of her 
acquaintances to Monte Gargano. By 
the way, some wicked young men tried to 
mislead and rob them ; but St. Michael, 
to whom Oringa had a special devotion, 
appeared to them in the form of a deacon 
and warned them not to listen to their 
enemies. Oringa then went to Eome and 
visited the most sacred places. A Fran 
ciscan monk, who discovered her holiness 
and poverty and her wish to remain 
there, arranged that she should live with 
a good woman named Margaret, who was 
looking out for a companion. At this 

time Oringa was called Christiana, 
and soon her own name was forgotten. 
She went with Margaret to Assisi to see 
the tomb of St. Francis. She next visited 
ST. VIRIDIANA at Castel Fiorentino ; and 
then returned to her native place. Soon 
afterwards Margaret went back to Rome, 
but Oringa found that whenever she at 
tempted to leave the village she lost the 
use of her limbs, but as long as she re 
mained there she could walk perfectly 
well. She therefore perceived that it 
was the will of God that she should stay 
where she was, and persuaded the people 
to build her a convent. She gave it the 
rule of St. Augustine. Although she 
was the director, she would accept of no 
precedence or distinction. The com 
munity was very poor, and Oringa 
miraculously increased the food and 
wine when they were in danger of star 
vation. Several miracles and prophecies 
are recorded of her. She heard a child 
crying in his cradle, and she said, " He 
is lamenting the wicked life that he will 
lead, for as soon as he is grown up he 
will add sin to sin until he is hung on a 
gibbet." And so it happened. At seventy 
she was struck with paralysis, lay help 
less for three years, and then died in 
peace, Jan. 4, 1310, with many signs of 
sanctity. Her body was surrounded by 
rays of heavenly light. For eighteen 
days it was visited as that of a saint. 
A.R.M., O.S.A. AA.SS. Grimoald de 
Saint Laurent, Aniinaux model es. Razzi, 
Santi Toscani. Torelli, Ristretto. 

SS. Orique and Basilique, ORICULA 

St. Oritula, CKEDULA (3). 

St. Orophrygia, Oct. 22, V. M. with 
ST. URSULA. Her body kept in the con 
vent of St. Dominic at Calahorra. Stad- 
ler. Probably OUOPHYRIA is a variant. 

St. Orora, or CRORA, Oct. 20. Sup 
posed 7th century or earlier. Honoured 
with St. Bradan in the Isle of Man. 

St. Orosia, June 25 (EUROLE, 
EUROSIA), 8th or 9th century. Some 
times described as a Martyr in Aquitaine. 
Probably the same saint who is wor 
shipped in Bohemia under the name of 
EPRASIA. Represented with a hatchet or 
sword, and a crown. Invoked against 



storms and for favourable weather in 

Orosia was betrothed to a Visigothic 
prince and went to Aragon to be married. 
Just then the Moors invaded Spain. 
Near Jebra she was taken prisoner and 
led to Muza, the general of the infidels, 
who said that if she would renounce her 
religion he would marry her. As she 
refused, he had her beaten, horribly 
mutilated, and at last beheaded. Years 
afterwards, when her sanctity had been 
shown by many miracles, her body was 
removed to Jacca. Her worship passed 
into Italy with the Spaniards. Lombardy 
in particular dedicated a great many 
churches in her honour. AA.SS. Cahier. 

St. Orselina, URSULINA. 

SS. Orsmaria and Sigillenda, Aug. 
30, were among the 11,000 VV. who 
sailed with ST. URSULA. They buried 
many of their companions. They are 
honoured in the church of the Maccabees 
at Cologne. Martin. AA.SS., Praetcr. 

St. Orsola, URSULA. 

B. Ortolana, or HORTULANA, Jan. 5, 
O.S.F. + 1253. Mother of SS. CLARA and 
AGNES OF ASSISI. She became a member 
of the Third Order of St. Francis and 
afterwards a nun in Clara s convent, 
where she died. She is called " Blessed 
Hortulana" in Brewer s Monuiucnta 
Franciscana, II. 543. 

St. Ortrude, June 22, V. at Guisnes 
in Picardy, AA.SS. Henschenius con 
siders her the same as KOTKUDE ; Saussaye 
says she is another saint. 

St. Osanna (1) was perhaps the 
daughter of Aldfred and ST. CUTHBUHGA, 
for she is said to have been the sister of 
Osred, king of Northumbria. Some 
writers place her a generation later, and 
some doubt her existence. She is not 
much heard of in early history. Atten 
tion having been drawn to her relics 
which were preserved in a church in the 
Netherlands, it was ascertained that she 
was a Northumbrian princess of the 
seventh or eighth century, and that her 
sanctity was first manifested a consider 
able time after her death, by a miraculous 
flagellation she inflicted from her grave, 
and by which she converted a sinner. 
She was buried in the church of Hove- 
den, or Howden in Northumberland, but 

no special veneration was paid her until 
one day the concubine of the rector went 
into the church, and thoughtlessly sat 
down on the tomb. Presently she found 
that she could not rise from her seat. 
She writhed, she wept, she struggled, 
she called her friends and they pulled 
and pushed and hurt her, and tore her 
clothes, and still she could not be moved 
from the stone where she sat. At length 
she perceived that a punishment had 
fallen on her, and that, she was thus 
called to repentance. She resolved with 
many tears to amend her life, and separate 
from the priest with whom she lived, and 
when she had made a vow to do so, she 
was able to leave her seat, but not before 
her dress was torn, and her skin marked 
with many strokes of discipline. She 
has no day, but her story is told by the 
Bollandists, June 18, on the authority 
of Geraldus Cambrensis, among the 

B. Osanna (2) of Mantua, June 18, 
V., SrdO.S.D. +1505. Of the patrician 
family of Andreasi. From the age of 
five she had celestial visions ; at fourteen 
she took the habit of the Third Order of 
St. Dominic. At fifteen she lost her 
parents and became as a mother to her 
brothers and sisters, and later in life she 
took care of the wives and children of 
her brothers. It was the admiration of 
every one who knew her, that a virgin 
consecrated to a religious life and oc 
cupied with spiritual matters, could so 
cleverly and wisely manage the worldly 
affairs of her family. Her visions and 
frequent ecstasies made her an object 
of suspicion to the friars, who doubted 
her sincerity and even her sanity. It 
seemed to them that she was trying to 
obtain a reputation for sanctity, or was in 
sane. Fearing a scandal, they threatened 
to deprive her of the dress of the Order,bnt 
after a time her humility and simplicity 
made them change their opinion and 
apologize to her for their error. She 
greatly longed to be able to read sacred 
books ; but remembering that her father 
in his lifetime had often told her it was 
very dangerous and indecent for women 
to turn their attention to literature, she 
dutifully abstained from learning to read 
and write, until she was miraculously 



taught by the VIRGIN MARY. Soon after 
this, the Blessed Virgin married her to 
Christ, Who put a ring on her finger. 
This ring Osanna could always see and 
feel,but it was invisible to others. In 1476 
she had for twelve years been praying 
earnestly to be made a partaker of the 
sufferings of Christ, and one day as she 
knelt before a crucifix, in a little chapel 
in the Vico Biccarelli, He gave her five 
wounds corresponding to His own. She 
foretold future events, and wonderful 
benefits were obtained by her interces 
sion. Two contemporary Lives in the 
AA.SS. Pio. Eazzi. A.EM. 

B. Osanna (3) of Cattaro, April 28, 
+ 1565, O.S.D. Born at Comani, a 
village of Slavonia, not very far from 
Cattaro, afterwards subject to the Turks. 
Her parents were of the sect of the 
Graeco-Slavonian Church, called jRas- 
ciami. She was christened Catherine. 
From her earliest childhood she was 
devout and willing to fast. When she 
was old enough she kept sheep in the 
fields, and thus had leisure for contem 
plation, which was always of a religious 
nature. Her mother, who was a poor 
untaught peasant, could only tell her 
that God had made the world and all 
the beautiful things in it, that He was 
born of a virgin and was crucified, and 
that a beautiful image of Him as a baby 
might at certain times be seen in the 
neighbouring town. The young shep 
herdess longed very much to see it, and 
prayed earnestly that this good God 
would show Himself to her once. Her 
prayer was heard, for one evening as 
she was driving the sheep to the fold, 
she saw in a meadow, a beautiful child. 
She ran to embrace it, but it rose into 
the air and vanished, leaving her full 
of delight. She told her mother, who 
did not believe a word of it, and told 
her sharply not to tell silly stories. 
Soon afterwards, alone with her flock, 
on a hill, at midday, she saw the cruci 
fied Saviour with all the appearance of 
agony, suspended in the air. After 
this she entreated her mother to take 
her to live in the town, where she might 
receive more instruction concerning the 
Lord Jesus. The mother accordingly 
placed her, as a servant, with a senator 

of Cattaro. Here her conduct won for 
her the regard of all the family. She was 
taken to confession, which was a new 
and wonderful thing to her. Her medi 
tations during mass, and the sermons she 
heard on the Passion in Holy Week, made 
her consider that it would be a good 
thing to be shut up in prison for life, 
so as to contemplate the sufferings of 
the Saviour perpetually. Not knowing 
how to carry out her idea, she went to 
a venerable matron, named Slavuccia, 
who, with the help of a Minorite friar, 
induced the bishop of the town to give 
her a little cell, to her great delight and 
the wonder and admiration of all the 
people. Here she remained seven years, 
and was then transferred to another cell 
near St. Paul s, where she remained for 
the rest of her life. At twenty-one, she 
took the habit of St. Dominic and with 
it the name of Osanna. Her rigorous 
fasting was modified by command of her 
confessor for nearly fifty years her bed 
consisted of two poles with five bars 
across them, like the steps of a ladder, 
a piece of wood for a pillow, and one 
single blanket for a covering. Her 
scourging and other torments were very 
edifying to the nuns who lived near, 
and to the other citizens. Although 
she could not read, she talked about 
the sayings and doings of the fathers 
and of things in the Bible, as if she had 
spent her whole life in the study of 
sacred books. She had great confidence 
in the words, " Jesus of Nazareth, King 
of the Jews," as a charm in danger. In 
time of storms, inundations, earthquakes, 
etc., she used to run to the other re 
cluses, crying, "Oh, my daughters, pros 
trate yourselves and let us cry, Jesus 
of Nazareth, King of the Jews ! " In 
this manner she stopped an inundation 
which threatened to destroy the city. 
Once a great rock, loosened from the 
mountain, hung over her cell and seemed 
as if it must crush it to pieces. She 
cried out to God for help : two hands 
were seen to arrest the course of the 
rock and put it gently down at the 
corner of the cell. When she died, a 
great concourse of people assembled to 
venerate her body. Pio. 

St. Osburg, abbess of Coventry. 



7th or 8th century. The house where 
she is said to have ruled uas destroyed 
by Edric in 1010, and on its site an 
abbey was built, round which the town 
grew up. We have no records of Osburg 
until 1410, but she seems to be credited 
with being contemporary with SS. OSITH 
andMoDWENNA,etc. Stanton. Eckenstein. 

St. Osella, ASELLA. 

St. Osgith, OSITH. 

St. Osita, OSITH. 

St. Osith, Oct. 7, April 27 (ASGITH, 
SYTHE ; in Spanish, OSTIA) ; 7th or Mh 
century. Princess of Mercia or of 

Eepresented (1) with a stag beside 
her; (2) with a long key hanging from 
her girdle; (3) carrying a key and 
sword crossed, a device which comme 
morates St. Peter, St. Paul and St. 

According to the legend, Osith was 
the daughter of Frithewald, king or 
prince of some part of Mercia, or sub- 
regulus of Surrey; her mother was 
Wilteburga, or Wilburga, daughter of 
Penda. The parents of Osith, with St. 
Erconwald, founded the monastery of 
Chertsey in (375. 

Osith was born at Quarendon near 
Aylesbury. Her childhood was spent 
under the care of the two holy abbesses, 
ST. EDITH (3) and ST. MODWENNA ; she 
was sometimes with one and sometimes 
with the other. Modwenna founded 
monasteries at Burton - on - Trent in 
Derbyshire, Stramshall in Staffordshire, 
and at Polles worth in Warwickshire. 

One clay in winter, Edith sent Osith 
to take a book to Modwenna, to point 
out to her a particularly interesting 
passage she had discovered. To reach 
Modwenna s house, Osith had to cross 
a stream by a bridge. The stream was 
swollen, the wind was high, she was 
blown into the water, and remained 
there for two days before she was dis 
covered. Edith thought she was safe 
with Modwenna, who, not expecting her 
visit, was not surprised at her non- 
appearance. On the third day, Edith, 
wondering that her pupil had not re 
turned with an answer to her message, 
came to Modwenna. Great was the 

consternation of the abbesses when they 
found they had lost their charge. They 
went to search for her. Following the 
banks of the stream, they saw the child 
lying at the bottom, holding the book 
open at the passage she had been told 
to show to Modwenna. The abbesses 
prayed for her restoration, and com 
manded her to arise from the water and 
come to them ; which she did, she, her 
dress and the book quite uninjured. 
After the death of Modwenna, Osith 
returned to her parents, who soon ac 
cepted for her an offer of marriage from 
Sighere, king of Essex, who reigned 
jointly with Sebba, 6G4-(>8<>. Sighere 
had relapsed into heathenism, but 
promised to become a Christian on 
marrying Osith. 

Osith s inclinations turned towards a 
religious life, she would rather have been 
an abbess than a queen, and had secretly 
made a vow of celibacy. Her fate was 
decided for her, and she was given to 
Sighere, but still prayed that she might 
have no husband but the Lord. On her 
marriage, she went with her husband, 
probably to London, which was then the 
capital of Essex. On one pretence or 
other, she declined for several days to 
receive the king in her bower a separate 
house for herself and her attendant 
ladies, within the enclosure of the royal 
residence. At last her contrivances were 
exhausted, and so was the king s patience. 
Her seclusion came to a sudden end and 
her husband stood before her. Still she 
prayed that she might keep her vow. 
Sighere began to protest that without her, 
life held no happiness, no interest for 
him. But ven while he spoke, there 
was a sound of eager voices and hurrying 
feet. Some of his lords cried, " The stag, 
the stag ! " and close to the gate was the 
largest stag that ever was seen. Up 
sprang Sighere, and with all his Court, 
started in pursuit. Osith regarded this 
interruption as an answer to her prayers, 
and took his departure as a release from 
her engagement. She sent in all haste 
for Bishops Acca and Bedwin. When 
the king returned, after a chase of four 
or five days, he found her a veiled nun. 
He generously gave her an estate at 
Chich in Essex, and built her a church 



and a monastery, where she soon gathered 
many holy nuns about her, and attained 
to wonderful sanctity. 

After many years, the Danes made a 
raid on that coast. Their leader tried 
by threats and entreaties to make Osith 
renounce her religion, but in vain, and 
incensed at his failure, he cut off her 
head. As it fell to the earth, a fountain 
bubbled up, which for many years after 
wards had a wonderful power of curing 
diseases. Osith rose to her feet, and 
carried her head in her hands to the 
church, staining the door with blood as 
she opened it. Her family claimed her 
body, but the saint intimated by visions 
and other signs that she chose to rest in 
her own monastery. There, accordingly, 
she was placed in a rich shrine by 
Maurice, bishop of London. 

By other accounts, Osith was sister, 
niece, or granddaughter of the Northum 
brian king, St. Oswald. She has also 
been called the mother of King Offa. 
Her story is so full of anachronisms that 
it is probable that the transmitters of 
the legend have confused two persons 

St. Osith s church and estate were 
afterwards called by her name, and still 
bear it, pronounced in the native dialect, 

Britannia Sancta. English, Mart. 
Ancient British Piety. Surius. Strutt. 
Butler. Smith and Wace. Besant, 

St. Osman or OSWEN, April 1, Nov. 
22, V. 7th century. A princess of 
Ireland, supposed to have lived at St. 
Brieux, in Brittany. Her name and 
story became known through the dream 
of a priest in 1240. Legend says that 
she left Ireland with a maid, called 
Aclitenis, or Cerota. They went to 
France and built themselves a hut on 
the bank of the Loire, and there, one 
day, a hunter found a wild boar lying 
for safety at the feet of the saint. 
As she would not speak to him or answer 
his salutation, he was going to kill her 
protege, but neither his dogs nor his 
weapon would obey him, and he returned 
to the town and told what he had seen. 
The bishop, clergy and people went out 
and found Osman with no clothes but 

some plaited reeds. They accused her 
of witchcraft and they advised her to be 
baptized. She said there was nothing 
she would like better. So the people all 
gathered about her to instruct her and 
look at her, and one man who had been 
blind for three years, called out to her and 
touched her. Immediately his sight was 
restored, and the multitude understood 
that she was a virgin and servant of God. 
Soon afterwards she took out a bone 
which had stuck in a girl s throat, and 
this greatly increased her reputation. 
Her relics were kept for centuries in her 
chapel in the abbey of St. Denis, but 
they were dispersed by the Calvinists in 
1567. She is one of the saints who was 
perhaps a goddess. She is sometimes 
called " Martyr." AA.SS. Martin. 
Saussaye. Eckenstein. 

St. Osnata or OSNAT, Jan. 6, V. of 
Gleandallain in Sligo. She had a brother, 
St. Molaisse of Devenish, and two sisters, 
joint festival of the three sisters was 
kept at Enach-arct in Leitrim. The 
church of Killasnet in Leitrim takes its 
name from Osnat and is said to have 
been built in one night. Archdale s 
Monasticon calls the first sister Odnata, 
and makes St. Osnata of Gleandallaiu 
another person. Lanigan. 
St. Osnenda, OSWENDA. 
St. Ossia, MATRONA (18) of Perga. 
St. Osthrida, Aug. 5 (OFFBIDA, 
Princess of Northumberland. Queen 
of Mercia. Daughter of St. Oswy and 
ST. EANFLEDA. Wife of Ethelred, king 
of Mercia, who succeeded his brother 
Wulfere in 675. (See ST. EHMENILDA.) 
Ethelred was a pious king, and a great 
benefactor of the Church. Churches 
and monasteries were multiplied and en 
dowed in his reign, and he set his niece, 
ST. WEBEBUBGA (1) over all the nun 
neries in his dominions. 

Osthrida seems to have been un 
popular among the Mercians. She had 
a great devotion to her uncle, St. Oswald 
of Northumbria, and desired to lay his 
bones in her husband s noble monas 
tery of Bardeney in Lincolnshire. The 
monks objected, because St. Oswald had 
warred against Mercia, and reigned over 



it as a foreign king. When, one even 
ing, a wagon arrived at Bardeney, bearing 
the good king s body, they would not 
open their gates, so the cart was left all 
night outside the monastery. No sooner 
was it dark than a wondrous light ema 
nated from the bier, and was seen for 
miles around by all the dwellers in the 
province, who saw as it were a pillar of 
glorious light standing over the saint s 
body and reaching up to heaven. 

In the morning the monks who had 
wished to send the relics back to North 
umberland were eager to have the royal 
saint buried in their church. 

In 697, the South Humbrians rebelled, 
and murdered Osthrida. She was buried 
at Bardeney. In 704, Ethelred resigned 
the throne to Kenred, the son of his 
brother Wulphere and St. Ermenilda, and 
became a monk at Bardeney. He died 
there in 715, and was buried beside his 

Ethelred and Osthrida left a son, Kel- 
red, who, in 709, succeeded his cousin 
Ceonred, and married St. WEREBURGA (2). 
Bede. British Mart. Ancient British 
Piety, quoting a Saxon MS. 

St. Ostia, Spanish for OSITH. 

tSt. Ostria, OSTHRIDA. 
St. Ostrythe, OSTHRIDA. 
St. Oswen, OSMAN. 
St. Oswenda or OSNENDA, April 22, 
V. llth century. Sister of B. Wolph- 
elm, abbot of Braunviller, near Cologne. 
Nun at Willick under ST. ADELAIDE (4). 
AA.SS., Prater. Wion. Stadler. 
St. Oswith, OSITH. 
St. Otha, ODA. 
St. Othilda, ODILIA. 
St. Othildis, HOYLDA. 
St. Othilia sometimes means ODILIA, 
sometimes HOYLDA. 

St. Otta, JUTTA. 

St. Ouenne or ONENNE is considered, 
in Brittany, to be one of the many 
saintly children of a Breton king. She is 
called sister of ST. EURIELLA, descended 
from Fracan, who is the same as the 
Welsh Brychan. Ouenne is perhaps the 
same as GWENDELINE ; possibly the same 
as NONNA, mother of St. David. 

St. Ollfe or OUFFE, ULPHIA. 

St. Ouille, EULALIA. 

St. Ouine (1), EUGENIA. 

St. Ouine (2), OUYNE. 

St. Oulfe or OULPHRE, ULPHIA. 

St. Ouyne or OUINE, June 7. Date 
unknown. Ste. Ouine du Mans is pro 
bably a Breton or Cornish saint whose 
relics have been placed, on some for 
gotten occasion, in the crypt of the 
church of St. Victor, at Le Mans, where 
she works miracles in favour of the deaf. 
She is locally supposed to have been 
named Ouine on account of her patron 
age of the sense of hearing (owi e), but 
Papebroch thinks that as Eugenius has 
been corrupted into Ouen and Oyan, so 
EUGENIA has become Ouyne, and this 
metamorphosed name has led deaf 
persons more than others to seek her 
intercession. He quotes a history of 
the bishops of Le Mans by Convaserius. 

St. Oyne, EUGENIA. 

St. Ozilia of Namur, Jan. 3, April 5. 
First half of 13th century. The first 
name in the Calendar of Saints of the 
Cistercian Order, at the beginning of 
Henriquez s Lilia Cistercii. She was a 
devoted companion of ST. JULIANA of 
Liege, shared her persecutions, and 
died before her. She may be called 
also ODILIA, OTHILIA, etc. AA.SS. 

St. Pacata, PAGATA. 

B. Pacifica, March 24, V. + 1258, 
O.S.F. Eelated to ST. CLARA (2) and one 
of her first nuns. First abbess of Spello, 
where she miraculously produced a foun 
tain of water, which flows to this day. 
On her return to Assisi she left a ring 


with which it was believed she was 
married to the Lord Jesus. This ring 
was on the point of being melted down 
by a goldsmith, but it miraculously dis 
appeared out of his hands and appeared 
again in the armario at Spello. Hen- 
schenius does not consider her worship 




authorized, but she is called Blessed in 
the Order of St. Francis. AA.SS. Mas 

St. Pacta, March 13, M. at Nico- 

media with others. AAJ38. Mas Latrie. 

St. Pagata, PIGATA, or PACATA, 

April 29. M. at Nicomedia in Bithynia. 


St. Palatias or PALLAYE, Oct. 8. V. 
M. end of 3rd or beginning of 4th cen 
tury. Her father kept her in a tower 
with ST. LAURENTIA as her attendant. 
As he heard from her servants that she 
neglected the images of the gods, he beat 
and imprisoned her. She was then con 
demned to die by fire ; but it destroyed her 
tormentors and left her unhurt. Thrown 
into the sea at Ancona, with a stone tied 
to her neck, she was saved by angels. 
Again she was taken by her enemies as 
she walked on the water, and sent into 
exile with Laurentia. Their ship was 
cast ashore at Centumcellae, and they 
were sent by Promotus, the proconsul, to 
Diocletian, who ordered them to be 
banished to Fermo : they then prayed 
that their troubles might cease. Accord- 
dingly they died, and their bodies rest 
at Ancona, of which they are patrons. 
AA.S8. E.M. Guerin. 

St. Palaye or PALLAYE, sometimes 
PALLADIA, sometimes PALATIAS, some 
times PELAGIA. 

St. Palladia (1), PALLADA, or 
PALAYE, May 24, M. in the time of 
Diocletian. Commemorated with SS. 
SUSANNA (10) and MARCIANA (4). 

St. Palladia (2). (See CAMILLA (1).) 

St. Palma. A name erroneously 
given to ST. DOMINICA (1) of Tropea. 
" St. Pamphila, Oct. 24, M. 250. 
Mother of St. Serapion or Cerbonius. 

The Christians of Florence, finding 
themselves persecuted in that city, 
resolved to flee to another, especially as 
there were many women and children 
amongst them; they therefore removed 
to Faenza. St. Crescius, their pastor, at 
their earnest request, fled with them. 
On the way they rested at the house of 
Pamphila, a widow, whose son Serapion 
was very ill and at the point of death. 
A number of friends were assembled to 
comfort her and mourn with her. 
Pamphila, though still a heathen, re 

ceived the strangers kindly, and St. 
Crescius cured her son, and changed 
his name from Serapion to Cerbonius. 
Pamphila and all her guests were 

The danger of the whole party was 
increased by the accession to their 
number of some well-known persons. 
Crescius foreseeing his own martyrdom, 
told Cerbonius to hide from the perse 
cutors, that he might succeed him in 
the care of the flock. Cerbonius ful 
filled the last commands of his teacher 
by increasing the number of the little 
band of Christians. The Emperor soon 
heard of him and sent to take him and 
his companions ; they were offered their 
safety, on condition of renouncing their 
faith ; but as they remained steadfast, 
they were buried alive in a pit at Val- 
cava ; St. Pamphila amongst the rest. 

B. Panacea, May 1, or the first 
Friday in May. V. + 1383. Daughter 
of Lorenzo, a peasant of Agamio near 

Represented with a distaff sticking in 
a wound in her head, and sometimes 
with her step-mother beating her. She 
was unkindly treated by her step-mother, 
who sent her to keep sheep and cattle 
and always demanded of her more work 
than she was able to perform, and beat 
her cruelly if she did not finish her task. 
In the hills where she fed her flocks 
there was a church of St. John the 
Baptist, where she spent much time 
daily in prayer. At last, when she was 
fifteen, one evening as she was returning 
home with the cattle and carrying a 
bundle of sticks, on coming to the place 
where she was wont to pray, she was 
taken with the enthusiasm of prayer and 
stayed there so long that the beasts 
returned to their stable alone. The step 
mother was angry, and with her distaff 
in her hand, she went to see what had 
become of Panacea ; she went to the 
field and finding the girl absorbed in 
prayer, she struck her so violently on 
the head with it as to kill her. When 
Lorenzo heard what had happened, he 
ran to the place and found a faggot 
burning beside his murdered daughter. 
He could neither extinguish the fire nor 



move the body. A number of people 
came to see the wonder, and the clergy of 
Novara began to worship her and preach 
about her as a saint. In time her body 
was translated into Agamio with miracu 
lous circumstances. An oratory was 
built on the spot where she was killed. 
Many worshippers came from the sur 
rounding country ; and pictures and 
altars in her honour were placed in the 
churches of the neighbouring towns. 

St. Panagia. A place in Sicily is 
so called. Hare speaks of her as a holy 
penitent or " blessed sinner ; " and it may 
be a form of the name Pelagia, but pro 
bably it is PanagJiia, a Greek epithet 
which means all liolij. In 988, there 
was a church of this name dedicated to 
the Virgin Mary, at Cherson, when 
Vladimir took it, just before he married 
the Princess ANNA Ooj. Hare, Cities 
of Italy. Marrast, Vie Byzantine. 29, 

or PANDWIXA, Aug. 26, 27, Nov. 25, 
March 26,-V. -f about 900. She is said 
to have been the daughter of a Scottish 
or Irish king or chief. She fled to 
England to escape from his tyranny, and 
lived at Isseby or Iffleby in Lincolnshire ; 
or at Cambridge. Her well is at Eltis- 
ley in Cambs. Ferrarius, Nov. 25, 
March 20. Guerin, Aug. 27. AA.SS. 
(from Wilson and Capgrave) Praeter- 
inissi, August 2(3. 

St. Panefrede or PANEFRIDE, Oct. 
22, V. M. A companion of URSULA, 
honoured at St. Denis, and at Grand- 
mont, in the diocese of Limoges. Baillet. 

St. Panephisia, Sept. 8, M. in 
Ethiopia. Mas Latrie. 

St. Pansemnes or PANSEMMA, June 
1 >, Penitent (Meretrix). Honoured with 
St. ^ Theophanes in the Greek Church. 
St. Theophanes was a native of Antioch. 
After his wife s death, he became a 
Christian and a recluse. Hearing that 
a certain woman of the name of Pan 
semnes led a sinful life and caused the 
perdition of many souls, he commended 
himself to God, left his cell, went to his 
own house, changed his hair garment for 
a handsome robe, and procured ten 

pounds of gold from his father, under 
pretence that he was going to marry a 
second wife. Then he went and dined 
with Pansemnes, and after dinner he 
asked her how long she had led this life. 
She said twelve years, and that of all the 
men who had come to her house she had 
never seen one who pleased her so much 
as Theophanes, and that she loved for 
the first time. He answered that he 
could not stay with her there, but would 
take her to his house as his lawful wife. 
She said that if he thought her worthy 
to be the wife of such a man, she would 
think herself honoured. He gave her 
the money he had brought, bidding 
her get whatever was necessary for her 
.marriage, and then he went away and 
built a little cell near his own. He 
came back and told her he could not live 
with her until she had been instructed 
in the mysteries of Christianity. She 
was vexed, but he insisted, and she sub 
mitted. He talked to her for seven 
whole days about the last judgment and 
the retribution for such a wicked life, 
until she felt extreme compunction for 
her sins. Then she liberated all her 
slaves, gave away her riches, the wages 
of sin, and went to inhabit the cell 
Theophanes had built for her ; and there 
she attained to such sanctity that she 
cast out devils and healed all manner of 
diseases. After nearly two years of this 
secluded life, the two saints died at the 
same time. AA.SS. 

B. Pansofia. 4th century. Wife of 
Decente, a good man with whom St. 
Ambrose, archbishop of Milan, lodged 
when he was at Florence. They had a 
child Pansofio, who was possessed by a 
devil and was cured by St. Ambrose. 
Soon afterwards, the boy died. His 
mother in faith brought him down from 
the top of the house to the guest s room, 
and laid him in the bed of St. Ambrose. 
When the archbishop came home, he 
raised the child to life. The mother 
and son are buried in the church of St. 
Lorenzo. An old parchment Passionary 
calls her Saint. Brocchi, Santi e Beati 

St. Pantagape or PARTHAGAPA, 

Sept. 2, M. by drowning. BM. AA.SS. 




or POTANINIA, Feb. 20, M. in Cyprus. 
Supposed same as Potamius, M. with 
Nemesius and Didymus ; or else a com 
panion of SS. CORONA and Victor, MM. 
c. 177. AA.SS. 

St. Paola, PAULA. 

SS. Papa and Mama, Oct. 1, in 
Ethiopian calendar. AA.SS*, Prseter. 
See Bahuta. 

St. Papia (1) or PAPIAS, March 3, 
M. in Africa with GAIOLA and many 
others. AA.S8. 

St. Papia (2), March 6, M. at Nico- 
media with others. AA.SS. 

St. Papias, Jan. 18, M. in Egypt, 
with thirty-seven others. AA.SS. 

St. Paple, PAPULA, OJ-POPULA. Praised 
by St. Gregory of Tours. Guerin. Mas 

St. Pappia, FAPPA. 

St. Papula, PAPLE. 

St. Papyras, M. with ST. JULIA (21) 


St. Paquette, Jan. 9. Popular name 
of ST. PASCASIA of Dijon. Cahier. 

St. Parasceve (1), March 20, one 
of the five sisters of ST. PHOTINA (1), 
the woman of Samaria. H.M. 

St. Parasceve (2), VENERA, or VENE- 
RANDA, V., June 26, July 26 or 28, 
middle of second century. Probably 
the companion or servant of ST. IRENE 
(1), whose date is uncertain. Called in 
baptism PARASCEVE. After the death of 
her parents, she took the veil and 
preached. Accused by certain Jews, 
she was brought to trial before the 
Emperor and subjected to sundry 
tortures. She was condemned to be 
eaten by a dragon but made the sign 
of the cross, and thereby caused him to 
burst. Finally she was beheaded. She 
is worshipped both in the Greek and 
Latin Churches. The Bollandists call 
the story a pious drama. AA.SS. t Prseter. 

St. Parasceve (3), Nov. 14, 8th 
century. The great martyr for the sake 
of images. Worshipped Oct. 28 by all 
Slavonians except Bulgarians. She is 
called "Parasceve of the images" by 
the Slavonians, and VENERA by the 
Italians. AA.SS. 

St. Parasceve (4) of Tarnof, Oct. 
14, also called VENERA and VENERANDA. 

+ 1175. Born atEpivatum, near the city 
of Callicratia in Serbia, of pious parents 
who left her co-heir with her brother 
Euthimius, afterwards bishop of Mady- 
tum. She led a heremitical, ascetic life 
like Elijah and St. John the Baptist. 
Foreseeing her death, she visited Con 
stantinople and made her devotions in 
the principal churches, and then returned 
to her own country and died. Her 
sanctity being shown by many miracles, 
her body was translated to Tarnof, in 
Bulgaria. Afterwards, for fear of the 
Turks, it was removed to Wallachia. 
Her life was written in the fifteenth 
century by Tsamblak, the saintly and 
learned metropolitan of Kief, who insti 
tuted a solemn ceremony in her honour. 
AA.SS., appendix, from her life by 
Euthimius, primate of Bulgaria. Karam- 
sin, V. 278. 

St. Parasceve (5) or PRAXEDIS (4), 
Nov. 12, Oct. 28. Called by the Eussians 
ST. PIATENKA, by the Euthenians or Eed- 
Abbess. + 1239. Patron of Polotsk. 
Daughter of Eogvolod, duke of Polotsk. 
She gave up all her hereditary rights to 
her brothers and took the veil in the 
Basilian monastery of the Transfigured 
Saviour, founded by ST. EUPHROSYNE (7) 
near Polotsk. After seven years she was 
unanimously elected abbess. She acceded 
unwillingly, but governed to the satis 
faction of all. During her rule a rumour 
reached the convent that a Tartar in 
vasion was imminent. To escape this 
danger, Parasceve dissolved the com 
munity. She made a pilgrimage to 
Eome, where she spent seven years and 
died of fever. She was canonized by 
Gregory X. in 1273. She is honoured in 
the Eoman Church Oct. 28, in the Eus- 
sian Nov. 12. AA.SS., appendix, Oct. 6. 
" Aemera" Grseco-Slav. Calendar. 

St. Paris, BARIS, or BARKA. M. 
with ANNA (7). 

St. Parta, March 13, M. Honoured 
with several other martyrs. AA.SS. 

St. Parthagapa, PANTAGAPE. 

St. Pascalina, PASQUALINA. 

St. Pascasia, Jan. 9, V. M. at 
Dijon, under Marcus Aurelius. Taught 
and baptized by St. Benignus, apostle of 



Burgundy. After his martyrdom she 
was taken by the heathen and burnt to 
death : Saussaye says with ST. FLORIDA. 
She is praised by St. Gregory of Tours 
and popularly called PAQUETTE. AA.SS. 

St. Pasithea Crogi, PASSIDEA. 

St. Pasqualina or PASCALINA, V., 
Feb. 4, 12. +1313. O.S.F. Companion 
of B. ANGELA (2) OF FOLIGNO, in whose 
life she is mentioned by Bollandus as a 
sedulous imitator of her virtues and 
acquainted with all her secrets. She died 
Feb. 4, and her sanctity was declared by 
miracles ; but although she is commemo 
rated among the saints of Umbria, in 
the Menologium of Lahier, and in other 
calendars, public honours were never 
adjudged to her by authority of the 
apostolic see. AA.SS., Prseter. Prayer 
Book of the O.S.F. 

St. Passara, Jan. 31, 4th century. 
Sometimes erroneously confounded with 
PRAXEDES. Santa Passara is a corruption 
of Abba Cyrus, a Coptic Father. The 
name soon became Abacer, then Sant 
Appacera and then Santa Passara. 

St. Passidea, May 13, is described 
in an article on Distortions of Christianity, 
in AH the Year Round, June 25, 1870, as 
a Cistercian nun of Siena, who beat 
herself with thorns and washed the 
wounds with vinegar, salt and pepper; 
slept on cherry stones and peas ; wore a 
mailed coat of sixty pounds weight ; im 
mersed herself in freezing ponds ; and 
once hung herself for a time feet upper 
most in a smoky chimney. She was 
PASITHEA CROGI, a native of Siena, of the 
Order of St. Francis. There is no 
authority for her worship. 

St. Paternica, July 30, M. probably 
at Tuburbum, in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Patience, Aug. 10, 3rd century. 
Honoured with her husband, St. Orentius, 
and their son, St. Laurence (of the grid 
iron), at Osca or Huesca, in Aragon. 
AA.SS. The legend is to be found at 
great length in the Flos Sanctorum. 

St. Patricia (1), March 13, wife of 
Zeddonus, a priest. Martyred with him 
and many other Christians at Lacum 
Gerati. AA.SS. 

SS. Patricia (2) (MATRICIA or Mi- 
TRICIA) and Modesta, March 13, MM. 

Wife and daughter of Macedonius, a 
priest, M. in Nicomedia. R.M. AA.SS. 

St. Patricia (3), March 13, honoured 
on the same day as ST. PATRICIA (2). 

St. Patricia (4) or PATRITIA, Aug. 
25, V. 7th century. Patron of Naples. 
Tradition makes her the daughter of the 
Emperor Constantino, but Soller places 
her in the seventh century. She was 
betrothed to a young nobleman, but as 
she had a vow of celibacy, she fled from 
Constantinople with her nurse, B. AGLAE 
(2), and some of her maids and eunuchs. 
They went to Naples and thence to 
Rome, where she received the veil from 
Pope Liberius. She set sail from Ostia, 
intending to visit Jerusalem, but her ship 
was driven back to Naples, where she 
spent the rest of her life. As it was 
uncertain where she should be buried, 
two unbroken bulls were harnessed to a 
cart on which her body was placed, and 
they at once took it to the church of 
SS. Nicander and Marcian. AA.SS. 
A.EM., O.S.B, Aug. 26. 

St. Patrona or MATRONA (4), M. 
with ST. ALEXANDRA (3). 

St. Patruma, PATRUINA, or PATRUNIA, 
July 29, M. AA.SS. 

St. Patyfrigia, March 13, M. at 
Lacum Gerati. AA.SS. 

St. Paula (1) or PAULINA, June 3, 
V. M. c. 273. She was taught from 
her childhood to visit the Christian 
prisoners and to minister to the con 
fessors and martyrs. She saw the suffer 
ings of a converted heathen priest named 
Lucillian, who was imprisoned and tor 
tured with four boys at Nicomedia. She 
washed their wounds with a sponge and 
witnessed the miracle of the four children 
coming unhurt out of the fiery furnace 
into which they were cast by the enemies 
of the Faith. She tended them on the 
journey to Byzantium, where the four 
boys were beheaded and Lucillian cru 
cified. She also was at last taken, and 
after undergoing many tortures and being 
miraculously cured of her wounds by an 
angel, was beheaded at Byzantium. R.M. 
Men. Basil. Janning in AA.SS. gives 
the story of Lucillian and the four 
children, from a manuscript in the 
Vatican, but Paula is not mentioned. 



St. Paula (2), Jan. 10. M. with her 
husband St. Lucian and their four sons. 
AA.SS. Compare PAULA (1). 

SS. Paula (3) and Cassia, July 20, 
MM. with fourteen others at Damascus. 

St. Paula (4), Aug. 10, V. M. at 
Carthage with BASSA (3). E.M. 

St. Paula (.">), June 18. Stoned at 
Malaga with her brother St. Cyriacus 
about 305. They were descended from 
some of the earliest converts to Chris 
tianity in Spain. B.M. AA.SS. 

SS. Paula (0-12). MM. at sundry 
times and places. AA.SS. 

St. Paula (13), Jan. 20 or 27, 347- 
404. Represented (1 ) with her daughter, 
as pilgrims ; (2) with a book. 

St. Paula has become famous through 
the writings of her teacher, St. Jerome. 
She is regarded as the founder of the 
Jeronimites, although, in fact, she did 
not found an Order. Her father, Eogatus, 
was descended from Agamemnon. Among 
the vast possessions he bequeathed to 
Paula, was the rich city of Nicopolis near 
Actium. Her mother, Blaesilla, traced 
her descent from the Scipios, the Gracchi, 
and Paulus Emilius. All the best tra 
ditions of the virtuous days of old Rome 
were kept up in her family, and Paula 
added to her grand descent and boundless 
wealth a most noble character and un 
common abilities. She was a favourite 
everywhere from her kind and generous 
disposition and her brilliant mental and 
social gifts. She married Toxotius, of 
the family of the Julii who descended 
from ^Eneas. They lived as people of 
their rank and wealth then lived in 
Rome. Paula painted her face, darkened 
her eyes and plaited with her own dark 
hair, yellow tresses from the head of 
some fair barbarian ; she wore silk and 
jewels and cloth of gold ; she was carried 
in a silver litter, she cramped her feet 
into gold shoes in which she could not 
walk without the support of a slave on 
each side of her. 

About 379 she was left a widow, at 
the age of thirty-two, with five children : 
four daughters, ST. BL^ISILLA, Paulina, 
ST. EUSTOCHITJM, and Rufiua, and a son 
named Toxotius, who was the father of 
ST. PAULA (14). 

Paula nearly died of grief for the 
loss of her husband, but her friend 
MARCELLA, who was already well known 
in Rome for her self-denying and devout 
life, persuaded her to consecrate herself 
from that time unreservedly to God. 
She began at once to practice great 
austerity in her daily life, denying her 
self all but the very simplest food, for 
bidding herself meat, wine, fish, eggs 
and honey, and sleeping on a rough hair 
cloth, spread on the ground. The splen 
dour of dress and the visits of pleasure 
and ceremony, suddenly broken off by 
her widowhood, were never resumed. 
She devoted her immense wealth and 
much of her time to the relief of the 

In 381 the bishops of the East and 
West were summoned to Rome, by letters 
from the Emperors, to deal with certain 
dissensions between the Churches. Pope 
Darnasus called a council, to which among 
others came the aged St.Epiphanius,bishop 
of Salamis in Cyprus. Paula was asked 
to receive him as her guest ; she gladly 
received him and extended her hospi 
tality to his friend Pauliuus, bishop of 
Antioch. She and her friends were de 
lighted to entertain them and hear their 
experiences. They questioned them 
eagerly about the recluses of both sexes 
in the Thebaid. Epiphanius could tell 
them many things that aroused their 
interest and wonder. He marvelled 
greatly to see the asceticism of the desert 
reproduced in the heart of luxurious 
Rome, all the more as these hermits in 
the gay city were women whom he had 
expected to find given up to the frivolity 
of their class. At the same time St. 
Jerome, whose extraordinary learning 
and ability made him indispensable to 
Damasus, was bidden to Rome, as the 
Pope s secretary, and became the welcome 
guest of Marcella. At her house he 
often met Paula and her daughters, and 
soon became their instructor and devoted 
friend, and when Epiphanius and the 
other bishops left Rome, Jerome remained 
for more than a year. 

He went to Jerusalem and thence 
wrote letters to Paula and to her daughter, 
to Marcella, and others of that happy 
group of friends. He charged Paula to 



show his letters to " the indefatigable 

It was about :>83 that Paula s eldest 
daughter Bhcsilla became a widow, after 
seven months of a not very happy mar 
riage. She was young, beautiful, rich, 
and a universal favourite, and she in 
tended to enjoy the unbounded liberty 
then accorded to widows. Her conduct 
was without reproach, but she was far 
from sharing her mother s taste for 
asceticism and self-denial, so that Paula 
was not free from anxiety lest her 
daughter should fall into habits of fri 
volity or even worse. Blsesilla had a fever, 
and when the physicians despaired of 
her life, Christ appeared to her and bade 
her arise and serve Him. She recovered 
and resolved to devote to Him the life 
He had newly granted to her. She put 
on the coarse brown gown of the poorest 
class, she slept on the bare floor, she 
fasted rigorously, she spent her days in 
works of mercy and her nights in prayer. 
She had always been delicate, and this 
sudden change of habits completely shat 
tered her health and brought her to the 
grave in four months, at the age of 
twenty. Her mother, nearly frantic with 
grief, made her the most magnificent 
funeral ; but all Rome was indignant ; 
they accused Paula and Jerome of caus 
ing her death, by encouraging an asceti 
cism which her delicate frame was unable 
to endure ; they raged against Jerome 
and said : " Why do we tolerate these 
monks ! Let us throw them into the 
river ! " They even affected to misunder 
stand the friendship of Jerome and Paula, 
and accused them of blameable inter 
course. The horror of this accusation 
no doubt combined with other causes to 
decide Paula to leave Borne for the East, 
a step she had long contemplated. St. 
Jerome, from the Holy Land, wrote to 
condole with her grief, but reminded her 
that Blaesilla now belonged entirely to 
the Lord, to Whom Paula had vowed 
herself; he urged her to spurn every 
obstacle that detained her in Rome and 
to devote herself exclusively to the 
service of God and to visit the birthplace 
of the Saviour and the scenes of His 
labours and death. 

Her second daughter Paulina was 

married to St. Pammachius, who has 
been called the most Christian of the 
nobles and the most noble of the 
Christians of Eome. Eustochium, whose 
tastes were those of Paula, only, if 
possible, more strongly marked, was 
anxious to accompany her on her journey, 
but there remained still her youngest 
daughter Rufina, now twelve, and her 
only son Toxotius, about ten. It grieved 
the mother s heart to leave them, but 
their relations wished to keep them more 
in that walk of life to which their rank 
and fortune entitled them, than in the 
ways in which Paula would lead them. 
Jerome represented it as her duty to 
break every tie that bound her still to 
the life she was going to leave. 

In 385 the decisive step was taken. 
Paula and Eustochium left Italy, fol 
lowed to the ship by Paula s brother 
and a crowd of friends and relations, 
some admiring, some weeping, some re 
proaching them. Paula was calm until 
the ship began to bear her away and she 
saw her two children Toxotius and Eufina 
with streaming eyes stretching their little 
hands towards her in a last appeal, which 
wrung her heart but did not alter her 
resolve. They touched at Cyprus, where 
their old friend St. Epiphanius received 
them joyfully and showed them the 
monasteries there. Thence they pro 
ceeded to Antioch, where Jerome met 
them. When they reached Jerusalem, 
Paula and Eustochium went rapturously 
to the sites of the incidents in sacred 
history. At her monastery, on the Mount 
of Olives, they visited St. MELANIA, who 
was destined in after years to be estranged 
from Paula by the fierce quarrel that 
arose between Jerome and Rufinus, their 
respective friends and directors. 

Paula and Eustochium travelled all 
over the Holy Land, suffering great 
fatigues and privations, but upheld 
under all difficulties, by the intense 
delight of identifying the localities of 
all those stories which their long 
study of holy writ had engraven on 
their memories. They returned to Beth 
lehem and built two convents, one for 
Jerome and one for themselves ; aud 
when they had settled in the latter, 
Paula built two others for holy nuns, 



and a Jiospitium near them for travellers, 
BO that " if Joseph and MARY should 
return, they might be sure to find room in 
the inn." These buildings have entirely 
disappeared, but close to the grotto of 
the Nativity, the rock chamber is still 
shown, in which Jerome lived while his 
monastery was being built and which he 
used to call his Paradise. 

Paula and Eustochium continued to 
copy, criticise and otherwise help in his 
great work of translating the Bible into 
Latin. They, as well as he, had ad 
vanced in their knowledge of Hebrew 
since he had begun the translation in 
Rome. They daily read with him some 
portion of scripture in the original, 
discussing its meaning and amending 
each other s suggestions for transla 

Soon after their arrival they wrote to 
Marcella, expressing their happiness and 
urging her to join them. This letter is 
to be seen in Latin and English in the 
sixth volume of the Library of the 
Palestine Pilgrims Text Society. 

Paula s daughter Rufina died young. 
Her son Toxotius married ST. LAETA, 
and soon afterwards became a Christian. 

Paula died at Bethlehem in 404, on the 
26th of January, after sunset ; and as 
the day was there considered to begin 
from sunset, her name is placed in Ado s 
and other old martyrologies on the 27th. 
She was buried in the Church of the 
Holy Manger, where her empty tomb 
is still shown, beside that of St. Jerome. 
Her body is said to be at Sens. She 
was succeeded by ST. EUSTOCHIUM, in 
the government of the monastery at 

E.M. Jan. 26. Several of St. Jerome s 
treatises and prefaces to his translations 
are addressed to Paula and Eustochium. 
Paula s life is mainly taken from his 
Letters, particularly the one called her 
epitaph, which he addressed to Eusto 
chium after her mother s death. AA.SS. 
Baillet. Tillemont, Hist. eccl. 

St. Paula (14), June 1, 5th century, 
daughter of Toxotius and ST. LAETA and 
granddaughter of ST. PAULA (13). This 
child was granted to her mother s prayers 
and tears, and was consecrated to God 
and to virginity before her birth. Laeta 

begged St. Jerome to give her directions 
by which she might train her child. He 
begins his letter by exhorting her to 
strive and to hope for the conversion 
of her father Albinus, prefect of Eome ; 
and this came about through his affection 
for his little granddaughter who sat on 
his knees, singing " Hallelujah " as soon 
as she could speak, and singing and recit 
ing her hymns and prayers so sweetly that 
the old man s heart was touched and was 
won over to Christianity. Jerome, so 
austere in some respects, recommends 
that the child should be brought up 
with great tenderness, be encouraged 
with caresses and little presents to learn ; 
be taught to read by means of wooden 
letters that she might become familiar 
with their shapes and names while play 
ing with them as toys. She was to be 
so gentle and courteous that she should be 
beloved by every one. She was to be led 
to love prayer and retreat. In her early 
years her abstinence was to be practised 
with great moderation. She was to work 
with her hands, to dress very modestly. 
He prescribed a certain order in which 
she should read the books of the Bible, 
and said she might read St. Cyprian, St. 
Athanasius and St. Hilary. She was to 
be kept from all knowledge of evil, and 
for this purpose she was never to frequent 
the baths, where unseemly gossip was 
exchanged amongst the Roman ladies. 
Above all, a good example must be set 
her at home by her father and mother. 
If her parents found it impossible to 
bring her up thus innocently and care 
fully in Rome, they were to send her to 
Bethlehem, to her grandmother PAULA 
and her aunt EUSTOCHIUM. She went, 
as soon as she was old enough, to their 
convent in Bethlehem. She remained 
there with Eustochium, after the death 
of the elder Paula, and was still there 
in 416, when the house was attacked 
by the Pelagians. St. Paula (14) 
and ST. MELANIA the younger attended 
St. Jerome in his last illness. Paula 
is not worshipped but is called Saint by 
many writers. She is mentioned in the 
lives of St. Jerome and of the sainted 
members of her own family. St. Jerome s 
Epistle cvii, Freemantle s edition. Tille 
mont, Hist. Eccl, 



St. Paula (15), Feb. 20, surnamed 
BAUBATA, V. M. Time uncertain. A 
beautiful peasant girl of the place now 
called Cardenosa, in the neighbourhood 
of Avila iii Spain. She used to go often 
to pray at the tomb of St. Secundus, 
bishop of Avila, M. To escape from a 
wicked man, she prayed that her face 
might be disfigured. In answer to her 
prayer, she was immediately endowed 
with a thick beard and her face dis 
torted. Her lover fled in horror and 
Paula gave thanks to God and is counted 
among the martyrs. The manner of her 
death is not known. A A.SS. from Tamayo 
de Salazar. 

St. Paula (16), Nov. 4, V. at Eimini. 
There was a church dedicated in her 
name at the village of Eoncofrede, where 
her distaff had grown into a tree which 
healed diseases. Ferrarius. 

B. Paula (17) of Foligno, Jan. 2(3 
or 31, 4- 1470. 3rd O.S.F. She was a 
disciple of B. ANGELINA CORBARA, and 
was sent by her with B. ANTONIA (6) of 
Florence, to Aquila, in 1433, to found two 
monasteries of the Order, namely, that 
of St. Elisabeth, and that of the Body 
of Christ. Paula became superior of 
the latter and died there. Jacobilli, 
Santi dell Umlria and Santi di 

B. Paula (18) Gambara Costa, 
countess of Bena, March 29 and 
Jan. 25, + 1505. 3rd O.S.F. She 
came of a noble family at Brescia, and 
married Count Louis Costa. She was 
distinguished by miracles, both before 
and after her death at Bena in Pied 
mont. A.E.M. Komano Seraphic Mart., 
March 29. St iller. Guerin, Jan. 25, says 
that a plenary indulgence is granted to 
her worship. 

B. Paula (19) Spezzani, August 18. 
Nun, O.S.D., under B. ANTONIA (7), 
in the convent of St. Catherine at Ferrara, 
in 1509. Eazzi. Jacobilli. 

B. Paula (20) Montaldi or of Mon- 
talto, Oct. 29, b. 1443 -f 1514. O.S.F. 
The Montaldi were for years one of the 
distinguished families of Genoa, but it 
is not certain that she was one of them. 
She was born either at Genoa or at 
Montalto near Mantua. At the age of 
fifteen she became a nun in the convent 

of St. Lucy at Mantua, where she was 
abbess three times, and died worn out 
with old age and asceticism. A.R.M, 
AA.SS. She appears in Daca s Chronicle 
of St. Francis and in Hueber s list of 
princesses of the Order. Her worship 
began within a few years of her death 
and was sanctioned by Pius IX. in 

St. Paulica or PAULICIA, May 31, M. 
at Gerona in Spain. AA.SS. 

St. Paulina (1), Dec. 2, Oct. 27, 
M. 257. Wife of Adrias. They lived 
at Eome. They had a daughter MAR.Y 
(9) and a son Neon. St. Hippolytus 
was the uncle of the children and 
brought them up as Christians, although 
their parents were still heathen and 
would not have them baptized. He 
tried to keep them with him as much as 
possible, and did what he could to induce 
Adrias and Paulina to come to his house 
and meet St. Stephen, bishop of Eome, 
that they might profit by his instruction. 
Adrias did not wish to risk his life and 
property by adopting the proscribed 
religion, but at last he and Paulina 
were converted and all six were mar- 
tyred the following year, the boy Neon 
being ten years old, and Mary thirteen. 
They were buried in the sand-pit, 
at the first milestone from the city. 
E.M. Tillemont. Lightfoot. (See 

St. Paulina (2), June 3, PAULA (1). 

St. Paulina (3), Dec. 31, M. at Eome, 
with many others. R.M. 

SS. Paulina (4, 5, 7), MM. in divers 

St. Paulina (6), June 6, V. M. at 
Eome. Daughter of the jailor St. Arte- 
mius and ST. CANDIDA (3), his wife. 
Paulina fell sick during the persecution 
under Diocletian. St. Peter, the exor 
cist, and St. Marcellinus offered to cure 
her, if Artemius would become a Chris 
tian. The jailor derided them, saying : 
"If I put you in the deepest dungeon 
and load you with the heaviest chains, 
will your God deliver you?" They 
answered : " It matters little to our God 
whether such a one as you believe in Him 
or not ; yet you shall see that He can 
deliver us." Scoffing, he put them in 
the deepest dungeon and loaded them 



with the heaviest chains. At mid 
night they entered his room, shining like 
angels ; whereupon Artemius, Candida, 
Paulina, and three hundred others wor 
shipped Christ and were baptized. When 
the confessors were led to the place of 
execution, they met so many Christians 
that the guards ran away ; the Christians 
ran after them and detained them while 
Marcel linus said mass in the prison. 
Then Marcellinus said : " You were in 
our power and we did not even rescue 
Artemius and his wife and daughter." 
Then Artemius, Candida, and Paulina 
were thrown into a pit and crushed with 
stones. R.M. AA.SS. Mrs. Jameson. 
Marty rum Acta. 

St. Paulina (8), one of the nine 
sisters of ST. EAINFREDE. 

St. Paulina (9), June 6, and Jan. 6, 
V. M. Patron of Olmutz. Moravian 
prints represent her pouring the contents 
of a pail over the town of Olmutz. Her 
aid is sought against fire, contagious 
diseases and thieves. Her date and 
parentage are unknown. Her worship 
in Moravia is traced to the beginning 
of the J 7th century. She was chosen 
special patroness of Olmutz, in 1623,, 
when her relics were taken there from 
Rome, and her festival is kept at- Olmutz, 
Jan. 6. Cahier. 

B. Paulina (JO), March 14, + 1107. 
Founder of the Benedictine monastery of 
Cella Paulina, in the diocese of Mayence, 
where she is buried. Her son Wernher 
was one of the twelve monks who origi 
nally inhabited the monastery, whither 
they came from Hirsauge; the abbey 
was either in Saxony or on the con 
fines of Thuringia. Trithemius, in his 
chronicle of Hirsauge, calls her a vener 
able and holy recluse on the borders of 
Thuringia, he gives her date as 607. 
Guerin gives her day as March 14. 
AAJ3S. Migne, Die. des Albayes. 

St. Pazanne, PERSEVERANDA or PE- 
CINNA. Guerin. 

St. Peag, PEGA. 

St. Pechinna, PECINNA. 

St. Pecinna, June 24, 25, (PAZANNE, 
ZANNE). Agnomine et mentis Perseve- 
randa. Supposed 8th century. Patron 

of St. Quentin, and of Ste. Pezaine in 

She was born in Spain of a noble 
family. She had two sisters, SS. COLUMBA 
(10) and MAGRINA. They gathered other 
religious young women around them and 
led an ascetic and devotional life, until 
the fame of their sanctity attracted the 
attention of King Oliver, who reigned 
in one of the western provinces of Spain 
and was a fierce persecutor of the 
Christians. Columba foretold to her 
sisters and their friends that they were 
about to become the victims of persecu 
tion. She had hardly finished speaking 
when letters were brought, ordering 
them to appear before Oliver. Columba, 
after exhorting her sisters to be firm in 
the faith, went with the messengers. 
The king asked her who she was and of 
what religion, and when she had answered, 
he told her she might live unmolested 
in his dominions if she would renounce 
her religion. One of the bystanders 
told him this woman was not to be com 
pared for beauty to her two sisters, and 
the impious king at once ordered some 
of his guards to go and seize them, 
swearing by his gods that he would 
make haste to see them himself and take 
them for his slaves. 

Meantime, Pecinna and Magrina, 
warned by a dream, commended them 
selves to the protection of God and fled. 
They travelled for seven days, and then 
Pecinna died, exhausted with privation 
and fatigue. Some Christians happened 
to come to the spot, and saw a dove, sur 
rounded by a celestial light, hovering 
over the body, and as they knew the 
noble birth and piety of the maiden, 
they buried her with due honour at a 
place in Poitou, now called after her 
Ste. Pezaine. Meantime, the messengers 
returned to the king and told him they 
could not find the holy maidens any 
where. He was furious and set off in 
search of them, vowing evil against 
them. One of his followers found the 
dead body of St. Pecinna and attempted 
to bring it to Oliver; but was struck blind 
for his presumption, by which punish 
ment he was converted to Christianity. 

St. Pecinna was afterwards translated 
to Niort, and eventually to St. Quentin, 



where, in 1090, a church was built in 
her honour, and where her feast is ob 
served, June 24 and 26. 

From old MSS. AA.S8. Guerin. 

St. Peculcaris or PECULIARUS, May 
7, M. in Africa. AA.S8. 

St. Pee, PEGA. 

St. Pega, Jan. 8 (PEAG, PEE, PEGAN, 
PEGE, PEGIA, or PEY), 7th and 8th cen 
tury, V. She was of the ancient Saxon 
family of the Iclings, daughter of Pen- 
wald and Tetta, and sister of the famous 
hermit St. Guthlac (April 11), who lived 
on an island called Croyland, in a huge 
fen. Pega lived on another island, some 
miles distant in the same fen. In 715, 
when he was at the point of death Guth 
lac said to his servant Beccel, " After 
my death, go to my sister and tell her I 
denied myself her society here on earth 
that we two might see each other in 
heaven before the face of God. Bid her 
place my body in the coffin and wind it 
in the sheet that Egburg sent me. I 
would not whilst I lived be clothed with 
a linen garment, but now, for the love of 
the maid of Christ, I will put her gift 
to the use for which I have kept it." 

This Egburg was an abbess and the 
daughter of Guthlac s friend, King 
Aldulph. When Guthlac s soul departed, 
Beccel heard angelic songs, smelt the 
flowers of Paradise and saw heavenly 
lights in the hut. He took a boat and 
went to St. Pega and told her all that he 
had seen and heard of her holy brother. 
She was filled with a great sorrow and 
fell to the ground. Presently she arose 
and went with Beccel to Croyland and 
prayed for the dead saint for three days, 
and then buried him in the sheet and the 
coffin that Egburg, the abbess and prin 
cess, had sent him. Pega performed 
several wonderful cures, and so many 
miracles occurred at the spot, that in a 
year she called together a number of 
priests and monks and holy persons, and 
when they had opened the grave they 
found the saint s body fresh and un 
injured and the linen perfectly white 
and clean. They then translated it into 
the place now called Peakirk in North 
amptonshire, and here very soon Pega 
left her brother s psalter and scourge 
which St. Bartholomew had given him, 

and some other relics, and returned to 
her own cell, where- she spent three 
months in lamentation. Then she tra 
velled, suffering greatly from cold and 
hunger, to the threshold of the Apostles 
Peter and Paul. As she entered the 
city of Eome, all the bells suddenly 
began to ring and continued to do so for 
an hour, to proclaim her sanctity to all 
the inhabitants ; and there devoting 
herself entirely to the service of God, 
she spent the rest of her life in great 

Ordericus Vitalis. Ingulph, History 
of the Alley of Cropland. A life of St. 
Guthlac almost contemporary, translated 
and edited by Goodwin, 1848. Butler. 

St. Peillan. (See GWENAFWY). 

St. Peithien. (See GWENAFWY). 

St. Pelagia (1), Dec. 21, V. M. 1st 
century. Daughter of the king of Ad- 
rianople, where St. Thomas the apostle 
stopped on his way to India, the day that 
Pelagia was being married to Denis. 
The apostle and his companion, the 
abbana (lieutenant) of Gondafore, king 
of the Indians, were invited to the wed 
ding. The master of the feast seeing 
that St. Thomas did not eat, rebuked 
him and struck him on the face. St. 
Thomas said in Hebrew, " I will not rise 
from this feast until the hand that struck 
me is brought to me by a black dog." 
Theonlyperson who understood his words 
was a Jewess who was playing the flute 
among the musicians. The butler went 
out to draw water and a lion killed him 
and left him. He was eaten by dogs, 
and one of them, a black one, brought 
his right hand and laid it at the apostle s 
feet. The Jewess threw away her flute, 
and fell at the feet of the apostle, loudly 
exclaiming that he was a prophet and 
explaining to all the company what had 
happened. The king then requested him 
to bless the newly married couple. This 
he did, and instructed them so well in 
the Christian religion that they cared no 
more for the pleasures and honours of 
this world. Denis .became bishop of 
Adrianople. Pelagia took the veil, and 
some time after her husband s death 
she was beheaded because she would not 
worship the heathen gods. Ordericus 



The Martyrology of Salisbury gives the 
story with a little difference 

" St. Denis, bishop, disciple of St. 
Thomas the apostle, was converted with 
St. Pelagia, his spouse, that was the 
kynges doughter, whome the apostle 
consecrated a virgin, and made her an 
abbesse, whiche after the deth of her 
sayd spouse was desyred vnto maryage 
of a noble man, vnto whoine bycause she 
wolde not consent, she was heded and 
buryed in the same sepulchre with her 

St. Pelagia (2), Oct. 19, V. M. at 
Antioch in Syria, with Beronicus and 
forty-nine others. 1 st, 2nd or 3rd cen 
tury. Sometimes confounded with others 
of the same name. EM. AA.SS. 

St. Pelagia (3), July 20, M. 

SS. Pelagia (4) and Benedicta, 
Oct. 8, VV. MM. 282, under Carus at 
Lyons. Commemorated in Adam King s 
Calendar. They are probably ST. BENE 
DICTA of Origuy and one of her com 
panions, or else this St. Pelagia is the 
actress and penitent, commemorated this 
day in the Eoman Martyrology. The 
place of Beuedicta s martyrdom is not 
Lyons, but Laon : the mistake is often 
made. Lugdunum has three equivalents. 

St. Pelagia (5), July 11, May 15, 
M. Tortured for four days with St. 
Januarius, at Nicopolis in Armenia. 
They died under the tortures, and are 
commemorated together. B.M. AA.SS. 

St. Pelagia (6), June 9, V. M. at 
Antioch, about 311 or 312, or possibly 
283. A girl of fifteen. The magistrate, 
encouraged by the wicked example of 
Maximinus Daia, sent soldiers to fetch 
her. They came when there was no 
one in the house who could oppose them. 
She went a little way with them and 
then said, " Let me go back and dress." 
She went to the top of the house and 
threw herself down and was killed. 
The Menology of the Emperor Basil says 
that on the housetop she prayed that 
she might not fall into the hands of 
these wicked men, and that so praying, 
she died. The magistrate resolved to 
be revenged on her mother and sisters, 
who had already fled from the town. 
He sent in pursuit. Finding themselves 

nearly overtaken and their flight barred 
by a river, they joined hands and plunged 
into the water and were drowned. St. 
Ambrose mentions this, but Baillet thinks 
he confounds their story with that of 
ST. DOMNINA (3) and her daughters 
several examples among the early Chris 
tian women of suicide to avoid outrage, 
but the Church only honours as martyrs 
those who are believed to have rushed 
to their death by a special inspiration 
of God, among them Pelagia. Butler 
thinks that Pelagia perhaps hoped to 
escape by throwing herself from the 
roof. She is highly praised by St. 
Chrysostom and St. Ambrose. EM. 
AA.SS. Menology of Basil Butler. 

St. Pelagia (7), May 4, Oct. 7, M. 
A native of Tarsus, in the time of Dio 
cletian, and destined to marry his son. 
She heard of Christianity and wondered 
what it was and dreamed about it. At 
this time Clinus, the bishop, was bap 
tizing many of the Greeks. She received 
his instructions secretly and one day 
begged her mother to let her go out 
with her nurse, and went to the bishop 
and was baptized. She gave him, for 
the poor, the robes in which she was 
dressed, and returned to her mother in 
the poorest and shabbiest costume. The 
mother, in great indignation and distress, 
went and complained to her intended 
son-in-law that Pelagia had gone over 
to the Christians. He was so shocked 
that he killed himself. His enraged 
father had Pelagia baked alive in a 
brazen bull. EM., May 4. Menology 
of Basil, Oct. 7. AA.SS. 

St. Pelagia (8), Mar. 23 and April 
13, M. 361 or 362, with THEODOSIA (5), 
Aquila and Eparchius. Worshipped in 
the Greek Church. Claimed without 
authority by the Spanish and Portuguese 
hagiologists. Supposed companions of 
the martyrdom of St. Domitius, a native 
of Phrygia, who was put to death under 
the Emperor Julian. EM. AA.SS. 

St. Pelagia (9), the actress, Oct. 8, 
5th century, surnamed in her own time, 
MARGARET, and called in the calendars, 
to distinguish her from other saints of 



the same name ; in some of the legends, 
Pelagia is spelt PKLAYB, PALAYE. 

She was a native of Antioch, in Syria, 
and in childhood received some Christian 
teaching, but while still a catechumen, 
she took to evil ways and soon became 
an actress. In those days there was no 
innocence or virtue on the stage. If 
the whole fabric of society was steeped 
in depravity, the theatre, in the opinion 
of Christians and heathens alike, was 
saturated with its dregs. The Church 
saw only one way of dealing with it : 
reform was hopeless, mitigation impos 
sible. The Fathers made a determined 
and uncompromising opposition to every 
kind of scenic representation. If an 
actor became a Christian, he must re 
nounce his profession before he could 
be admitted to baptism ; if he returned 
to the stage, he was excommunicated. 
When Christianity became the recognized 
religion of the State, it was found im 
possible to deprive the people of an 
amusement to which they were so warmly 
attached, and the Church was not allowed 
to interfere. An actor was a despised 
person. His father might disinherit him 
on the sole ground of his profession. 
The ministers of religion must not at 
tempt to raise him from that ignominious 
position. Only at the point of death 
was it lawful to convert him ; when the 
world had done with him, the Church 
might have him. If the old classical 
dramas were ever put on the stage at 
all in those times, the women s parts 
were played by men, so that dancing 
and pantomime were the only arts prac 
tised by Pelagia and the thousands of 
actresses in the Eoman empire. 

The Patriarch of Antioch sent to 
request the presence of several other 
bishops to settle some ecclesiastical 
matter of moment: eight came, each 
attended by some of his clergy. Among 
the number was the aged St. Nonnus, 
bishop, first of Heliopolis and afterwards 
of Edessa. This good old man was 
lodged at the church of St. Julian, and 
one evening he was sitting outside the 
door, breathing the cool air and con- 
versii g with his brethren, when Pelagia 
passed by, riding on a mule. She was 
a wom,\n of extraordinary beauty and 

the best actress and dancer of wealthy 
and luxurious Antioch, and was so rich 
with the gifts of her lovers and admirers, 
that her dress was covered all over with 
gold and silver and heavy with precious 
stones ; costly gems adorned her head 
and neck, which were unconcealed by 
any modest veil ; her very shoes were 
embroidered with pearls ; the trappings 
of her mule were as gorgeous as her 
own clothes, and she was accompanied 
by a train of servants of both sexes, 
dressed as gaily as their mistress, taking 
up all the breadth of the road with their 
noisy presence and filling the whole air 
with their perfumes. The reverend 
Fathers, divining what manner of woman 
she was, discreetly averted their eyes. 
But there was one exception : the aged 
and saintly Bishop of Heliopolis looked 
steadfastly after the beautiful sinner, 
and said, while tears gathered in his 
pitying eyes, " God will receive even 
such an one as this. At the last day 
He will set that woman before His face 
and compare her with us His servants, 
and the comparison will turn to our 
condemnation, for she dresses and paints 
herself again and again, she leaves no 
part of her task undone, she forgets no 
jewel, no pin ; she spares no labour 
that she may serve her masters. But 
we do we take 7m// as much trouble to 
serve our Master ? " That night Nonnus 
had a dream, of a dove, all black and 
dirty, flying round him as he was saying 
mass ; he thought he caught it after 
much trouble, and threw it into a vessel 
of water, and that it came out white and 
glittering like snow. 

Next day a vast concourse of people 
assembled in the cathedral, to assist at 
a grand ceremony, in which so many 
bishops were to take part. The solemn 
service ended, the Patriarch requested 
St. Nonnus to preach. His sermon was 
on the last judgment ; he set forth its 
terrors so effectively, and spoke so touch- 
ingly of God s mercy to repentant sinners, 
that all his hearers were moved to tears. 
Among them was Pelagia, the actress. 
His words awoke in her slumbering 
conscience a fear for her own soul and 
a yearning for the better path from 
which she had long ago turned away. 



She wrote a letter, addressed "to Nonmis 
the holy servant of God from Pelagia 
the servant of the devil," beseeching the 
venerable bishop to receive her into the 
fold of his Master. He answered as 
suring her that Christ would receive all 
penitent sinners, but referring her to the 
local clergy, as much more worthy in 
struments for her conversion than him 
self. But she would. not be handed over 
to any one else. Determined to speak to 
him, whose words had touched her heart, 
she went to the church of St. Julian 
and begged that he would see her. He 
would not receive her alone ; he sent 
for all the other bishops and she had to 
wait outside the door until they arrived. 
As soon as she was admitted, she threw 
herself at his feet. In her agony of 
contrition, she wanted to insist on being 
baptized on the spot : the bishops thought 
it necessary to have further proof of the 
reality of the conversion of so notorious 
an evil-doer ; but she would not be sent 
away. She knew it was illegal to con 
vert her, and she dreaded to lose the 
plank at which her drowning soul had 
caught. In her cloth of gold, with her 
bare neck and her bejewelled shoes, she 
lay on her face, weeping and sobbing on 
the pavement of the church, holding the 
aged saint by the feet and adjuring him 
by the God Whom he served, not to let 
the devil recover possession of her, and 
telling him that he should not have his 
place in the kingdom of heaven, unless 
he saved her too. The bishops so far 
yielded to her importunity as to send 
for the deaconess Eomana, whose office 
included the duty of preparing women 
for baptism and assisting them to find 
an honest living. Scarcely would the 
penitent rise from the ground or loose 
her hold ot the bishop s feet, until at 
last they made her understand that this 
preparation was the only condition on 
which she could be received into the 
Christian Church. Then she went 
meekly away with her new friend, who 
had had the care of many a convert and 
catechumen, but had never before seen 
an actress in the zenith of her triumphs 
present herself as a penitent. Eomana 
advised her to break with her old courses 
by giving up all the gains they had 

brought her. Accordingly, she liberated 
all her slaves, presenting them with the 
gold necklaces they had worn in her 
service and exhorting them to follow 
her example. She then summoned her 
steward and bade him bring all her 
money, jewels and finery, and lay them 
at the feet of Nonnus. He would not 
have the proceeds of iniquity used to 
maintain or adorn the House of God, 
but gave them to the priests, whose 
guest he was, with the stipulation that 
they should not once attempt to min 
ister in their own church, until the last 
farthing and the last spangle had been 
disposed of, for the benefit of lepers and 
other destitute sufferers. All this time 
was not allowed to pass away in the 
world Pelagia had left, without remon 
strances from her patrons, addressed 
both to herself and the clergy who 
were concerned in her conversion. But 
Pelngia had taken the turning into the 
narrow way and would not look back. 
Very soon she was admitted to the sac 
raments, Eomana standing godmother, 
answering for her that she would not 
return to her sinful life, and providing 
her with a plain white robe to be worn 
at her baptism and for the next seven 
days. At the font, the bishop asked 
her name, and she said, " My real name 
is Pelagia, but the people of Antioch 
call me Margaret, because of the jewels 
I wear." He christened her Pelagia, 
and immediately administered to her the 
rite of confirmation, and the sacrament 
of the Eucharist. 

When the baptismal week was nearly 
over, Pelagia arose noiselessly, by night, 
and went to Nonnus, who gave her, in 
stead of her white robe, a cilicium and 
the rough brown gown and hood of a 
person dedicated to God in a life of 
seclusion and penance. Thus habited, 
she left Antioch for ever and went to 
Jerusalem. There she visited the holy 
sepulchre and every spot pointed out as 
the scene of an incident in the life of the 
Lord Jesus, devoutly offering her broken 
heart to Him Who demands the whole, 
yet will accept it in fragments. Then, 
with her unpractised hands, sh -j built 
herself a little hermitage on the mount 
of Olives, and there, in prater and 



penitence, she spent the rest of her 

When Romana awoke and found her 
new disciple gone, she feared she had 
returned to the stage, and flew in great 
distress to Nonnus ; but he bade her be 
comforted, for Pelagia was safe. 

Three years afterwards a deacon going 
to Jerusalem was commissioned by St. 
Nonnus to inquire for a holy recluse on 
Mount Olivet. He did so, and through 
the small window of her cell spoke to 
Pelagia. He had been present at her 
interview with the bishop at Antioch and 
at her baptism ; but ho did not recognize 
her now. Moreover, the three years of 
her penitential life had so changed the 
once beautiful actress that he did not 
even guess that he was talking to a 
woman. A few days after this visit, 
Pelagia died ; and then it became known 
that the recluse of Mount Olivet was the 
same person as the popular dancer, who 
had disappeared from Antioch. Mar 
vellous stories of her sanctity were soon 
in circulation ; miracles attended her 
relics and honoured her tomb. 

Centuries afterwards, pilgrims from 
Europe, visiting the church of the Ascen 
sion, on the mount of Olives, were led 
down many steps, into a crypt where 
in honour of a holy penitent, three lamps 
were kept continually burning, and 
dimly showed her tomb, separated only 
by a very narrow space from the rock 
which formed the wall of the church. 
Whoever ventured into that small pas 
sage found himself unable to leave it 
until he had confessed every sin that 
stained his soul. Invisible bonds held 
him faster than any fetters forged by 
mortal man ; but as soon as he had made 
a full confession he was free to depart. 
Tradition said this miraculous power was 
bequeathed to the niche by a groat sinner 
who had done a long penance on that 
very spot, for it was the cell of the 
Actress Pelagia. 

There are some contradictions con 
cerning the Saints Nonnus and their 
bishoprics, consequently doubts have 
arisen as to the date of Pelagia s conver 
sion, which is sometimes placed in the 
4th, sometimes as late as the 7th century, 
but everything points to its having 

occurred about the middle of the 5th 

B.M. Her life by James the Deacon 
in the AA.SS. Mart, of Salisbury. 
Menology of Basil. 

St. Pellegrina, PEREGRINA. 

Pellmerg. (See TRIADS.) 

St. Penelope, IRENE (1). 

St. Perche, WALBURGA. 

St. Perdicia, PRODOCIA. 

SS. Peregrina, (l, 2, 3), June 6, 
March 1, May 10, MM. in different 
places. AA.SS. 

St. Peregrina (4), Oct. 5, V. M. 
probably before 312. Her body was 
taken from the cemetery of ST. PRISCILLA 
at Rome and translated, in 1659, to the 
church of St. Joseph of the Augus- 
tinians, at Laibach in Krain (Labacum 
in Carniola), where her festival is 
annually kept, Oct. 5. With the body 
was found a cup in which her blood had 
been collected, and there was evidence 
that she had been killed by stoning ; but 
whether her name was Peregriua or 
whether she was a pilgrim of unknown 
name could not be ascertained. AA.SS. 

St. Permia, March 6, M. in Italy. 

St. Pernelle or PERONELLE, PETBO- 

St. Pernia, PECINNA. 

St. Peronelle, PETRONILLA. 

St. Peronne, Nov. 15, 18, V. at 
Mortagne in le Perche, 730. Baring 
Gould. Guerin. 

St. Perpetua (1), Nov. 4, M. 1st cen 
tury. She is said by the legends to be the 
wife of St. Peter the apostle, and mother 
of ST. PETRONILLA. She was put to 
death a short time before her husband, 
who when he saw her led away to 
martyrdom, rejoiced and called out to 
her, " O Perpetua, remember the Lord !" 
This incident is quoted by Eusebius, one 
account says from St. Clement of Rome, 
another from St. Clement of Alexandria. 
Sanctorale Catlwlicum. Villegas. Fer- 
rarius. Baring Gould. 

Joseph van den Gheyn, in the Acta 
Sanctorum, says that by other accounts, 
St. Peter s wife s name was CONCORDIA 
and that she was the daughter of 
Aristobulus, otherwise Zebedee, and of 
ST. SALOME. Zebedee, according to this 



legend, was brother of St. Barnabas and 
brother-in-law of Andrew, who married 
the sister of SS. James, John and Con- 

St. Perpetua (2), Aug. 4. When 
she had been baptized by St. Peter the 
apostle, she converted Africanus her 
husband, and St. Nazarius her son ; and 
buried many martyrs at Kome. R.M. 

St. Perpetua (3), July 5, M. with 
AGNES (1 ) and FELICITAS (19). AA.SS. 
SS. Perpetua (4) and Felicitas 
(2), March 7, Greek Calendar Feb. 2, 
MM. in 203, at Carthage or at the 
neighbouring city of Tuburbum. 

The martyrs Vibia Perpetua and Feli 
citas, with their companions Satu minus, 
Secundolus, and Eevocatus, were catuchu- 
mens and were baptized after their arrest. 
Felicitas and Eevocatus were slaves; 
Perpetua was twenty-two years of age, 
of good birth and education. Her family 
seem on the whole to have been in 
sympathy with her faith, except her 
father, who embittered her imprison 
ment with his alternate threats and 
entreaties. She had a son a few months 
old ; a daughter was born to Felicitas in 
prison. The Deacon Saturus, who had 
probably been the instructor of the con 
verts, surrendered himself of his own 
accord, that he might be with them. 
Perpetua was inspired by the Spirit to 
pray, in the sacrament of baptism, for 
physical endurance. Shortly after, they 
were cast into the dungeons, dark, hot 
and overcrowded. Two deacons con 
trived, by bribing the officials, to have 
them removed for a few hours, into a 
pleasanter part of the prison, where Per- 
petua s mother and brother brought to 
her her infant son. She obtained leave 
to keep him with her in the dungeon. 
" And suddenly," she wrote, " the dun 
geon became to me a palace." Her 
brother exhorted her to seek a vision, 
that she might know if her trial would 
result in a passion or an escape. That 
night she dreamed that she ascended 
a perilous ladder, set with swords and 
guarded by a dragon, up which Saturus 
had gone before her. A white-haired 
shepherd, of immense stature, who was 
milking sheep in a fair and spacious 

garden at the summit, bade her wel 
come, and placed in her joined hands 
a fragment of ewe milk cheese. As 
she ate it a white-robed host standing 
round cried, " Amen." And at the sound 
of the voices she awoke, still tasting 
something indescribably sweet. When 
she related this vision to her brother, it 
was clear to them both that it signified 
a passion. A few days after this the 
report spread that the prisoners were to 
be brought to trial. Perpetua s father, 
his face worn with anxiety, came to her 
again. With tears he kissed her hand, 
cast himself at her feet and entreated 
her to save herself by renouncing her 
faith. Perpetua grieved that her father 
alone of all her family did not rejoice in 
her sufferings. She tried to comfort 
him, but he went away full of sorrow. 
On the day of the trial he brought her 
infant son and adjured her for his sake, 
if not for her father s, to recant. Still 
her courage held. She and all her com 
panions confessed their faith and were 
condemned to fight with the beasts on 
the birthday of Geta Cassar. They re 
turned to prison rejoicing. Perpetua 
sent at once for her child, but her father 
refused to let her have him again. After 
a few days, while the prisoners were 
praying together, a voice said to Perpetua, 
" Diuocrates." She began forthwith to 
pray earnestly for Dinocrates, her 
brother, who had died at the age of seven 
of an ulcer in the face. That night she 
had a vision which convinced her that 
he was in misery, and she entreated God 
for him earnestly day and night, until 
she knew that her prayer was granted, 
for she saw him again in a vision playing 
happily like other children. 

In the camp prison the Christians 
found favour with Pudens, the captain of 
the guard ; he admitted their friends to 
see them, and when the day of the exhi 
bition drew near, Perpetua s father came 

Three days before the games Felicitas 
gave birth prematurely to a daughter, 
which a Christian woman took and 
brought up. As Felicitas groaned in 
her pain, a servant of the gaolers taunted 
her. "If you cannot endure these 
throes," said he, "what will you do 



when you are exposed to the wild 
beasts ? " " It is I that suffer what I 
now suffer," she answered, " but then 
there will be Another in me, Who will 
suffer for me, because I shall suffer for 

One more vision came to Perpetua. 
She wrestled in the arena with an 
Egyptian, overcame him and trod upon 
his head. She wrote it down with the 
other visions. " I have completed this 
np to the day before the games," she 
added, " but what passes at the exhibi 
tion, let who will, write." 

A crowd assembled to see them eat 
their last meal, known as the "Free 
supper." It was the custom for pri 
soners to make an orgie of it. But the 
Christians partook of it as a solemn 
" Agape." They went from the prison 
to the amphitheatre as joyfully as to a 
feast. Perpetua moved in the procession 
with calm dignity, her eyes cast down 
before the gaze of the spectators. At 
the gate of the amphitheatre they were 
bidden to put on heathen costumes, the 
men, the scarlet robe of the priests of 
Saturn, and the women, the fillet of those 
dedicated to Ceres. Perpetua, in the 
name of the little band, remonstrated, and 
the tribune allowed them to go forward, 
clad simply as they were. Perpetua 
sang psalms, thinking she was already 
treading underfoot the head of the 
Egyptian, but the men addressed the 
spectators with scornful threats, and the 
populace, enraged, cried out for them to 
be scourged. As they passed down the 
ranks, each received a lash, and they 
counted themselves happy to have in 
curred one of their Lord s Passions. A 
wild cow had been prepared for Perpetua 
and Felicitas. When they had been 
tossed Perpetua sat up, and seeing her 
tunic open at the side, where the cow 
had gored her, she drew it together, 
more conscious of her modesty than her 
pain. Then she bound up her hair, 
which had fallen loose, that she might 
not appear to be mourning in the hour 
of her triumph. Felicitas lay crushed on 
the ground ; Perpetua took her hand and 
raised her up, and they stood waiting. 
Perpetua looked around her like one 
awakened from sleep. " I cannot think," 


she cried, " when we are to be led out 
to that cow." And until she was shown 
the marks of injury upon her body and 
garments, she could not believe that 
she had already fought and conquered. 
The audience demanded to see the mar 
tyrs butchered by the gladiators. Satu- 
rus was already dead. Perpetua, Felicitas, 
Saturninus and Revocatus arose, gave 
each other the kiss of peace, and took 
their station where the people had de 
sired. Motionless and silent for the 
most part, they met their death ; but the 
sword of a clumsy gladiator pierced 
Perpetua in the ribs ; she cried out 
loudly and herself guided his wavering 
right hand to her throat. 

Their day, March 7, is in a Boinan 
Calendar as old as the year 354. Their 
names are in the Canon of the Mass. 
The Acts detailing the trial and death of 
SS. Perpetua and Felicitas are among 
the most interesting records of the early 
Christian Church. Their authenticity 
is undoubted. They were compiled by 
an unknown witness of the martyrdom, 
from the account of her visions and im 
prisonment, written by Perpetua s own 
hand, and from a vision related by St. 
Saturus, in which he describes the ar 
rival in Paradise of the martyrs, the 
violet path, the singing trees, and the 
joyful " Here they are ! " of those who 
were eagerly awaiting the new-comers. 

AA.SS. Bindley, The Passion of St. 
Perpetua. Harris and Giffonl, The Acts 
of the Martyrdom of Pcipetua and 
Felicitas. Butler. 

SS. Perpetua (5, 6), Jan. 27, Feb. 2, 
MM. in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Perpetua (7), -f c. 420, a widow 
and nun, said to be Superior of many 
holy virgins and sister of St. Augustine, 
who called her Saint. She is regarded 
as the founder of the primitive nuns of 
St. Augustine. Torelli. Compare 

St. Perpetua (8), sister of SYNCLE- 

TICA (4). 

St. Perpetua (u), Sept. 12, V. 
Abbess of Remircinont in Lorraine. 
Daughter of a man of importance at 
the Court of France. He was very 
anxious to have a son, and threatened to 
kill his wife if she had a daughter. 




Perpetua was born in his absence, and 
the terrified mother ordered the nurse 
to kill the baby. When the father dis 
covered the crime he was transported 
with rage and remorse, and demanded to 
see the dead child. The nurse went to 
fetch it, and brought back a nice little 
girl sucking its finger. Martin. Bucelinus. 

B. Perpetua (10) Sardi, O.S.D. 
4- c. 1507. Nun under B. ANTONIA GUAI- 
NERI in the Dominican convent of St. 
Catharine the martyr, at Ferrara, and 
afterwards prioress there. Razzi. 

St. Perrenelle or PERRINE, PETKON- 

St. Perseveranda (l) June 22 and 
June 6, + c. 346, at Guadalaxara. 

St. Perseveranda (2), PECINNA. 

St. Perusseau or PERUSSETTE, 
PEAXEDIS. Cahier. 

St. Petronia, Sept. 29, probably 

St. Petronilla (1), May 31. 1st 
century. Petronilla is the feminine 
diminutive of Peter. Called also PERN- 

Patron of travellers among mountains, 
against stone and fever, ague and tooth 
ache ; one of the patrons of Home. 

Sometimes represented with a broom in 
her hand : sometimes with ST. FELICULA 
(l),her servant,receiving the Communion 
from the hands of St. Peter. A very 
ancient tradition says that the Apostle 
Peter had a daughter, who went with 
him to Rome. There she fell sick 
and lost the use of her limbs. One of 
his disciples said to him, " Master, how 
is it that thou, who healest the infirmi 
ties of others, dost not heal thy daughter 
Petronilla?" St. Peter answered, "It 
is good for her to remain sick." But 
that they might see the power of God, 
he commanded her to get up and 
serve them at table ; which she did, and 
having done so, she lay down again 
helpless as before. Many years after 
wards, being perfected by her long- 
suffering, she was healed. Petronilla 
was wonderfully beautiful, and Valerius 
Flaccus, a young and noble Roman, a 
heathen, sought her for his wife ; and as 
he was very powerful, she feared to 

refuse him. She therefore desired him 
to return in three days, with a great 
company of damsels and matrons as be 
came his rank (not hers), and promised 
that he should then carry her home : but 
she prayed earnestly to be delivered 
from this peril, and when Flaccus re 
turned in three days, he found her dead. 
The company of nobles who attended 
him carried her to the grave and laid her 
in it, crowned with roses, and Flaccus 

Baillet pronounces her Acts by Mar- 
cellus a forgery. She is also mentioned 
in those of SS. Nereus and Achilles ; 
which are not more reliable. In the 
time of Pepin le href (8th century) a 
discovery was made, which is thus re 
corded in the Golden Legend (of Wynken 
de Worde) : " The body of St. Petronilla 
was transported fro thens where it was 
and was foiide wryten in a marble by 
the hand of saynt peter. This is y e 
tomb of y e golden petronille my 
doughter. " 

EM. Butler. Baillet. Villegas. Mrs. 

St. Petronilla (2), July 13. 12th 
century. Founder and first abbess of 
Aubeperre in Clermont. Wife of St. 
Gilbert, who went to the Crusades in 1146 
with Louis VII. king of France. On 
his return, he and Petronilla resolved to 
devote the rest of their days and their 
great possessions to the special service 
of God and His poor. Their daughter, 
ST. PONTIA, approved their holy purpose, 
so they built two monasteries of the 
Premonstratensian Order, which had 
been founded by St. Norbert. The 
first monastery was for nuns and was 
the priory of Aubeperre or Aubeterre, 
about two leagues from the other, 
which was for men, and was called 
Neuffons. Gilbert became a monk 
there. Petronilla presided over Aube 
perre, and there she attained to a great 
age in extreme holiness, and wrought 
many miracles, both during her life and 
after her death. She was succeeded in 
the government of the house by her 
daughter Pontia, who walked in her 
holy steps. AA.SS., June 6, " Life of St. 
Gilbert," by Le Paige. 
Yen. Petronilla 00 de Chemille, 



April 24, + 11 49. First or second abbess 
of Fontevrault. 

Petronilla de Craon was already a 
good woman and widow of the baron of 
Chemille, in Anjou, when she was 
strongly impressed by the preaching 
of B. Robert d Arbrissel, who is famous 
for the great number of conversions he 
effected ; and like the holy women of 
Galilee and Bethany, she left everything 
to attach herself to the new messenger 
of God. When he founded the Order 
of Fontevrault, he confided to her the 
direction of thousands of persons, of all 
ages and ranks, who had embraced the 
new institution. She accompanied him 
on his evangelizing journeys ; looked 
after his temporal concerns ; procured 
for the new converts the aid they re 
quired ; instructed ignorant persons of 
her own sex, and performed the duties 
of those women who followed the Lord 

In 1091) Robert founded the great 
monastery of Fontevrault, in Poitou ; he 
appointed Herland of Champagne, a 
near relation of the dnke of Brittany, 
first abbess, with Petronilla for her 
coadjutor ; he subjected the nuns to the 
rule of St. Benedict in great strictness. 
They received and tended lepers, women 
who had led wicked lives and every type 
of female misery. Besides severe fast 
ing and silence, the nuns were bound to 
the strictest seclusion ; no priest was 
admitted even to the infirmary ; and the 
sick and dying were carried into the 
church to receive the sacraments. The 
founder lived to see above three thousand 
nuns in this one house. The monks, who 
lived in another house at a consider 
able distance, were under the abbess and 
she appointed their superiors. 

In February 1116, Petronilla travelled 
with Robert, from Orsan in Berry, on a 
missionary journey. He then sent her 
to visit the nunneries of the Order in 
the province, while he went to places 
where he had promised to preach. At 
Bourg-Deol or Bourg-Dieu he was ex 
hausted and fainted after preaching ; 
he attempted to go on, as arranged, but 
had to be taken back to Orsan where he 
died. Petronilla was at Puy, but went 
to accompany the beloved relics to 

Fontevrault, where, by his own desire, 
he was buried. After his death she 
still had to undergo much contradiction 
and misunderstanding, as is shown by 
the writings of the Ven. Hildebert, 
bishop of Mans ; the letters of St. Ber 
nard ; the decrees of popes, etc. Pope 
Calixtus II. (1119-1124) took her part 
and, at her request, consecrated the 
church of the abbey of Fontevrault, and 
soon afterwards he sanctioned the order 
founded by Robert dArbrissel. Bishop 
Hildebert commended the Order, by 
letter, to the protection of Henry I. 
king of England, mentioning Petronilla 
as a holy woman. Petrouilla finding 
herself opposed and misjudged, thought 
it would be for the good of the Order if 
she resigned, but Pope Innocent II. 
requested her to retain her office. 
Chambard gives the letter which shows 
the great esteem in which she was held 
by that pontiff (1130-1138). St. Bernard 
of Clairvaux discerned her excellent 
character and ardent piety. Her 
reputation for sanctity was nearly equal 
to that of B. Robert. A chapel was 
dedicated in her name in the abbey of 

Chambard, Saints pcrsotmagcs dc 
V Anjou. Butler. Helyot. 



St. Pexine, PECINNA. 

St. Pey, PEGA. 

St. Pezaine, PECINNA. 

St. Pezenne, PECINNA. 

St. Phaina, FANCHEA. 

St. Phaire, probably FAR A, perhaps 
FAINA. Patron against cci tnin kinds of 

St. Phana, FAINA. 

St. Phara, FAKA. 

St. Pharaildis or SARACHILDE, called 
VERL, or VERYLDE, Jan. 4, V. -f- 745. 

Patron of Ghent ; of sickly children ; 
of the health of cattle ; of butter. 

Represented with a goose, or with 
loaves of bread, or with a cat. Very 
few saints have a cat, as it was more 
associated with the bad side of a woman s 

Pharaildis was daughter of Witger 
or Theodoric, duke of Lorraine, and ST. 



AMELBEKGA (1), who was sister or niece 
of Pepin of Landen, father of Charles 
Marfcel, and mother, by two marriages, 
of several saints whose number and 
names are variously given. Pharai ldis 
is generally said to have been the 
daughter of the second marriage, and 
sister of St. Venant, and perhaps of St. 
Gengulf (or Gingo), martyrs, and half- 
sister of St. Adelbert, bishop of Cambrai, 
and of SS. GUDULA, EEYNELD, and 
ERMELIND. She was brought up by her 
aunt ST. GERTRUDE abbess of Nivelle ; 
and under her influence, made a vow of 
celibacy, foreswore all splendour of dress 
and luxury of any sort, and gave all her 
money to the poor. She had many 
suitors, and her parents married her to 
the one whose rank was the highest. 
She told him she was the spouse of 
Christ and consecrated to Him by a 
vow of chastity. He did not appreciate 
her sanctity and she could not be recon 
ciled to domestic life. He ill treated 
her. They quarrelled and parted. He 
suffered to his dying day, from a com 
plaint which was regarded as a direct 
visitation of Divine vengeance, for his 
disrespect and unkindness to his holy 
wife. She led the life of a nun in her 
own house, always getting up at cock 
crow, to attend matins at the nearest 

She died at the age of ninety; and 
not long after, during an invasion of the 
Normans, the abbot and monks of the 
church where she was buried, took her 
body, with other precious relics, and fled 
to Ghent. 

It has been remarked that all the 
saints who are represented with geese 
have their festivals in winter, and it seems 
probable that the geese in the calendar 
marked the time when wild geese were 
expected to migrate, or that they were 
intended to typify snowstorms, and that 
the legends of miracles concerning geese 
were invented to account for the pictures. 

Of St. Pharai ldis the same story is 
told as of ST. WEREBURGA, namely, that 
she restored to life and plumage a goose 
which had been stolen and eaten. Pos 
sibly the goose that Phara ildis carries 
denotes the town of Ghent, of which she 
was patron, and the name of which 

means goose. ST. BRIGID (2), ST. 
MILBURGA and ST. HILDA also ordered off 
mischievous geese. 

The miracle of the loaves seems to 
have been performed after her death. A 
poor woman had no bread for her child 
and begged her sister to give her some. 
She answered that she had none in the 
house. The poor sister continued to 
beg ; whereupon the cruel one exclaimed, 
" May St. Pharaildis change the loaves 
into stones if I have any here ! " Then 
all the loaves turned into stones, and 
two of them are still preserved at Ghent. 
A holy comb is kept as a relic of her. 
Her feast was for ages the chief holiday 
at Ghent and observed with great merry 

The Belgians say that if the sun 
shine on Pharai lde s day, it foretells 

AA.SS. Cahier. Eckenstein. Swain- 
son, Folklore. 

St. Phebe or PIKEBE, Sep. o, called 
the Deaconess. A servant of the church 
at Cenchrea, the port of Corinth, and 
the bearer of St. Paul s epistle, from 
Corinth to the Eomans. He therein 
commends her to the kindness of the 
Christians at Rome, calling her " sister " 
and " a succourer of many," including 
himself. As deaconess she was one of 
an Order of women appointed to take 
care of those parts of the church re 
served exclusively for women. They also 
ministered to the sick, poor, and ignor 
ant, of their own sex : the widows spoken 
of in 1 Tim. v. 9, are supposed to have 
been of the same class. In the Eastern 
Church the ceremony for the ordination 
of a deaconess contains these words 
" As Thou didst give the grace of Thy 
Diaconate to Phebe whom Thou calledst 
to the work of the ministry. . . ." 
R.M. Eomans xvi. 1, and note at end 
of epistle. Smith s Dictionary of the 
Bible. Littledale, Offices of the Eastern 
Church. AA.SS. Thomassin, Disserta 
tions inedites. Analecta juris Pontificii, 
12th series, Col. 808. 

Phebronia or FEBRONIA, June 25, in 
urbe Sibi. Menology of Basil. Pro 
bably FEBRONIA (1). 

St. Pheime, a French form of 
EUPHEMIA. Chastelain. 



St. Pherbutha, TARBULA. 

St. Philga or PIIILGAS, March 26, 
M. in Eoumania. Guerin. 

St. Philippa (1). (See MAEIAMNA 
(2) and PHILIPPA.) 

St. Philippa (2), Sep. 20, M. c, 
220, at Perga in Pamphylia. Mother 
of St. Theodore, a young soldier. When 
it was found that he would not wor 
ship the heathen gods, he was beaten 
and put in a furnace. He came out un 
hurt. Whereupon two other soldiers, 
Socrates and Dionysius, were converted, 
and are honoured with Theodore and 
Philippa. Next day Theodore was tied 
to a cart, to which wild horses were 
harnessed. They ran over a precipice 
and perished, but he was miraculously 
left free and safe. He was again cast 
into the furnace with Socrates and 
Dionysius. Refreshed and kept cool 
with heavenly dew, they sat and talked 
together. Theodore told how his mother 
had been taken captive and carried to 
many countries, and he prayed to see 
her again. A voice was heard saying, 
" Fear not, your mother is here." And 
lo! there she was. Next day the pre 
fect said, "I suppose not so much as 
a bone remains of Theodore, Socrates 
and Dionysius?" But when they 
opened the furnace they found them all 
sitting talking, as if they were in a com 
fortable room, and Philippa was amongst 
them. When the prefect heard that she 
was Theodore s mother, he said, " Per 
suade your son to abjure his religion, 
or else he shall be crucified." The 
heroic mother replied, " If you nail my 
son on a cross, he will olfer himself 
a sacrifice to his crucified Master." 
" Very well," said the prefect, " if you 
would like to find your son dead, you 
can." Theodore was crucified ; Philippa 
was beheaded, and the other two were 
pierced with lances. Theodore hung 
three days alive on the cross. The 
Christians took the bodies and buried 
them with fine linen and ointment and 
spices. EM. AA.SS. 

St. Philippa (3). (See AGAPE (3).) 

B. Philippa (4) of Mareri, Feb. 16, 

abbess, O.S.F. + 1236. Daughter of a 

wealthy family of Rieti. She heard St. 

Francis of Assisi preach and resolved 

to leave the world. After overcoming 
the opposition of her relations, she went 
with a few companions to the hill of 
Mareri, near her native town. Her 
brother built them a house near the 
church of the place. She established 
the rule of St. Clara in the community 
and became superior of it. She was 
very earnest in the conversion of sinners. 
Pius VII. authorized her worship in the 
Order of St. Francis. A.EM. Migne, 
Die. Hag. 

B. Philippa (5), Oct. 15, V. 1401- 
c. 1450. She was born at Changy or 
Chanteliman, in the diocese of Clermont 
in Auvergne. Her father died a few 
days after her birth. When she was 
twenty, she went to Vienne to live 
with the Dame du Chastel, sister of 
the bishop of Vienne, to be companion 
to certain young ladies. She despised 
good clothes and food and courtly 
ways, and gave up all her fortune to 
her brothers. She went to Rome to 
the Jubilee. On the return journey, she 
showed great humility and charity to 
her fellow pilgrims. Afterwards she 
extended her ministrations to bad people 
and criminals. She died of the plague. 
She is specially honoured in Dauphiny. 
AA.SS. from a contemporary life. 

St. Philista, THEOPISTA (1). 

St, Philomena (1), Aug. 10 (PHILU- 
MENA, FILOMENA), V. M. 3rd century. 

In 1802, in the catacomb of ST. PRIS- 
CILLA in Rome, was discovered a tomb 
stone, bearing the inscription Lumina 
in Pace Fi (Philomena in peace), also 
a lily, a palm, three arrows, an anchor, 
and a scourge. When the stone was 
removed, there appeared beside the 
skeleton a little broken dish of dried 
blood. It was the custom of the 
early Christians to collect with a 
sponge the blood of a martyr and 
place some of it in a vessel in the 
grave. When the excavators removed 
this blood from its broken receptacle 
into a glass vase, they were surprised to 
see it shine like gold and silver and 
diamonds with all beautiful colours. 
This miracle continues to the present 
time. The remains were placed in a 
room with others until their final rest 
ing place should be decided on. A 



Neapolitan nobleman wanted a body of 
a saint for his new domestic chapel. 
He was taken to the dead-room to choose. 
When he came near the body of St. 
Philomena his heart warmed to it. He 
chose it and took it home with all 
proper ceremony. No sooner was it 
placed in a nice glass coffin in the 
chapel, than the lady of the house re 
covered from an incurable disease of 
twelve years standing. Another lady 
was cured of cancer in her hand. Other 
miracles followed. Such crowds came 
to the chapel that there was no room 
for them. The saint s body was then 
taken to the church of Mugnano, where 
more miracles occurred, and before long, 
the saint appeared in visions and told 
her story to a priest, a nun, and an 
artist. She said she was the daughter 
of a Greek prince who greatly desired 
to have a child and having long invoked 
his gods in vain, at last listened to the 
persuasions of Publius, a Christian 
physician, who promised that if the 
prince and his wite would become Chris 
tians and pray to the one true God, they 
should have a child that child was 
Philomena. At the age of thirteen, she 
was brought to Rome where Diocletian 
offered her his hand and kingdom, and 
as she declined, she was scourged and 
thrown into the Tiber, shot with arrows, 
and finally beheaded. La Thaumaturge 
by Tobie, bishop of Lausanne. Ott, Die 
Legende. Mrs. Jameson, Sacred and 
Legendary Art. 

According to Dr. Littledale, it is not 
at all certain that her name was Philu- 
mena. The inscription was " Lumena, 
Pax Tecum Fi" which most probably 
means, Light and Peace be with thee. 
It was, however, unmistakably the body 
of a martyr and was probably of the 
beginning of the fourth century. 

St. Philomena (2), July 5, V., was 
never heard of until 1527, when her 
body was discovered, in good preservation 
and adorned with fresh flowers, under 
the altar of the church at San Severino 
in the Apennines; a writing was tied 
to her neck, setting forth that she was 
translated thither by St. Severinus, in 
the time of Totila, king of the Goths, 
and that she belonged to the noble 

family of Clavella, which, however, can 
not be traced farther back than the 
tenth century. Her name was inserted 
in the R.M. early in the seventeenth 
century. AA.SS. 

St. Philonilla, Oct. 11, sister of ST. 

St. Philothea, Dec. 7, V. M. mh 
or 1 3th century. There are two different 
accounts of her life and there is a differ 
ence of nearly two hundred years in 
their dates, but the Bollandists do not 
appear to think they refer to two different 
saints of the same name. 

The first story is that she was the 
daughter of a rich and miserly carpenter 
of Ternov in Wallachia, who insisted on 
her marrying a rich young man of the 
name of Stephen Mazias. As he was a 
drunkard and a profane swearer and 
otherwise objectionable, Philothea, with 
the connivance of her mother, left her 
home, the day before that fixed for the 
marriage, in the dress of a pilgrim, in 
tending to take refuge in a convent in 
Macedonia which had branches in Moldo 
Wallachia. One of the maid-servants 
of her family voluntarily followed, to 
share her fate. Several supernatural 
circumstances attended the journey for 
the first few days and then Philothea 
was warned in a dream of her mother s 
serious illness, and returning with all 
haste, found her dead. Her father would 
not let her into the house. Stephen 
and all the neighbours upbraided her as 
the cause of her mother s death. After 
a time, her father took her back to act 
as a servant in the house, but he was 
.very angry that she gave food and money 
to beggars and pilgrims, and one day, 
seeing her give half a loaf to a blind 
man, he struck her with his axe and 
killed her, 1060. Seventy-two years 
afterwards, Basil, the metropolitan, de 
creed that she should be worshipped as 
a saint. A church was built in her 
honour at Ardzeschul, where many pil 
grims resort to kiss her hand and fore 
head, which are cased in silver. She is 
the patron of a lunatic asylum near the 

The other story is that she lived in 
the thirteenth century; suffered much 
from the cruelty of her step-mother, and 



was killed by her father, at the age of 

AA.SS. Grseco-SJav. Calendar. 

St. Phink. Possibly same as FIX- 
CAN v, an Irish or Scotch V. Oth or 8th 
century. There was once a chapel of 
St. Phink at Bendochy, near Cupar in 
Angus. Forbes. 

St. Phoca or FOCA, March 5, called 
in some martyrologies a holy woman, 
but Henschenius says that the saint to 
be worshipped is Focas, bishop and 
martyr at Antioch in Syria, probably 
under Trajan. AA.SS. 

St. Phoebe, PHEBE. 

St. Phothoo or PHOTIUS, sister of 

St. Photina (1), March 20, also 
called ST. SAMARITANA, M. in the time 
of Nero. The woman of Samaria, men 
tioned in St. John iv. is called by 
tradition PHOTINA (elsewhere called 
EUDOCIA and ANTHUSA) and is com 
memorated with her sons SS. Joseph 
and Victor, her five sisters SS. ANATOLIA, 
(1) and CYRIACA (1), and St. Sebastian, 
a leader in the Roman army. Her name 
is not given in the Gospel of St. John, 
nor is she mentioned again in the Bible 
after the day when she talked with Christ 
at the well. The Menology of the Em 
peror Basil says that after the martyrdom 
of the Apostles Peter and Paul (namely 
thirty-six years after the time when she 
had " had five husbands "), she preached 
at Carthage with her son Joseph. Her 
son Victor, after doing good service in 
the army against the Avares, was made 
prefect and ordered to kill all the Chris 
tians in Galilee (or Gaul). Instead of 
obeying the mandate, he taught them all 
things belonging to Christianity and 
persuaded Sebastian, the ruler of the 
city, to believe in Christ. He was 
seized and brought with his co-religion 
ists before Nero. Some of them had 
their eyes put out ; some were skinned, 
and some hung on trees. Photis was 
tied between two trees bent together for 
that purpose ; they were then let go 
and rebounded to their places, tearing 
her body in two. The rest were be 
headed. Photina died in prison. 

One form of the legend makes Pho 

tina convert and baptize DOMNINA, the 
daughter of Nero, who then took the 
name of ANTHUSA (] ). There are several 
saints called Domniua and several called 
Anthusa, but there is no reason to sup 
pose either of them to be a daughter of 
Nero. There are other versions of the 
story of Photina all equally devoid of 
foundation or interest. 

EM. AA.SS. Menology of Basil. 
Marrast, Vie Byzantine, says that the 
Hellenists in Constantinople honoured 
Artemis Phosphora, i. e. Diana the morn 
ing star, under the disguise of Photina 
the luminous, the Christian saint. 

St. Photina (2), Feb. 13, V. -f 
c. 400. 

After seven months St. Martinian re 
covered from his burns [see ZOE (3)] 
and said to himself, " I am not safe here ; 
I must go to a place so far from the 
abode of men and so rough and wild 
that no one will come near me, and 
where, above all, no woman will be able 
to approach." The devil was angry, but 
said to him, " Well, if I have not suc 
ceeded in leading you into a wicked life, 
I have at all events driven you out of 
your house ; and be sure that wherever 
you flee, I will pursue." Martinian 
knew that the devil would keep his 
word, but he said to himself, "The 
devil will be there, but no woman will 
be able to come ; that, after all, is the 
great point." So he went towards the 
sea, singing psalms as he walked. By- 
and-by he met a boatman who feared 
God. To him he said, "Brother, do 
you know any little uninhabited island 
in the midst of the sea?" The sailor 
said, " Why do you ask and what do you 
want ? " The anchorite answered, " I 
want to flee from the world and be at 
peace. I find no place where I am 
safe from evil." The boatman replied, 
"There is a frightful narrow rock, a 
long way from the land, any one who 
goes near it is seized with terror at the 
sight." " That," said the saint, " is the 
place for me ; there at least no manner 
of woman can reach me." " But how- 
are you to get food there ? " " We will 
make a bargain. You shall bring me 
food and I will pray for you. More 
over, I will work while I am sitting on 



the rock. Bring me palm branches and 
I will plait them. You will take thuin 
and sell them, and twice or thrice a year 
you can bring me bread and water. 
First you can get me a bottle to hold 
water." The boatman perceiving that 
he was a holy man, cheerfully agreed to 
do as he wished, and took him in a little 
boat to the rock. Martinian saw that 
it was just such a place as he longed for, 
so he sang psalms and blessed the sailor. 
The boatman asked if he should bring 
some wood that Martinian might build 
himself a hut, but he chose rather to 
feel the heat by day and the cold by 
night. He rested there for seven years 
as if he were no longer in the world, 
and rejoiced in meditating on the Holy 
Scriptures. The devil failed in all his 
attempts to frighten him with storms ; 
but at last he saw a ship coming, and 
thinking this a good opportunity of 
ruining the saint and gaining his soul, 
he destroyed it with a storm and drowned 
all the people in it, except one young 
girl, who caught hold of a board and 
was washed up against Martinian s rock. 
She called to him to help her. At 
first he would not, remembering how 
the devil had tempted him under similar 
circumstances before. But seeing that 
unless he helped her, this woman was 
more sure to perish than Zoe had been, 
he prayed God to provide a way of 
escape for her, and then he held out 
his hand and drew her out of the water. 
When he saw how beautiful she was, he 
decided that it was better to be drowned 
than to live on an island in such dan 
gerous company ; so he told her she 
would find bread and water there for 
two months, at the end of which the 
boatman would come and take her to 
her own country ; and he gave her his 
blessing and making the sign of the 
cross, he threw himself into the sea. 
Photina saw two dolphins take him up 
and swim away with him, she knew not 
whither. The dolphins put him safely 
ashore and after thanking God for his 
deliverance, he said, " Alas, what shall 
I do ? Whither shall I go ? I cannot 
escape from the pursuit of the devil. 
He found me out in the mountains and 
even in the midst of the sea," Then 

he remembered how Christ said to His 
disciples, " When they persecute you in 
one city, flee to another," so for the rest 
of his life he fled from place to place. 
Wherever he happened to be when night 
came on, there he stayed, whether it was 
in a desert or in a city ; and when he had 
travelled through one hundred and sixty- 
four states he came to Athens, and went 
into the church. There he fell down on 
the floor and feeling his death was at 
hand he sent for the bishop who had been 
warned that a saint was near, and who 
came at once to him. Martinian was 
not able to rise from the ground to 
meet him, but begged the bishop to 
pray for him that he might have courage 
to appear before the tribunal of God : 
then he died. 

Meantime, Photina lived on the rock, 
and when, after two months, the boat 
man came and saw a woman there instead 
of the hermit, he was frightened, and 
thinking she was a spectre, he was going 
away again. Photina called out to him 
not to be afraid for she was a Christian. 
But he was more alarmed than ever 
until she swore by Christ the King that 
she was a Christian and begged him to 
wait and hear what had happened. Then 
she told him everything and begged him 
to do for her as he had always done for 
Martinian and not to despise her on 
account of her sex, because God Who 
made Adam created Eve also, and would 
reward him for his charity to her as if 
she were Martinian. Then she told him 
that next time he came he must bring 
with him, his wife and a monk s dress. 
He did so. Photina instructed the wife 
to get her some wool that she might spin 
it, and that her labour might repay them 
for bringing her food from time to time. 
She was twenty-five years old at the 
time of the shipwreck, and she lived 
six years on the rock and at last, one 
day when the boatman and his wife 
came, they found her dead and they 
took her to Csesarea and told her 
story to the bishop, who ordered her 
to be reverently buried. AA.SS., from 
the Life of St. Martinian by a con 
temporary writer. The name of Pho- 
tiua is not given in this old life, but by 



St. Photius. (See PHOTINA (1).) 

St. Phrosine or FHOSINE, EUPHHO- 

SS. Pia and Picaria, Jan. 19, MM. 
with thirty-eight others at Carthage in 
Africa. KM. AA.SS. 

St. Piala, CAILA, KIARA, or KIEKA, 
Feb. 2;}, March 23, Dec. 14, V. either 
in Brittany or Cornwall. 5th century. 
Sister of St. Fingar or Guigner or 

When St. Patrick arrived in Ireland, 
seven heathen kings, with their priests, 
went to meet him but they did not approve 
of his doctrines. The chief of these 
kings had a sou Fingar, who was the only 
prince in all the assembly to give up his 
seat to the great saint and treat him with 
respect. Lest the Christians should be 
come greater than the heathens, Fingar s 
father banished him from Ireland. He 
and several of his friends went either 
to Wales, Cornwall or Brittany. After 
some years he returned to Ireland and 
found the whole population converted 
to Christianity. His father was dead, 
and the people hailed him as king. He 
said, " Choose some valiant Christian 
for your king, and marry him to my 
sister Piala." They agreed but Piala 
declined, saying that Christ was her 
husband and heaven her inheritance. 
Fingar told them not to trouble her any 
more and when he had commended the 
kingdom to the care of God, he bade 
them farewell and departed. Piala went 
with him and they were joined by 777 
men, of whom seven were bishops in 
structed by St. Patrick. They set sail and 
landed in due time at Hayle on the coast 
of Cornwall, where they found that ST. 
IA (3), on her leaf, had already arrived. 
Here they came to a place where a cer 
tain holy virgin lived in religious seclu 
sion, and not wishing to disturb her, 
they saluted her and passed on to another 
spot to dine. They found no water, so 
Fingar stuck his staff into the ground 
and there a fountain bubbled up lor the 
use of the pilgrims. After dinner they 
proceeded to a place called Couetconia 
(perhaps Conington), where a holy 
woman showed them no little kindness, 
for when she found that all her houses 
were not sufficient to hold them and that 

she had not even straw for them all to 
lie on, she took the roofs off and gave 
them the thatch for bedding. She gave 
them her only cow for food, and cooked 
it for them. After they had eaten it 
and given thanks, Fingar ordered all 
the bones to be collected and the skin 
of the cow to be put over them. Then 
he summoned all the pilgrims to pray 
with him that the charitable woman s 
gift might be made good to her. When 
the praver was ended, the cow stood, 
before the eyes of all, more beautiful 
than it had been before. From that 
day forth it gave three times as much 
milk as any other cow. As they re 
sumed their journey, they looked round 
and saw the houses all comfortably 
roofed, as if the thatch had never been 
displaced. Then the followers of St. 
Fingar seeing miracles everywhere, were 
much comforted and confirmed in the 

Either in Cornwall or Brittany, King 
Theodoric or Ceretico heard that a 
great troop had arrived in his dominions, 
and fearing that his people would go 
over to the service of Christ, he went 
against them with an armed band ; and 
without asking why they came or waiting 
for any parley, he fell upon them from 
behind and massacred them all. 

Their festival is kept Dec. 14, at Plou- 
diri (Plebum Theodorici), between Leon 
and Brest. Their relics are venerated 
at Vannes. Piala is commemorated by 
Colgan, Feb. 23. AA.SS. 

St. Piamun, or AMMA PIAMUX, 
March 3, V., lived with her mother and 
span flax. She had the gift of prophecy 
and by her prayers saved her native 
place from destruction. After an in 
undation of the Nile, several villages 
quarrelled and fought about the division 
of the water ; that in which Piamun 
lived was threatened with invasion by 
a more powerful neighbour. About three 
thousand of the enemy advanced with 
spears and clubs, determined to destroy 
the place, but Piamun, warned of their 
approach by an angel, requested the 
priests to go out to meet them and 
endeavour to turn them from their cruel 
purpose. The priests were afraid to go, 
and begged Piamun to go herself. She 



withdrew to her poor little house and 
prayed all night. Early in the morning 
the enemy arrived outside the town and 
there they became immovable. Under 
standing the cause, they made peace 
with the terrified inhabitants, bidding 
them thank the holy virgin through 
whose prayers they had been prevented 
from injuring them. AA.SS. Palladius, 
Historia Lausiaca. 

St. Piancia, PIENTIA. 

St. Piatenka, PIATNICA, or PIATNITSA, 

St. Pica, April 14. According to a 
calendar of the Order of St. Francis, 
this was the name of his mother, and 
she was received by him into his Third 
Order and died holy. 

Luke Wadding tells the following 
anecdote of the birth of St. Francis. His 
mother had already had five or six children 
without more than the usual amount of 
suffering or inconvenience, but this time 
she was for three days in labour and 
suffering great agony, when a beggar 
came to the door and asked alms, for the 
love of God. Something was given to 
him and he was bidden to pray for the 
lady of the house, who could not be 
delivered and was expected to die imme 
diately. Said the beggar, "This child 
is to be a great servant of God and will 
serve Him in holy poverty, therefore he 
refuses to be born in a painted chamber 
or between silken curtains. Take the 
lady out of her bed and carry her into 
the stable ; lay her down on the straw 
and she will be safely delivered." The 
family and servants hastened to try the 
newly suggested treatment, and pre 
sently a beautiful boy was born and 
was christened John. This was the 
great St. Francis. Wadding, Annales. 
Kalendar of the 3rd Order of St. 

St. Picaria, M. with PIA. 

B. Piccarda Donati, CONSTANCE 

St. Picinna, PECINNA. 

St. Pience or PIENCHE, PIENTIA. 

St. Pientia, Oct. 11 (PIANCIA, in 
French PIENCE and PIENCHE), V. M. 
1st, 3rd, or 5th century. She was 
baptized by St. Nicasius, who is some 
times called a convert of St. Paul and 

companion of St. Denis, and sometimes 
eleventh or an earlier bishop of Eouen. 
He is perhaps St. Nicasius, bishop of 
Eheims, martyred with his sister, ST. 
EUTROPIA (5), by the Vandals, in the fifth 
century. St. Glair, an aged heathen 
priest, was converted with Pientia. 
Together they buried St. Nicasius and 
his companion St. Quirinus, at Gany en 
Vexin in Normandy. Pientia s father 
beheaded her and St. Clair, and they 
were buried in the same place. EM. 
AA.SS. Chastelain, Voc. Hag. 


St. Pigata, PAGATA. 

St. Pigra, DIGNA (4). 

St. Pilentia, in French PILENCE, 
Aug. 18, M. at Amasa, in Pontus. AA.SS. 

St. Pilitrude, PLECTBUDE. 

St. Pinna (J;, Jan. 3. Possibly a 
misprint for PKIMA, M. at Tomis, with 
others, Jan. 3, mentioned by St. Jerome. 

SS. Pinna (2), Inna and Rinna, 
Jan. 20, MM. Graeco-Slav. Calendar. 

St. Pinnosa, PJNOSA or VINNOSA, 
Oct. 22, one of the companions of ST. 
URSULA. Said by some accounts to have 
been the commander under ST. URSULA. 

St. Pirronne, PETRONILLA. 

St. Piscina, June 2. One of two 
hundred and twenty - seven Koman 
martyrs. AA.SS. 

St. Pistis, Sept. 17 and Aug. 1, M. 
One of the three daughters of ST. SOPHIA 
(1). (See FAITH, HOPE and CHARITY.) 
Neale, Byzantine Calendar, Sept. 17. 
Guerin, Aug. 1 and Sept. 17. 

St. Placida or BASILICA, V. Sister 
of St. Augustine, and died the same year 
as he did, 430. Compare PERPETUA (7) 
and FELICITAS (20). Torelli, Ristretto, 
an abridgement of lives of saints of the 
Order of St. Augustine. 

St. Placidia (1), FLACCILLA. 

St. Placidia (2), Nov. 27, + 450. 
Queen of the Goths. Empress of Eome. 
Daughter of Theodosius the Great. 
Sister of the Emperors Arcadius and 
Honorius. Mother of Valentinian III. 
Grandmother of the younger Empress 
ST. PLACIDIA (3). Aunt of the Empress 
ST. PULCHERIA. Wife of (1) Ataiilf, 
king of the Goths ; (2) Constantius III., 



A medal, reproduced by Dantier, re 
presents her wearing, on her right arm, a 
bracelet inscribed with the name "Jesus 
Christ ; " a dove is bringing her a crown 
from heaven. 

Galla Placidia Augusta, daughter of 
Theodosius the Great, by his second wife 
Galla, was born either at Constantinople 
or at Milan. She was hardly more than 
a baby when her mother died, and she 
and her half-brother, Honorius, were 
confided by their father to the care of 
his niece Serena, the wife of Stilicho. 
After the death of Theodosius at Milan, 
in :>9.*>, Serena persuaded Honorius, 
emperor of the West, to marry her 
daughter Mary, and further to assure the 
throne to her own descendants, she be 
trothed her son Eucherius to Placidia, 
probably against her will: Stilicho and 
Serena were nominally Christians, but 
they brought up their son as a heathen, 
to please a certain party among the 

In 404 Placidia was in Rome with 
Honorius. She walked before his chariot, 
swelling the triumph he had done nothing 
to earn ; and she sat beside him and his 
child- wife in the Colosseum, to witness 
the last fight of gladiators and captives 
ever exhibited there, and the death of 
the last Christian martyred on that 
classic ground. 

In 408 the Goths were besieging Rome, 
and Serena was accused of treacherous 
correspondence with them. The Senate 
condemned her to death and it is said 
that Placidia approved the sentence. 
History has neither acquitted nor con 
demned Serena, nor is Placidia s share 
in the matter known with certainty. 

In 410 Rome was taken by Alaric, 
king of the Goths, and Placidia was 
among the prisoners. He had learned 
from his foes how to treat a captive lady, 
for his wife had been the prisoner of 
Stilicho and had been honourably enter 
tained and duly returned to him. Pla 
cidia was treated with the most scrupu 
lous respect and consideration. When 
the sack of the imperial city had lasted 
six days Alaric withdrew his army, and 
taking with him an immense booty and 
great numbers of prisoners, he marched 
through Apulia and Calabria, intending 

to cross over to Sicily and Africa, but 
his plans were frustrated by a sudden and 
fatal illness. 

His brother Ataiilf a name which 
means Father s help succeeded him as 
king of the Goths and guardian of the 
captive princess. He had not the gi 
gantic stature of Alaric, but he was 
gentler and, although a widower with 
six children, was still young and hand 
some. He soon became deeply attached 
to Placidia. The wish to please her 
combined with admiration for everything 
belonging to her, gradually civilized and 
romanised him, and he sought a lasting 
peace with Honorius. But the emperor, 
as a preliminary to any conditions, de 
manded the restoration of his sister. 
Ataiilf hoped to make her his wife, but 
the daughter of Theodosius the Great 
did not consider the chief of a barbarian 
horde a fit match for her, and in spite of 
her inclinations, long delayed her con 
sent. At the same time, Constantius, 
one of the few honest officials and the 
best general and statesman the emperor 
had, was violently opposed to the mar 
riage of the princess to the king of the 
Goths. It was said that he himself 
aspired to the honour of the alliance. 
Messages and letters came and went on 
each side for more than three years, 
during which the mutual esteem and ad 
miration of Ataiilf and Placidia ripened 
into love, until at last, after Ataiilf had 
removed his army and his prisoner to 
the south of France and taken possession 
of several towns and a great tract of 
country, he besieged Marseilles. There 
he was repulsed by Count Boniface, long 
afterwards a friend in need to Placidia 
and ill repaid by her ; and there the 
Gothic hero was dangerously wounded. 
The alarm caused by this incident is 
supposed to have surprised the princess 
into an avowal of her affection and a 
consent to marry her royal Gothic lover. 
The wedding was held with great splen 
dour and rejoicing at Narbonne, in 414, 
four years after the fall of Rome. The 
short period of her wedded life with 
Ataiilf was probably the happiest part of 
Placidia s existence. With the approval 
of the emperor, they crossed the Pyrenees 
with a plan of setting up a new kingdom 



there. A son was born to them, called, 
after her father, Theodosius. Great was 
their grief when the infant died. They 
buried him in a silver coffin in a church 
near Barcelona. But soon a greater 
misfortune fell upon them. Ataiilf was 
stabbed by a servant, and only lived 
long enough to commend his wife to the 
care of his brother, begging him to send 
her back to Italy. Singeric usurped the 
Gothic throne and, instead of sending 
Placidia home to her brother, drove her 
on foot before his horse amid a crowd of 
captives, having first murdered her six 
step-children. The Goths, however, loved 
both Ataiilf and Placidia and, disgusted 
with the brutality of Singeric, put him 
to death on the seventh day of his reign 
and chose Wallia for their king. Con- 
stantius now eagerly negotiated with 
him for the restoration of Placidia to 
her brother. She was exchanged for 
600,000 measures of wheat and returned 
to the Court of Eavenna. 

During the preceding five years, no 
less than seven pretenders had attempted 
to wrest the empire from Honorius, who 
was incapable of an effort. Their failure 
was due in great measure to Constantius. 
He was of noble birth, popular with the 
army and devoted to the family of Theo 
dosius. His services were rewarded with 
the titles of Consul and Patrician, and 
Honorius contemplated honouring him 
further with the hand of his sister. But 
the widowed queen was still grieving for 
the husband of her love and did not in 
tend to make a second marriage ; more 
over, Constantius with all his excellent 
qualities, was not attractive, and she 
trusted that Honorius would not press 
the point. However, when according to 
custom, she went on the first day of the 
year 417, to give her good wishes to her 
brother, he placed her hand in that of 
Constantius. The marriage took place 
exactly three years after her happy wed 
ding at Narbonne. Although married 
against her will, the energetic and am 
bitious Placidia made the best of the 
situation; she took her husband s in 
terests in hand, and through her influence 
with the indolent Honorius, rapidly 
advanced his fortunes. He had to return 
to Gaul, to prevent the barbarians yet 

awhile from rending that fair province 
from the empire, but Placidia would 
never again revisit the land of her happy 

It was remarked that the character of 
Constantius deteriorated after his mar 
riage. He, who had been a rough but 
jovial and generous soldier, without pride 
and without guile, now began to seek 
wealth and honours for himself; to be 
stern and ungracious to his former asso 
ciates, while fierce orthodoxy replaced 
his amiable toleration for the opinions of 
others. Placidia s horror of necromancy 
went so far as to compel him, under 
threat of divorce, to put to death a wizard 
named Libanius, whom he would gladly 
have suffered to escape. It was not 
without difficulty that Placidia induced 
Honorius to associate his brother-in-law 
with himself in the empire as Augustus. 
Arcadius, the emperor of the East, how 
ever, did not sanction the accession of 
Constantius and refused to receive his 
picture as that of a colleague, when it 
was sent to him with the usual ceremony. 
Constantius died in the seventh month 
of his reign and Placidia was again left 
a widow, this time with two children : 
Justa Grata Honoria and Flavius Placi- 
dus Valentinianus, afterwards Valenti- 
nian III. 

* She became the constant adviser 
and companion of Honorius until, as 
is supposed, a dispute between their 
respective attendants brought about a 
misunderstanding, which soon became a 
violent quarrel. All the Court and all 
Ravenna took one side or the other, 
Placidia s Gothic guards the gift of her 
first husband drew their swords for 
their queen, and order was with difficulty 
restored to the town. The empress left 
the palace and would have left Italy, but 
had not the means to travel, until her 
faithful but ill-starred Boniface supplied 
her with money and attendants for her 
journey to Constantinople, whither she 
proceeded with her two children. In 
the middle of the voyage they were 
overtaken by a frightful storm. In th en 
danger and distress, the empress prayed 
to St. John the Evangelist, vowing to 
build a church in his honour if he would 
rescue her from shipwreck. A mosaic 



in her church at Ravenna still records 
the incident and attests that she kept 
her vow. 

The imperial fugitives arrived at 
Constantinople in 423, not long after 
the marriage of Theodosius II. to the 
beautiful and learned Eudocia. They 
were kindly received but as Constantius 
had not been acknowledged, Placidia 
was not treated as an empress and had 
to content herself with an inferior, 
although magnificent station and resi 
dence. Her palace stood on a lovely 
point looking across the sea to Asia, at 
the eastern end of the promontory which 
divides the Golden Horn from the sea of 
Marmora, the site is now covered by 
some of the buildings of the Old Seraglio 
(Button s Church in the Sixth Century}. 
She admired, not without envy, the 
virtues and talents of her niece ST. 
PULCHERIA, who although young and un 
married, had the rank of Augusta and 
ruled in her brother s name. 

Placidia and her children had been 
hardly a year at Constantinople, when 
Honorius died of dropsy. Theodosius 
bestowed the imperial title on Valentin- 
ian and sent him and his mother to 
Italy. Before their departure, Valenti- 
niaii was betrothed to Eudoxia, the only 
daughter of Theodosius ; and Placidia, 
to seal the compact, promised to cede 
Illyria to the Eastern Empire. This 
cession is one of the great mistakes 
with which she is reproached. 

When Valentinian III. was established 
on the throne of the West, under the 
guardianship and regency of Placidia, 
one of her first acts of power was to 
authorize a persecution of heretics. She 
excluded Jews and heathens from all 
offices, and banished Manicheans and 
astrologers. She confirmed all the 
privileges of the Church. 

She had still two great generals left : 
Boniface, count of Africa, the friend of 
St. Augustine, the devoted servant of 
Placidia in her days of misfortune, and 
Aetius, who had at one time sided 
with her enemies. It would have been 
well for Placidia and for the empire if 
she could have succeeded by any exer 
cise of feminine tact, in preventing the 
jealousy of these two from sacrificing the 

interests of the state. Their rivalries 
and her dilemma are part of the history of 
the world and led up to her second great 
blunder the loss of Africa. Inexpli 
cable to this day and inexcusable is the 
fatuity with which she allowed Aetius 
to undermine her confidence in the 
faithful Boniface. She was reconciled 
to her old friend and bitterly repented 
her mistake when the Vandals were de 
vastating the north of Africa with fire 
and sword. After the death of Boniface 
she could neither forgive nor trust her 
only remaining general. She proclaimed 
him a rebel and traitor, but in two short 
years, beset by open foes and false or 
incapable friends, she was compelled to 
grant him the pardon he demanded at 
the head of 60,000 Huns, and to be 
thankful that instead of ranging himself 
among the enemies of the State, he asked 
nothing better than to be allowed once 
more to fight her battles. 

The empire could scarcely have fallen 
to pieces more rapidly had the childish 
Valentinian ruled, than it did under the 
incapable Placidia. With the most 
earnest wish for the good of the State, 
she lost its fairest and richest provinces. 
She was equally unfortunate in her 
family affairs, for both her children 
turned out as badly as possible. Her 
daughter Honoria was a grief and a 
disgrace, and as for Valentinian, it is 
enough to say of him that he never 
drew his sword but once, and that was to 
murder Aetius, the only man who was 
able to protect him and his tottering 
throne from the barbarians. Placidia is 
severely blamed both for the losses to 
the empire and for the evil behaviour of 
her son and daughter. 

Tillemont says that although the em 
pire suffered great losses in the twenty- 
six years of her rule, she was generally 
respected. He adds, on the authority of 
Tiro Procopius, that her conduct was 
irreproachable; but that she brought up 
her son in excessive delicacy, which led 
to his falling into the greatest vices. 
Cassiodorus complains that although she 
worked her best for the interests of her 
son, she did him a great injury by giving 
too much rest to the soldiers, and by 
giving up Illyria to Theodosius II., so 



that under his mother, Valentin ian lost 
more than if he had had no guardianship 
and no help. Perhaps the strongest 
tribute to her good qualities was the 
suddenly increasing demoralization that 
set in immediately after her withdrawal 
from the government, a few years before 
her death. She spent the rest of her 
life in pious retirement. 

She died at Rome and was buried, by 
her own wish, in the church of SS. Naza- 
rius and Celsus, which she had built 
at Ravenna. Her ashes rest there be 
tween those of her husband and son, 
the last Constantius and the last Valenti- 
nian, the only tombs of Emperors of the 
East or West that remain in their original 
places; and there, for more than a 
thousand years, embalmed and seated in 
a chair of cypress wood, and dressed in 
imperial robes, she could be seen. This 
strange relic of the declining empire 
was accidentally burnt in 1577. Some 
of the clergy, struck by the great length 
of certain of the bones which alone re 
mained, had the curiosity to measure 
them, and came to the conclusion that 
the empress must have been of immense 

She had some share in the building of 
the great church of SS. Peter and Paul 
at Rome, begun by her father and finished 
by Houorius. She built, in 440, the 
triumphal arch which may still be seen 
in that church, having survived the fire 
of 1823. Above the arch is a mosaic head 
of Christ, one of the most precious gems 
of ancient Christian art now existing. 
The earliest extant specimens of Byzan 
tine sculpture are in the churches she 
built in Ravenna. 

The Bollandists promise an account 
of her when they come to her day. 
Colin de Plancy. Monstier. Mart, of 
Salisbury, Dec. 3, "Barbaciane." Gibbon. 
Lebeau. Tillemont and other modern 
authors cite Sozomen, Olympiodorus, 
Theodoret, Peter Chrysologus, Idatius, 
Sidonius, and Jornandes. 

St. Placidia (3), Oct. 10, grand 
daughter of ST. PLACIDIA (2), and possibly 
also named like her, GALLA. PLACIDIA 
(3) was born about 441, and died towards 
the end of the same century or begin 
ning of the next. She was the younger 

daughter of Valentinian III. and Eudoxia, 
daughter of Theodosius II. 

In 455, Valentinian, who had scarcely 
a redeeming quality, was assassinated at 
the instigation of the senator Maximus, 
who was at once elected emperor. He 
compelled the widowed Empress Eudoxia 
to become his wife, an indignity she 
bitterly resented; and when he shortly 
afterwards admitted to her that he had 
planned the murder of Valentinian, and 
why, she determined that she would no 
longer remain in his power. Her own 
near relations were dead. She bethought 
her of Genseric, king of the Vandals, 
and invited him to come to her rescue. 
He set sail at once and the first tidings 
Maximus had of the negotiations were 
the appearance of the Vandal fleet at the 
mouth of the Tiber. The new emperor 
fled but was killed by the servants of 
Eudoxia. Despite the intercession of 
Pope (St.) Leo, the city was given up 
to pillage for fourteen days. Among 
the spoils were the golden candlestick 
and other sacred treasures brought from 
Jerusalem by Titus. Many precious 
trophies perished in a ship that sank 
on its way to Carthage. Eudoxia and 
both her daughters Eudocia and Pla 
cidia were carried thither as captives. 
On their arrival, Genseric married his 
sou Hunneric to the Princess Eudocia, 
whose first husband had been killed 
in the sack of Rome. The three im 
perial ladies adhered to their Catholic 
faith, although the Vandals were 
Arians and persecuted the Catholics. 
Many acts of plunder and cruelty were 
perpetrated by heathens. Catholics and 
Arians, under pretence of opposing 
heresy and establishing the true faith. 
The Emperor Marcian, husband of ST. 
PULCHERIA (and consequently uncle by 
marriage of the captive empress), de 
manded that the widow and unmarried 
daughter of Valentinian should be set 
at liberty. This was eventually ar 
ranged under his successor Leo I. ; 
and, in 462, they were sent to Constan 
tinople. Eudocia, the wife of Hun 
neric, escaped many years afterwards 
and spent her last years at Jerusalem, 
leaving a son Hereric, who succeeded his 
father and gave peace to the Church. 



Some time between the years 4(52 and 
469 Placidia married Flavius Anicius 
Olybrius, to whom it is supposed she 
had been betrothed in her father s life 
time. The family of the Anicii was the 
most illustrious of all the great noble 
houses of Eome. Olybrius, after the 
sack of Eome, had retreated to Con 
stantinople where he was well received 
by the emperor. He was consul in 
404. Placidia and her husband, in 
finitely better born than Leo I., and 
sufficiently wealthy notwithstanding 
their reverses, were among the most 
distinguished members of the society of 
the Court and capital. Their characters, 
tastes, and manners eminently fitted them 
to adorn the highest private station and 
but for the fatal gift of a crown, they 
might have gone on together, to a happy 
and peaceful old age. Meanwhile the 
chief authority over the Western Empire 
was wielded by Eicimer, who commanded 
one of the great bands of barbarian 
soldiers in Eoman pay. Since the death 
of Valentinian, three successive emperors 
had reigned nominally by his sufferance. 
In 472 Anthemius, the fourth of these, 
quarrelled with Eicimer and appealed 
to the Emperor of the East, who sent 
Olybrius to settle their differences. 
Eicimer invited Olybrius to supersede 
Anthemius ; Genseric and Leo favoured 
the arrangement, and after a struggle 
of a few months, Anthemius was killed, 
and Eicimer died, leaving Olybrius 
emperor. It is probable that Placidia 
joined her husband at Eome, and lived 
with him there a short time as Empress. 
She has the credit of founding with him, 
the church of ST. EUPHEMIA. 

Olybrius died seven months after his 
elevation to the throne and little more 
than three months after Anthemius, pro 
bably a natural death, but even this is 
not certain. 

The year 472 made Placidia an 
empress and a widow. She went to 
Jerusalem and there she gave herself to 
the study of holy writ and visited, with 
great devotion, each spot made sacred 
by an incident in the life of our Lord. 
It is probable that she and her sister 
met again at Jerusalem. 

At some time during the reign of the 

Emperor Zeno (474-491), Placidia sent 
ambassadors to Hunneric and obtained 
of him, for friendship s and kinship s 
sake, that the Catholics of Africa should 
elect whom they would as bishop of 

In Adam King s Calendar, the 12th of 
October is marked as the festival of four 
thousand nine hundred and seventy-six 
martyrs " in Afrike vnder hunerik king 
of ye vandals 479." 

Placidia spent the last years of her 
life in Italy, where she was treated with 
becoming consideration by Odoacer. She 
died at Verona, in the odour of sanctity, 
and was buried in the church of St. 
Stephen. She is said to have lived 
until after the establishment of the rule 
of Theodoric, in Italy, 493. 

Olybrius and Placidia had an only 
daughter, Juliana, who married Ario- 
bindus, consul in 543. 

Muratori. Ducange. Tillemont. Du 
Fresne. Procopius. 

St. Placidina, Nov. 15, Oth century. 
She was descended from Sidonius Apol- 
linaris, and married St. Leontius, who 
was a soldier in 531 and afterwards 
became bishop of Bordeaux. He. died 
about 5G4. Her sister ALCHIMIA is com 
memorated with her. Smith and Wace. 

St. Placilla, FLACCILLA. 

April 6. A holy woman who died in 
peace and is honoured in the Greek 
Church. AA.SS. St. Platonides and two 
other martyrs at Ascalon are mentioned 
in the Roman Martyroloyy, April l>, as if 
they were men. This is perhaps one of 
the instances where obscurity of detail or 
clerical error has given rise to apparent 
multiplication of saints. 

St. Plaudia, Oct. 11, honoured at 
Verona. Gueriii. Perhaps same as 

St. Plautilla, May 20, + c. 66. 
Mother of ST. DOMITILLA (2), niece 
of the Emperor Domitian, and sister 
of the consul Flavius Clemens, whose 
wife was ST. DOMITILLA (1). Plautilla 
was converted and baptized by St. Peter. 
She placed herself among the crowd on 
the road by which St. Paul passed from 
Eome to the place of his martyrdom 



Aquas Salvias, now called Tre Fontane, 
about two miles from Kome. She be 
sought his blessing, and he asked for 
her veil to bind his eyes when he^ should 
be beheaded, promising to return it to her 
after his death, and bidding her go a 
little aside and wait until he should 
come back. After his martyrdom St. 
Paul appeared to her and gave her the 
veil stained with his blood. After a 
life passed in the practice of all virtues, 
she died in peace. B.M. AA.SS. 
Legyendario. Mrs. Jameson. 

St. Plectrude, BLITTRUDE or PILI- 
TRUDE, 7th and 8th century. Called 
princess and duchess of Austrasia. 
Patron of Cologne. Daughter of Hugo- 
bert. Wife of Pepin of Herstal, mayor 
of the palace (679 to 714) who was the 
second of the three great Pepins, son of 
ST. BEGGA ( 1 ), nephew of ST. GERTRUDE of 
Nivelle, and great-grandfather of Charle 
magne. Cologne was his capital, and 
was about the centre of his dominions. 
They had two sons, Drogo and Grim- 
wald, who died in the flower of their 
age. Pepin, although said to be of 
stricter morality than many of his con 
temporaries, took another wife, named 
Alpais. St. Lambert remonstrated, and 
Alpaiis had him murdered before the 
altar. Meantime St. Swibert an Eng 
lish missionary of royal descent, who 
had preached in many countries and 
performed many miracles came to Co 
logne, where Pepin and Plectrude re 
ceived him very graciously and gave 
him land and whatever was necessary 
to build a monastery at Werda on the 

When Pepin was dying at Joppila, he 
was much troubled in mind, on account 
of the murder of St. Lambert, instigated 
by his inferior wife Alpais. St. Swibert 
and Agilulf, bishop of Cologne, went to 
visit him, but first they consulted Plec 
trude, who charged them to warn him 
that it was as much as his soul was 
worth to disinherit her sons and make 
the son of Alpais his heir. They went, 
and the dying man received them wil 
lingly and listened respectfully to all 
they had to say, until they began to 
discuss the point of his wife and his 
mistress and who should be his heir; 

then he became very angry and Alpais 
burst into the room in a fury and ordered 
them out. They returned discomfited to 
Plectrude. Pepin died the same year 
and was succeeded by Charles Martel, 
his son by Alpais. Plectrude s son 
Grimwald had left four sons, whom she 
kept with her in Cologne, proclaiming 
the eldest mayor of the palace and ruling 
in his name. Her stepson Charles, after 
wards surnamed Martel, she imprisoned 
in a strong castle, but the people liber 
ated him. He soon defeated her general, 
allowed him to retire with honours from 
his post, and made peace with Plectrude. 
She gave up her four grandsons, three 
of whom were provided with ecclesias 
tical benefices, the other, who was more 
energetic, was conveniently found dead, 
but Charles is not accused of the murder. 
He gave Plectrude an estate in Austrasia 
where she might end her days in peace. 
ST. NOTBURGA (2) was her niece. 

Alpais is said to have repented of her 
crimes and become a saint. 

Among the Diplomata Maiorum Domus 
in Pertz, Monumenta Germanise, vol. xxvii., 
are several grants signed by Pepin and 
Plectrude. Pertz, Hausmcir. Leibnitz, 
Scriptores Brunsiviccensia, " Life of 
St. Swibert," by Marcellinus. Chronicle 
of Fredegarius, in Bouquet, II. 453. 
Brower, Annales Trev. I. 359. Freher, 
Germanicarum Rcrum. 

St. Pcemenia, May 10. Beginning 
of 4th century. Mother of St. Alexander, 
M. (May 13), a young Roman soldier 
under the Emperor Maximian. Accused 
of Christianity at Rome, he spoke of 
Jupiter and the other gods with con 
tempt ; whereupon the emperor gave him 
over to Tiberianus, a tribune, who had 
orders to search for Christians from 
Rome to Byzantium, and not to spare 
any of them. 

Alexander was at once condemned to 
horrible tortures, which he bore joyfully. 
Tiberianus then ordered him to be bound 
with heavy chains and taken with him 
to Thrace. That night an angel of the 
Lord appeared in a dream to his mother 
saying, " Arise, Poemenia, take thy slaves 
and thy horse and follow thy son, fearing 
nothing, for he is going to meet his death 
for Christ s sake, therefore take no rest 



until thou arrive at the place whither 
they have sent him." Poemenia arose 
with great joy and did as the angel of 
the Lord had bidden her, and followed 
her son until she came to the city whither 
they had taken him. When she arrived, 
Alexander was undergoing an interro 
gation before Tiberianus. When the 
holy woman saw him, she cried out, 
" That Great God, the Good Shepherd, 
in Whom thou hast believed, help thee, 
O my son ! " Tiberianus inquired who 
had spoken, but no one in all the crowd 
that stood around could tell whence the 
voice had come. 

Tiberianus angrily ordered the prisoner 
to be removed. As the soldiers were 
leading him away, Poemenia asked them 
to let her speak to her son, who was glad 
to see her and bade her go with him to 
the place of his martyrdom. Some of 
the soldiers who guarded him said, 
" Blessed indeed art thou, Alexander, for 
great is thy faith, for behold thou hast 
sustained no injury from all the torments 
thou hast endured." 

Alexander was taken to various differ 
ent towns and many arguments and 
torments were vainly used to induce him 
to renounce his faith. Tiberianus and 
some of his attendants had very alarming 
visions concerning him. At Sardica the 
Christian inhabitants came out to meet 
the confessor and ask his prayers. 

At Burtodexion, near Adrianople, St. 
Alexander again met his mother; he 
bade her not weep and told her he hoped 
that on the morrow he should finish his 
course. At Druzipera, on the river 
Ergina, Tiberianus ordered Alexander 
to be thrown into the water to be eaten 
by the fish. When, by the indulgence 
of his executioners, he had preached to 
the soldiers and prayed in their hearing, 
one of them named Celestinus said, " Oh, 
martyr of Christ, it is my office to put 
you to death, but pray for me that this 
sin be not laid to my charge." Alex 
ander told him to obey without fear the 
orders he had received ; then Celestinus 
bound Alexander s eyes with a handker 
chief and drew his sword ; but when he 
was going to strike him, he saw an angel 
standing by, and his hand was stayed. 
" Courage, brother," said the saint, 


" strike as thou art commanded." Ce 
lestinus told him the reason of his 
hesitation. Alexander prayed that God 
would suffer his martyrdom to be accom 
plished, so the angel disappeared and 
Celestinus cut off his head. 

Meantime, Poemenia arrived at a place 
called Zorolus and inquired where her 
son was. She was told he was that day 
condemned to die at Druzipera, about 
eighteen miles off. She hastened thither 
with tears and lamentations and when 
she got near Druzipera, she met the 
soldiers who had beheaded Alexander 
and thrown him into the river. Four 
dogs had found the body and drawn it 
out of the water and were keeping guard 
over it, and when the martyr s mother 
came within two miles of the place, two 
dogs came running to meet her and 
gently taking hold of her, one on each 
side, they led her to the body of her son, 
which she embalmed and buried in a 
noble tomb on the other side of the 
Ergina, looking towards the west. Many 
miraculous cures were wrought at the 
spot. Ever afterwards, by the help cf 
the Holy Spirit, whatever she asked of 
God, she obtained, and many angels 
used to come and sing psalms with her. 
Alexander appeared to her in glory and 
directed her to take her servants and 
return home and be of good cheer as 
Christ would soon bring her to His 
kingdom. She went back to Eome and 
is not again mentioned in the Acts of 
St. Alexander. She is called Saint by 
some writers, but the Bollandists do not 
consider it clear that she is to be wor 
shipped. AA.SS. from Lipomanus and 
an old Greek manuscript. 

St. Poemia, Jan. 3. AA.SS. Guerin. 

St. Pcenica, Jan. 3, M. in Africa. 

St. Polentana, POLENTAINE, or POL- 
LUTANA, July 15, M. at Carthage with 
St.Catullinus, deacon, and several others ; 
all buried in the Basilica of Faustus. 
Migne, Die. Hag. AA.SS. 

St. Ppllena or POLLINA, Oct. 8, V. at 
Trecaut in Vermandois, -f- c. 700. Migne, 
Die. Hag. Saussaye. 

St. Pollentia, Dec. 0, M. at Antioch 
with St. Gerontius and some others. 
Stadler from the Elcnchus of AA.SS. 



St. Pollina, POLLENA. 

St. Pollutana, POLENTANA. 

St. Polyxena, Sept. 23. Sister of 

St. Poma, June 27, V. 3rd century. 
Sister of St. Memmius (Aug. 5) or 
Menge, first bishop of Chalons-sur-Marne. 
He is said by tradition to have been sent 
from Rome by St. Peter the apostle, with 
St. Sixtus, bishop of Rheims, and St. 
Denis of Paris; a later biographer has 
tried to make the story more likely by 
substituting the name of St. Clement, 
pope, for that of St. Peter. All that is 
known with any certainty is that St. 
Memmius was worshipped as patron of 
Chalons in the time of St. Gregory of 
Tours, 6th century. It is said that 
Poma accompanied him from Rome and 
was buried beside him. AA.SS. Baillet. 

St. Pompeia (1), one of the martyrs 
of Lyons, beheaded, being a Roman 
citizen. (See BLANDINA.) 

St. Pompeia (2) or COPAGIA, Nov. 
30, honoured with her daughter ST. 
SEUVE. British Piety, Supplement. 

St. Pomponia, Feb. 11, patron of a 
parish in Condomois. (Chastelain, Foe. 
Hag.). She was martyred with ST. 

St. Pomposa, Sept. 19, V. M. 853. 
A native of Cordova. Her parents had 
a considerable rank and property there, 
but seeing all their children inclined to 
a religious life, they sold most of their 
possessions and built a double monas 
tery at Pillemellar, a few miles from 
that city, and retired there with all their 
family and several other friends. Pom 
posa was a young girl at this time, but 
soon distinguished herself by her austeri 
ties and by her envy of the Christians, 
who were put to death for their faith, by 
the Mohammedans. When her friend 
St. Columba (11) suffered martyrdom, 
Pomposa was so anxious to undergo the 
same fate that it became necessary to 
shut her up in the monastery and guard 
her. One night, however, she contrived 
to make her escape, and waited for day 
break at the gates of the city. They 
were no sooner opened than she presented 
herself to the governor and spoke with 
such boldness against his religion and 
his prophet that he ordered her head to 

be cut off before the gate of the palace, 
Sept. 19, 853. R.M. AA.SS. Eulogius. 

St. Pontia, daughter of ST. PETRON- 
ILLA (2) and her successor as prioress of 

St. Pontiana, Feb. 27, M. Her 
head is preserved in the church of St. 
Nicholas of Tolentino at Genoa, and her 
office read there. History unknown. 

St. Poplia, PUBLIA (2). 

St. Popola, PAPLE. 

B. Popolana. ST. CATHERINE (3) OF 

SS. Popula and Bamora, May 15, 
MM. Mentioned only in the Martyrology 
of Tamlaght. AA.SS., Prseter. 

St. Porcaria. (See CAMILLA (1).) 

St. Porentella, POTENTELLA, or Py- 
DENTELLA, May 7, M. in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Portuna, V. invoked in an ancient 
Anglican litany. Migne, Patrologise Cur- 
sus Completus, vol. 72. 

Prompta (PROMPTIA) and Fracla, 
Jan. 3, hermits near Rheims, in the 
5th or 6th century. They were members 
of a family of ten brothers and sisters, 
who left Ireland as pilgrims and settled 
on the banks of the Marne. St. Gibri- 
anus, May 8, was one of the brothers. 
AA.SS., Prseter. 

St. Posinna (1) or POSINNUS, Feb. 
12, M. at Carthage. Commemorated in 
the Martyrology of St. Jerome. AA.SS. 

SS. Posinna (2, :-3), June 2, two of 
two hundred and twenty-seven Roman 
martyrs commemorated in the Martyrology 
of St. Jerome. AA.SS. 

St. Possidonia, Sept. 11. This name 
was given arbitrarily to the body of an 
unknown saint, taken from the cemetery 
of St. PRISCILLA at Rome, and trans 
lated to Fana, near Modena. AA.SS., 

St. Posthumiana or POTAMIA. One 
of the martyrs of Lyons, beheaded, being 
a Roman citizen. (See BLANDINA.) 

St. Postiniana or POSTUNIANA, July 
29, M. in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Potamia (1), POSTHUMIANA. 

St. Potamia (2), PANTAMIA. 

St. Potamia (3), Dec. 5, + 302, at 
Thagura in Africa. Z?.Jlf. 



SS. Potamia (4), July 30, M. at 
Tuburbuiu ; (5) April 15, M. at Antioch. 

St. Potamicena(l), June 28, M. 202. 
Eepresented with a crown in her hand. 
A famous martyr of Alexandria, in the 
sixth persecution, the same in which 
After enduring extreme torture, Pota- 
mioena was burnt with her mother ST. 
QUINCTIA MARCELLA. A centurion named 
Basileides had charge of her. As he 
led her to the place of torture he 
defended her from the insults of the 
gladiators and the populace. This kind 
ness was rewarded by his conversion. 
She thanked him and spoke to him of 
the crown of life. He thought there 
must be something in it, and asked her, 
"How do you know that you shall have 
such a crown ? " " If you see me with 
it," she answered, " will you believe that 
I have it ? " He said that of course he 
would. Soon after her death, she ap 
peared to him in a dream, wearing a 
crown brighter than any on earth, and 
bearing another in her hand which she 
promised to him. He at once confessed 
himself a Christian and was thrown into 
prison. There he was baptized by the 
brethren, beheaded and numbered among 
the saints, June 30. EM. Neale, 
Church History. 

St. Potamioena (2), June 7, Feb. 
22, V. M. called the younger. She 
was the slave of a wicked man of 
Alexandria, in the reign of the Emperor 
Maximian. She was young and beauti 
ful, and her master tried to seduce her 
by bribes and threats, and at last 
denounced her as a Christian, arranging 
with the prefect of the city that her trial 
should be stopped if she consented to 
obey him. A cauldron of boiling pitch 
was prepared for her and she was told 
she must be cast into it if she adhered 
to her resolution. She remained firm, 
and the prefect ordered her to be stripped 
and plunged into the cauldron. She cried 
out, " By the head of the Emperor whom 
you serve, do not order me to be stripped. 
Order me rather to be let down by slow 
degrees into the boiling pitch, and you 
will see how great a measure of patience 
is given to me by Christ Whom you 

know not." Tier request was granted 
and in three hours, when the pitch 
reached to her neck, she expired. It 
was common among the Eomans to pour 
boiling pitch on the bodies of slaves as 
a punishment. AA.SS., June 7. Tille- 
niont. Smith, Latin Diet, " Pix." 

St. Potaninia, PANTAMIA. 

St. Potentella, PORENTELLA. 

St. Potentia. (See CINEMA.) 

St. Potentiana (1 ), PUDENTIANA (1). 

St. Potentiana (2), April 17, per 
haps 13th century. A weaver. Patron 
of Andujar. Joint patron with St. 
Euphrasius, of Villanueva near the 

Represented weaving or holding some 
implement necessary to that handicraft. 

Local tradition said she was a weaver 
at Villanueva in very remote times and 
was buried among the ruins of an ancient 
Gothic building where many persons re 
sorted to pray, and to honour the saint. 
They often took earth from the tomb 
and carried it to sick persons to cure 
them. In the seventeenth century, 
Cardinal Sandoval, bishop of Toledo, 
attended by several dignitaries and a 
great concourse of people, opened the 
tomb and found the body of the saint in 
excellent preservation. They also found 
a little chapel where there was a very 
old picture of St. Potentiana with SS. 
Bartholomew and Ildefonso. 

Some years afterwards these relics 
were translated, part to Andujar and 
part to Jaen. No one could discover 
anything about her. The tradition that 
she wove and that her loom remained 
until "the days of our fathers" led 
Bilches to conclude that she lived after 
the restoration of Andalusia, conse 
quently after the year 1200. AA.SS. 
Bilches, Santos de Jaen y Baeza. Madrid. 

St. Potentilla, PORENTELLA. 

St. Pozanna, PECINNA. 

St. Praepedigna, Feb. 17 and 18, 
also called PROBEDIGNA, PROPEDIGNA ; in 
French, PREDIGNE. Wife of Claudius 
and mother of Alexander and Cuthias. 
This whole family was converted by ST. 
SUSANNA and her father, with their friend 
Maximus, they were condemned during 
the persecution of the Christians under 



Diocletian, openly to exile from Eome, 
but secretly to be put to death at Ostia 
and thrown into the sea, Claudius and 
Maximus being too popular and influ 
ential to be publicly executed in Eome. 
EM. AA.SS., " St. Susanna, Feb. 18." 
Martyrum Acta. 

St. Praxedis (1), sometimes called 
in French PERUSETTE or PERUSSEAU ; in 
Italian, PKASSEDE. Commemorated with 
her sister ST. PUDENTIANA, May 19 and 
July 21. Probably second half of 2nd 

Represented with a sponge (to signify 
that they gathered up the blood of the 
martyrs), a vase, a lamp, spices for 
embalming, or a bundle of twigs. In 
a mosaic of the 9th century in the church 
of St. Praxedis in Eome, she is being 
presented to Christ by St. Paul, while 
on the other side St. Pudentiana is pre 
sented to Him by St. Peter. 

Some of the legends say they were the 
daughters of SS. Pudens and CLAUDIA (1), 
mentioned by St. Paul (2 Tim. iv. 21) ; 
that St. Peter lodged in their house 
when he was in Eome ; and that they 
had two brothers, SS. Timothy and 
Novatus. But it is more probable that 
they were the daughters of another 
Pudens, a senator, and that they lived 
in the second century. Their mother 
is sometimes called ST. SABINELLA. 

After their father s death they had a 
great deal of property, part of which 
was at the foot of the Esquiline hill 
and was covered with houses and baths. 
They helped and comforted the perse 
cuted Christians by every means in their 
power, burying the martyrs in caves 
under their own house and collecting 
their blood in a well by means of a 
sponge. They had all their servants 
ninety-eight in number baptized by 
Pius I., who was pope from 141 to 157. 
In consequence of a decree of the Emperor 
Antoninus, that the Christians were to 
have no temples but to worship God in 
their own houses, Pius used to say mass 
in the house of these two sisters, where 
there was an oratory called in their 
biography a title. It afterwards became 
a parish church and is considered the 
oldest in the world. It anciently bore 
the name of the Church of the Pastor 

and is now called by the name of Santa 
Prassede. In the chapel of Sta. Pras- 
sede, near the door of this church, a long 
marble table, protected by a grating of 
iron, is set into the wall, and bears this 
inscription : "on this marble slept the 
holy V. Praxede." Here is also a well 
surrounded by a railing, where St. 
Praxedis preserved the remains of the 
martyrs and into which she poured the 
blood which she had collected with a 

Their life purports to be written by 
a holy pastor, an eye-witness of their 
good works ; supposed to be Hernias, 
disciple of the Apostles, or Hermes, 
brother of Pope Pius I. ; but Baillet 
says the document was forged some, 
centuries later and bears no sign of 

EM. AA.SS. Butler. Baillet. Mrs. 
Jameson. Villegas. King. Bleser, Eome 
et ses Monuments. 

St. Praxedis (2), "a pretended 
queen," honoured July 21 as one of 
the companions of ST. URSULA. Baillet. 

St. Praxedis (3), July 10 or Aug. 6 
(EUFRASIA, EUPRAXIA, called by the 
Saxons ADELAIDE, and by some writers 
AGNES), + 1109. Daughter of Vsevolod, 
grand-prince of Eussia (1078-1093), and 
great - grand - daughter of Yaroslav the 
great. She married first Henry, mar 
grave of the Nordmark, a member of 
the family of the counts of Stad : he 
died in 1087, and a year afterwards she 
became the second wife of the Emperor 
Henry IV. He treated her very badly. 
She escaped from his custody and sought 
the protection of the Countess Matilda, 
who was glad to avail herself of the 
weapon which Praxedis s charges against 
her husband put into the hands of his 
enemies. Matilda recommended her to 
Pope Urban II., who advised her return 
to her own country. The synod of 
Placentia, in March, 1095, was greatly 
occupied with the case. The dreadful 
accusations were never proved or dis 
proved ; but the Pope and his party 
took the side of Praxedis against their 
enemy the emperor. After his death, 
she went, in 1106, into a convent at 
Kiew. According to Giesebrecht, she 
died there. Others say she died Abbess 


ofKiimpen. Giesobrecht, III. Karamsin. 
Bucelinns. Wion, Lignum Vitse. 

St. Praxedis (4), PARASCEVE (5), 
patron of Polotsk. 

St. Prece, APRINCIA. 

St. Precia or PHETIA, Sep. 19, V. 
Abbess. Sister of ST. VICTORINA, and 
dangliter of Goerich, bishop of Sens 
(741-750), who was cured of blindness 
by touching a pebble stained with the 
blood of St. Stephen. Martin. Stadler. 

St. Predislava, EUPHROSYNE (7), 
patron of Polotsk. 

St. Preminola, abbess of St. 
Cesarius. 7th or 8th century. Gall. 
Chr. I. 620, B. 

St. Pretextata, May 19, M. at 
Getulia in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Pretia, PRECIA. 

St. Preuve, PROBA (3). 

St. Pribislawa, PRZBISLAWA. 

SS. Prima, seven martyrs at different 
times and places. AA.SS. 

St. Primaeva,M. with ST.VICTORIA (2). 

St. Primiatula, PRIVATULA. 

St. Primina (1), Oct. 9, M. at Eome. 

St. Primina (2), March 7, perhaps 
same as IRMINA (1), founder and abbess 
of Horres. (See MODESTA (3).) AA.SS., 
P roster. 

St. Primitia, April 18, V. M. Her 
body was translated from Rome to 
Bologna, 1G22. AA.SS., Prseter. 

St. Primitiva (1), May 11, M. Be 
headed with parents, brothers and sister. 

St. Primitiva (2, 3), July 23, Feb. 
24, MM. EM. AA.SS. 

St. Primosa, June 2, one of two 
hundred aud twenty - seven Roman 
martyrs. AA.SS. 

B. Principia (1), Jan. 31, V. 5th 
century. Disciple of ST. MARCELLA (7), 
who saved her from the soldiers of 
Alaric at the cost of her own life, in 410. 
AA.SS., Prset/ r, from Razzi. Lebeau, v. 

St. Principia (2) of Themolac, mother 
of St. Cybar or Eparchius, a native of 
Perigord. He was a hermit for forty 
years at Augouleme and died 581. 
Stadler. Guerin. 

SS. Prinia (1, 2), June 1, MM. with 

St. Prisca (1), PRISCILLA (1). 

St. Prisca (2), Jan. 18, V. M. 1st 
century. Called the first martyr at 
Rome. Represented holding a palm, a 
lion at her feet, an eagle hovering over. 
A young Roman girl of a noble and 
powerful family, baptized at thirteen, by 
St. Peter, in her father s house on the 
Aventine, where he was often entertained. 
She underwent cruel scourging and other 
tortures rather than renounce her faith ; 
the English edition of Villegas says she 
was "buffetted blacke and blew." She 
was thrown to the wild beasts in the 
amphitheatre, but they would not touch 
her. She was at last dragged to the 
Ostian way and there beheaded. One of 
the oldest churches in Rome stands on 
the spot where she was baptized. It was 
consecrated in 280 by Pope Eutychianus. 
Baillet says she is a duplicate of ST. 
Leggendario. Villegas. Mrs. Jameson. 
Bleser, Rome et ses Monuments. Blunt s 
Annotated Prayer-book places her in the 
3rd century. 

SS. Prisca (3, 4), June 3, Sept. 28, 
martyrs. AA.SS. 

St. Priscilla (1) or PRISCA, July 8, 
Feb. 13. She is called PRISCA by St. 
Paul (2 Tim. iv. 19). She was the 
wife of St. Aquila, who was a native 
of Pontus. They lived at Rome in 
the reign of Claudius and were tent- 
makers. When with all the other Jews 
they were banished from Rome by 
Claudius, they went to Corinth, at that 
time the chief city of Greece and a place 
of extensive trade. It is not known ex 
actly when they were converted, but it is 
probable that they were among those 
Christians to whom the Jews had attri 
buted the tumults of which they them 
selves were the authors and which had 
led to the expulsion of all Jews from 
Rome. They had not been long settled 
at Corinth when St. Paul went there 
from Athens. He and Aquila became 
acquainted, and St. Paul lodged with 
him and his wife, and for his mainte 
nance he worked at their common trade 
of making the Cilician tent or hair 
cloth. He remained there eighteen 
months. He left Corinth to return to 
Jerusalem, in fulfilment of a vow, and 


took with him Aquila and Priscilla, as 
far as Ephesus, where he left them to 
instruct the faithful and convert the 
heathen who were in that town. They 
were still at Ephesus three years after 
wards, in the year r>7, when the apostle 
returned there and greeted the Corin 
thians in their name in his first epistle 
to them. It is probable that St. Paul 
was again their guest at that time. He 
stayed at Ephesus about three years. 
They helped him in his efforts to extend 
and instruct the infant Church. He bears 
witness that they risked their lives for 
him. They were assisted in their kind 
ness, charity and hospitality by their 
servants who were all Christians. They 
left Ephesus about the same time as St. 
Paul and returned to Eonie in the fourth 
year of Nero, which was the sixth year 
of the banishment of the Jews. St. Paul 
went through Phrygia and Macedonia to 
Corinth, whence he wrote his epistle to 
the Eomans, in which he salutes Aquila 
and Priscilla first and praises them 
specially. It is not known whether they 
were still at Eome when St. Paul came 
there as a prisoner for the first time, but 
it is certain tliat they had returned to Asia 
at the time of his second imprisonment 
there, which was followed by his martyr 
dom. They survived St. Paul, but the 
time and place of their death are not 
known with any certainty, although 
they are sometimes said to have been 
martyred at Eome. They are worshipped 
in the Greek Church, Feb. 13, and St. 
Aquila alone, July 14. Acts xviii. 2. 
1 Cor. xvi. 19. Eom. xvi. 3, 4, 5. EM. 

St. Priscilla (2), Jan. 10, 1st century. 
A Eoman matron. Mother of St. Pudens, 
the senator who was father of SS. PRAX- 
EDIS and PUDENTIANA. Priscilla received 
St. Peter at her house and was his dis 
ciple and is said to have made at her 
expense the cemetery called by her 
name in the Via Salaria. Others say it 
was made by Pope St. Marcellus at the 
expense of another ST. PRISCILLA, early 
in the fourth century. E.M. AA.SS. 
Compare CLAUDIA (1). 

St. Priscilla (3), Jan. 18, M. at 
Avitiua. AA.SS. 

SS. Priscilla (4) and Luina, Jan. u>, 

c. 304. When Maxentius came to the 
throne, there were many Christians in 
Eome and throughout Italy. He knew 
that they looked for indulgence from 
Constantine, who followed his father s 
example of toleration. Maxentius, to vie 
with Constantine, ingratiated himself 
with the Christians by stopping the 
persecutions and restoring the churches, 
and even pretended at one time to join 
their religion. The Church took breath. 
The number of the faithful increased 
every day. Pope Marcellus made twenty- 
five new titles, like so many parishes, in 
the town of Eome, which were depart 
ments for twenty-five priests to provide 
for all the baptisms and other spiritual 
needs of the converts. He also induced 
two rich and pious women named Pris 
cilla and Luina, one to build a cemetery 
on the Via Salaria, the other to leave the 
Church heir to all her wealth. These 
donations did not tend to the well-being 
of the community. Maxentius, angry 
and jealous, threw off the mask, ordered 
Marcellus to sacrifice, and on his refusal, 
shut him up in his stables to clean the 
horses : there he died of the hardships. 
Le Beau, Pas empire. 

This Priscilla is in the German Mar- 
tyrologies and in Ferrari us Catalogue of 
Italian Saints, but Bollandus thought it 
was perhaps no other than PRISCILLA (2) 
mother of Pudens, and that an error in 
the date had given rise to the story of 
another saint of a later generation. 
AA.SS., Jan. 16. > 

St. Privata (1) or PBIVITA, June 7, 
M. in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Privata (2), May 2, M. AA.8S. 

St. Privatula or PRIMIATULA, Feb. 
2, M. in Africa with thirty-seven others, 
commemorated in Jerome s and other old 
Calendars. AA.SS. 

St. Privita, PRIVATA (1). 

St. Proba (1), PROCLA. 

SS. Proba (2) and Lollia, June 23, 
MM. end of 3rd or beginning of 4th 
century. Daughters of St. Gainus and 
sisters of St. TJrbanus. They lived at 
Lystra and were all converted and bap 
tized by their uncle or grandfather, St. 
Eustochius, who had formerly been a 
heathen priest. They were taken with 
him to Ancyra to be tried as Christians. 



There they suffered horrible tortures 
with some miraculous circumstances, and 
were all beheaded in the reign of Max- 
imian. AA.SS. 

St. Proba (3), Sept. 5, April 28, 
called in French PREUVE, V., an Irish 
recluse, martyred in her retreat at Laou 
in Picardy. She is worshipped with 
GKIMONIA or GERMANA. Their relics are 
at Herford in Westphalia. A chapel 
was built on the site of their martyr 
dom and became famous for miracles. 
The town of Chapelle grew up round 
it and took its name from its origin. 

Proba is mentioned by Molanus and 
Canisius and in several other important 
calendars. AA.SS., April 28. French 
Mart., Sept. 5. 

Stadler says that Proba lived at Tonson 
near Laon and was beheaded; that 
Germana was the daughter of a heathen 
Irish Prince, and that they have un 
doubtedly long been honoured together 
in Belgium. (See ST. GKIMONIA.) 

St. Probata or PROBATUS, May 10, 
M. in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Probedigna, PR^EPEDIGNA. 

St. Processa, May G, M. at Milan 
with many others. AA.SS. 

St. Procla, PROCULA or PROBA, Octo 
ber 27, the wife of Pilate, mentioned 
but not named by St. Matthew, xxvii. 
1 9 ; worshipped among the Greeks and 
Russians, but never in the Western 
Church. AA.SS., Prset<r. 

St. Proclina, April 15, M. in Italy, 
towards the end of the first century, 
honoured with several other martyrs. 

St. Procula (1), PROCLA. 

St. Procula (2), Oct. 12, V. M., time 
uncertain, at Gaimatum or Gannacum in 
Auvergne. It is certain that her worship 
was established in Auvergne and sanc 
tioned by the local authorities of the 
Church as that of a martyr of chastity, 
but the following tradition does not rest 
on any good foundation. She was of a 
noble family living in the mountains 
between Auvergne and Rutheni. She 
was piously brought up and early made 
a vow of celibacy. She lived the life of 
a nun in her parents house until she 
was thrown into great consternation by 
their entertaining a plan for her mar 

riage, the alliance being sought by all 
the neighbouring families. Abhorring 
the idea of a temporal union, as she con 
sidered herself the wife of Christ, she 
tried to change the resolution of her 
father and mother by persuasion, entreaty, 
and tears; but finding her efforts vain, she 
fled in disguise to a thicket in the moun 
tains between Auvergne and Bourbon. 
Here she considered herself safe, but her 
retreat was discovered by her pretendu, 
who offered her marriage or death. Her 
choice was quickly made. Her head 
was cut off and she carried it in her 
hands, singing psalms all the way to the 
church where she gave it to Paul the 
chaplain, and received the sacraments of 
the ^Church. The miracle of a martyr 
carrying his or her head after decapi 
tation is here and elsewhere stigmatized 
as fable by hagiographers. AA.SS. 

SS. Procula (3, 4), April 2, June 3, 

St. Procusa, June 1, M. with ST. 

St. Prodixia, PRODOCIA. 

Veronica and Speciosa, July 11. 
Three holy virgins of Antioch whose 
names are in the Martyrology of St. 
Jerome. AAJSS. 

St. Prompta, or PROMPTIA, sister of 

St. Propedigna, PROPEDIGNA. 

St. Prosdoce, or PRODOCE, M., 
daughter of ST. DOMNINA (3) of Antioch 
and sister of ST. BERENICE (2). AA.SS. 

St. Proseria or PROSIRIA, Oct. 12, 
M. in Syria. AA.SS. 

St. Prospera, Sept. 4, V. M. Her 
body is worshipped in the church of St. 
Radgund at Milan, but as her name does 
not appear in the Martyrology it is pro 
bable this name has been given after her 
translation, to the body of some unknown 
martyr brought from one of the Roman 
cemeteries. AA.SS. Prseter. 

St. Protasia, or PROTHASIA, May 20, 
Dec. 19, Dec. 18, V. M. c. 287. Thief 
patron of Senlis in the diocese of Beau- 
vais, where her relics are kept in the 
cathedral. In 1392 they were brought 
out with a solemn procession to restore 



health to Charles VI. king of France ; 
and in 1529, under Francis L, to 
obtain peace. Chastelain. Gynecseum. 

St. Protominorissa. St. Francis 
called his brethren " Minors " Lesser 
Brother*. ST. CLARA (2) was the first 
woman of the order, the Protominorissa. 

St. Prudentia (l), April 15, M. at 
Antioch in Syria. AA.SS. 

B. Prudentia (2) Casati, May 6, 
1414-1492. V. O.S.A. Nun in the 
convent of St. Martha at Milan. About 
1454 she was sent to Como to preside 
over a new community there, which she 
did for thirty-eight years. B. BEATRICE 
(11) was of the same family and lived at 
the same time. They may have been 
sisters. AA.SS. 

St. Prudentia (<>), locally spelt 
PRUDENCIA. Early 17th century. A 
peasant woman of Aurrecoachea in the 
chestnut woods of Goyerri, on the moun 
tains of Berriz in the Biscayan pro 
vinces. She was left a young widow 
with a posthumous son, Ignacio. He 
went to sea against her wish. She spent 
the time of his absence in prayer. Long 
ing greatly to see him again, she was one 
day transported with joy because she 
thought she saw his ship. She walked 
a great distance, as though treading on 
air, to be on the shore by the time he ar 
rived, but she found it was another ship 
and no tidings of her sou were to be had ; 
so she walked the long way back, up the 
steep paths with a heavy heart, and when 
she got home to her poor little dwelling, 
she died at midnight. 

On the top of the hill above Aurre- 
coschea, stood a hermitage of St. Bar 
tholomew, the care of which was con 
fided to a holy woman living near and 
called the nun of Berriz. She was 
praying at midnight and at the moment 
of Prudencia s death she saw in a vision 
that the hermitage had disappeared and 
in its place the gates of heaven were 
standing wide open and she saw Pru- 
dencia entering the gates amidst a legion 
of happy mothers whose love and sacri 
fices had obtained for them the aureole 
of the saints. Notwithstanding her joy 
and thankfulness, she felt a pang of 
regret that there would be no one left 

to welcome Ignacio when he returned. 
But he never did return, and none knew 
when or where he died. The house 
where he was born was eventually con 
verted into a convent of Capuchin Trini 
tarians, whose first superior used to 
apply the holy sacrifice of the mass for 
the salvation of the son of Prudencia. 
Basque legend, from Miss Monteiro s 

St. Przbislawa, PRZIPISLAVVA, or 
PRIBISLAVA, loth century. One of the 
native Patron Saints of Bohemia. Grand 
daughter of ST. LUDMILLA. Daughter 
of Wratislaus, duke of Bohemia (+ 916) 
and his heathen wife Drahomira. Sister 
of St. Wenceslas and of Boleslas the 
cruel. Aunt of ST. MLADA. Drahomira 
and Boleslas were strong upholders of the 
heathen party in the State while Wen 
ceslas was an earnest Christian. In 938 
Boleslas killed Wenceslas at the door of 
the church. In the struggle Wenceslas s 
left ear was cut off. After a time so 
many miracles were wrought by the 
murdered Saint, that his guilty brother 
became alarmed and had his body trans 
lated into the church of St. Vitus, in 
Prague ; but the severed ear was miss 
ing until it was divinely revealed to his 
holy sister Przbislawa in what place it 
must be sought for. She was buried 
first near the village of Jablon, under 
Mount Krutina, where God honoured 
her body with celestial lights and 
angelic songs, whereby many heathen 
were won to Christ, and after several 
years she was solemnly translated to a 
church built in her name and honour, 
by a certain Christian named Chotislaw. 
Now she lies in the citadel of Prague, 
beside her brother St. Wenceslas, near 
the door of the cathedral. 

Chanowski, Vestigium Bohemise Pise. 
Dlugosch, Hist. Polonise, I. 90. Palacky, 
Gesch. v. BoTimen. Balbinus. Hist. 
Ducibus ac Regibus Bohemise. 

Przbislawa is possibly the same as 
STRZEZISLAWA, mother of St. Adalbert. 
Strzezislawa is called daughter of Wra- 
tislaw, and, in certain monastic records 
referred to by Chanowski, she is styled a 
sister of St. Wenceslaus. She married 
Count Slawnic of Libic, who was re 
lated on his mothar s side to the ducal 



house of Saxony. Slawnick and Strze- 
zislawa had six sons, of whom five at 
least were martyrs. The most famous 
was Woytesch or Wojtjch, afterwards 
called Adalbert. He was the second 
bishop of Prague, succeeding Ditmar in 
082. He "was most earnest in teaching 
and spreading the Christian religion 
in his own country and in Poland and 
Hungary, and was for some years a monk 
in Italy. After his return to Bohemia, 
he was murdered by heathens, and is 
accounted a martyr. One of his brothers, 
Radim, was devoted to him and was per 
haps killed with him in 907 ; the other 
four were besieged in their ancestral 
castle of Libic, by the Wrsowces, and 
being driven at last to take refuge in 
the church, were murdered before the 
altar. Palacky. Chanowski, Vestiyia, 
II. 42. 

St. Publia (1), Jan. 27, M. in Africa. 

St. Publia (2) or POPLIA, Oct. 9. c. 
302. Mother of John, a holy priest of 
Antioch. In her widowhood, she was a 
deaconess of the church of Antioch, and 
had the care of several younger women. 
They used to wing psalms, and one day 
as the Emperor Julian was passing by, 
they sang, " The idols of the heathen are 
silver and gold." As the emperor ordered 
them to be silent, Publia sang the same 
verse over again louder. He sent for 
her and as she still sang, he ordered his 
soldiers to strike her on the mouth ; 
whereupon she reviled him for his 
cruelty, and went home and there con 
tinued her singing. 

EM. Menology of Basil AA.SS. 
Baillet, from Theodoret s History of the 
Church. Le Beau, III. 10. 

St. Pudentella, PORENTELLA. 

St. Pudentiana (1) or POTENTIANA, 
May 10, July 21, V. One of the patrons 
of Rome. Sister of ST. PRAXEDIS. Pu 
dentiana died first and was buried be 
side her father Pudens, in the cemetery 
of Priscilla. She has a church in Rome, 
with very ancient mosaics representing 
the two sisters offering crowns to SS. 
Peter and Paul. BM. 

B. Pudentiana (2) Zagnoni, Feb. 
1 4, V. 1 003. O.S.F. in Bologna. She one 
day put on a silver ring in obedience to 

her mother ; then took it off and threw 
it away. Next day, when praying, shut 
up in her little room, an angel came and 
gave it back to her. Her life was 
written by John Andreas Bota. Prayer 
Book, 3rd O.S.F. Bagatta, Admiranda. 

SS. Puelles, Oct. 17, 2nd or 3rd 
century. A place in the diocese of Car 
cassonne is called Mas-Saintes-Puelles 
( Mansus Sanctarum Puellarum), five 
miles from Recand. When St. Saturni- 
nus, first bishop of Toulouse, was martyred 
by being tied to a bull, none of the few 
Christians in the city dared to bury him, 
except two young girls whose names are 
not preserved. They were seized by 
the heathen persecutors, put in prison, 
scourged, insulted, and cast out of the 
city. They fled to Recand and remained 
there for the rest of their lives. AA.SS. 

Mas Latrie says the date was about 
260, and the place was Castelnaudry, 
which was afterwards more famous as 
the birthplace of St. Peter of Nolasca, 
founder of the Order of St. Mary for the 
Redemption of Captives. 

St. Pulcheria, CHERIE or PULQUERIK, 
V. Sept. 10, July 7, 300-453. Em 
press of the East. 

As a great promoter of the worship of 
the BLESSED VIRGIN MARY, she is repre 
sented in imperial robes, holding in one 
hand a lily, in the other a tablet bearing 
the word 0EOTOKOC (TlieotoJcos, Mother 
of God), or in a group with her two 
young sisters. Her noble face is still 
to be seen on coins. 

She was granddaughter of Theodosius 
the Great ; daughter of Arcadius (395- 
408), her mother being Eudoxia,a Frank ; 
sister of Theodosius II. (408-450) ; and 
wife of Marcian (450-457.) 

^Elia Pulcheria was the eldest child 
of her parents, and when her father died 
in 408, she had already shown so much 
virtue and ability that, although only 
sixteen, she was at once invested with 
the title of Augusta, and became the 
guardian and spokeswoman of her 
brother Theodosius II., who was two 
years her junior and was weak and 
indolent although amiable. 

Foreseeing the troublesome compli 
cations that were sure to arise if mar 
riage with herself or either of her sisters 



were a goal for every man s ambition, 
and influenced by the religious fashion 
of the time, which extolled celibacy as 
the highest state, and pronounced chas 
tity a hundred times higher than all the 
other virtues put together, she and her 
sisters Arcadia and Marina publicly 
bound themselves by a solemn vow of 
virginity, and in a grand religious ser 
vice, in presence of a vast concourse of 
people, they offered in the church of St. 
Sophia at Constantinople, a jewelled 
golden tablet on which their vow was 
inscribed. From this time they re 
nounced all splendour and frivolity and 
passed their time in studying the Holy 
Scriptures, in visiting the poor, and in 
prayer for the welfare of souls. At 
fixed hours Pulcheria devoted herself to 
the business of the State and the educa 
tion of her brother. She took care that 
he should acquire the best manners and 
accomplishments of a gentleman of his 
day. Feeble though he was, his watch 
ful guardian had the satisfaction of see 
ing him free from vice, and on the 
whole, well disposed. He was incurably 
indolent, but would make a point of 
rising at dawn for the morning prayers 
with his sisters. 

The Eastern empire was never more 
flourishing, nor were virtue, art and 
science more protected and encouraged 
than under the rule of Pulcheria. Among 
all the descendants of the great Theodo- 
sius, she alone appears to have inherited 
any share of his manly spirit and 
abilities. She has the credit of abolish 
ing the remains of heathenism in several 
parts of her brother s dominions. The 
numerous churches and hospitals she 
built were paid for without costing a 
sigh to the poor. She did not omit to 
say the proper prayers of each hour and 
sing the psalms with her sisters, but she 
gave careful attention to public business 
and had all orders executed with incred 
ible expedition, although always in the 
Emperor s name. She was easy of 
access to all classes of her people ; any 
oue^who failed to obtain justice in the 
ordinary manner could bring his case 
before her and be sure of a patient hear 
ing. It was in pursuance of this custom 
that she became acquainted with Athe- 

na is, the beautiful and learned daughter 
of a philosopher of Athens ; who com 
plained that her brothers had taken the 
whole of their father s inheritance and 
left her no means of support. 

Pulcheria was so much impressed with 
the beauty and charm of Athenai s that 
she subsequently suggested her to Theo- 
dosius as a suitable bride. Athenai s 
became an easy convert to Christianity, 
and was baptized by the name of Eudo- 
cia. The marriage took place with great 
splendour in 421 and led to many years 
of happy union, while the most cordial 
relations existed between the sisters-in- 

About 423, Pulcheria and Theodosius 
welcomed to Constantinople their aunt, 
the exiled ST. PLACIDIA with her children. 
She was several years older than Pul 
cheria. She had reigned as queen among 
the Goths and as empress at Ravenna ; 
yet her status as empress was not ad 
mitted. She chafed at her subordination 
to Pulcheria, whose superior she should 
have been by age and relationship, but 
on the death of Honorius, emperor of 
the West, Theodosius and Pulcheria con 
ferred on Placidia the title of Augusta 
and sent her back to Ravenna to estab 
lish her son Yalentinian III. on the 
throne of his uncle. 

One of Pulcheria s pious works was 
to send to Coinana in Pontus, to bring 
home the body of St. John Chrysostom, 
who had been banished by Arcadius and 
Eudoxia, and had died there in exile. 
The dead saint was received with the 
highest honour. Theodosius and Pul 
cheria devoutly walked in the procession 
with the Patriarch St. Proclus, and asked 
pardon of God for the sin their father 
and mother had committed in persecut 
ing the holy man. He was buried 
among the emperors and bishops in the 
church of the Apostles, in 438. 

In the same year was completed and 
published the world-famous Codex Theo- 
dosianus, a collection of all the laws 
since Constantine. Within a few years 
it was acknowledged as the law book of 
the Eastern and Western empires. It 
was the solid civil bond of the Byzantine 
empire, and gave to the barbarians ideas 
of justice and civilization. Theodosius 



and Pnlcheria deserve the credit of en 
trusting this important work to capable 
and worthy men, and of giving it to 
their subjects. (Gregorovius, Athencm.) 
Pulcheria continued to govern until 
Chrysaphius, one of the emperor s 
favourite officers, inspired Eudocia with 
jealousy of her ascendency, and Theo- 
dosius, after resisting the influence of 
his wife and his minister as long as his 
feeble nature was able, complied with 
their suggestion that the reins should be 
taken from her hands, and to this end, 
commanded St. Flavian, bishop of Con 
stantinople, to make her a deaconess 
of his church. Had this been done, 
she could never again have taken part 
in secular affairs, but Flavian, who con 
sidered her duty was at the helm of the 
State, secretly sent a message advising 
her not to be found when she should be 
sent for. She accordingly withdrew 
from Court in 447, and lived quietly 
for a few years, at a country place of 
her own, in the plains of Hebdomon. 
During her absence, the empire and 
the Church fared badly. In 449, was 
held the second council of Ephesus, 
called Latrocinium (assembly of robbers). 
Pope Leo I., the Great, wrote to Pul 
cheria urging her to return to Con 
stantinople and remonstrate with her 
brother on the persecutions and abuses 
which were carried on in his name. 
This she did with such effect that 
Theodosius at once banished Chrysa- 
phius. Theodosius II. died in 450. His 
daughter Eudoxia was married to Valen- 
tinian III., emperor of the West, but no 
one in either empire thought of making 
over the succession to them. Pulcheria 
became sole empress ; but as it was 
unprecedented that the empire should 
be ruled by a woman, solely in her own 
right and name, it was expedient, not 
withstanding her age and her vow of 
virginity publicly made, that she should 
marry. Her choice of a husband was as 
wise and as popular as her other decisions. 
She gave her hand to Marcian, one of 
the most distinguished generals in the 
imperial service, making him her col 
league and consort. She was over fifty, 
and he, little under sixty. He was of 
obscure birth and had risen by his own 

merit without bribery or patronage. He 
had won laurels in the wars against the 
Persians and the Vandals, and had ener 
getically carried out the wishes of 
Pulcheria and her brother in the interests 
of the persecuted Christians in Persia 
and the Catholics in North Africa. Mar 
cian had a daughter Euphemia, whom 
Pulcheria married to Anthimius, after 
wards emperor of the old Rome. 

Pulcheria died in 4r><>, and Marcian, 
by firm and equitable rule, continued to 
justify her choice for seven years. He 
stopped the advance of the barbarians. 
He repeatedly demanded from Genseric 
the release of Pulcheria s niece Eu 
doxia, widow of Valeutinian, and her 
daughter ST. PLACIDIA (3). 

Among Pulcheria s claims to the vene 
ration of the Church, her promotion of 
the worship of the B. V. MARY is 
prominent ; dedications in her name 
were not as yet so usual as they soon 
became. Pulcheria built three magnifi 
cent churches in Constantinople, in 
honour of the Mother of the Saviour; 
one of these had for its chief treasure, 
the girdle of the Blessed Virgin ; another 
possessed her shirt, while the third 
boasted of a picture of the B. Virgin, 
painted by St. Luke. 

Pulcheria appears in the E.M., Sept. 1 0, 
and is also honoured, July 7, and with 
her husband Marcian, Feb. 1 7. There 
is abundance of contemporary testimony 
to all the chief events of the life of this 
empress. Among modern authorities 
are Gibbon, Lebeau, Sismondi, Stephens 
(W. E.), St. Chrysostom, his Life and 
Times. Her special works of piety and 
claims to saintship are treated of by 
Tillemout. Baillet, Butler. 

St. Pulvenna, honoured at Berri. 

St. Pumice or PUMEIA, July 27, V. 
in Scotland. Guerin. 

St. Pusinna or PUSINE, April 23. 
Perhaps 5th century. Very little is 
known about her. It is said that she 
was the daughter of Sigmar and ST. Lu- 
TRUDE, sister of ST. HOYLDA. She never 
went visiting, knowing how Dinah came 
to mischief when so engaged. She has 
been erroneously called abbess of St. 
Maurice, and abbess of St. Laurence. 



She and one or more of her sisters were 
nuns at Corbie. She was translated to 
the new abbey of Herford, in Saxony, in 
the 9th century. The Saxons had no 
early saints of their own. They had 
been converted at the point of the 
sword. Among their ancestors were no 
martyred Christians : the persecution 
was in the opposite direction ; it was a 
war almost of extermination by Chris 
tians against heathen. Therefore, when 
they built churches they had to import 

relics and bodies of saints from other 
places. The reign of Hadewy, one of 
the early abbesses of Herford, was 
chiefly distinguished by the translation 
of the body of St. Pusiuna to the church 
of Hadewy s monastery ; it was sent 
from Corbie by the abbess s brother 
Kobbo, a great Saxon chief. AA.SS. 

St. Pyriska, IRENE (16), wife of the 
Emperor John. 


St. Quadragesima, May 4, V. M. 
Her body was found at Cagliari, Feb. 14, 
1626. She is said to have been mar 
tyred in the time of Adrian. Hensche- 
nius considered the authority for her 
worship and martyrdom insufficient, and 
placed her among the Prsetermissi on both 
days. AA.SS. 

St. Quartia (1), one of the Martyrs 
of Lyons who died in prison or was be 
headed. (See BLANDINA.) 

St. Quartilla (1), March 19, M. at 
Sorrento, with Quinctus, QTJINTILLA, and 
others. E.M. 

St. Quartilla (2), April 6, M. at 
Nicomedia, in Bithynia. AA.SS. 

St. Quartillosia, Feb. 24, M. in 
Africa with St. Montarius, in whose 
Acts she is mentioned. AA.SS. 

St. Quelindra, CHELINDRA. 

St. Quenburga, QUIMBURG. 

St. Queta, QUIETA. 

St. Quieta or QUETA, Nov. 28, + c. 
450. Wife of St. Hilary, a senator of 
Dijon. They had several children, 
among whom was St. John, abbot of 
Eeome. Hilary was buried in the 
church of St. John at Dijon, and when a 
year later, Quieta was laid in the same 
grave, he stretched out his right hand, 
put it round her neck and drew her to 
his heart. Guerin. Gynecseum. 

St. Quietia, June 1, M. with ST. 

St. Quihere, QUITERIA. Chastelain. 

St. Quilina, June 24. Supposed 
to be AQUILINA (2) or (3). 

B. Quilisinda, Jan. 20, Aug. 22, -f 

650. Nun under ST. FAR A. She did 
not know her letters, but knew the Pen 
tateuch and the Gospels and the Epistles 
of St. Paul by heart. Bucelinus. Gyne- 

St. Quimburg, COENBUBGA, QUEN- 
BURGA, or QUINBERG. Sister of ST. 
CUTHBURGA, and commemorated with her 
at Wimborne. 

St. Quinctia Marcella, June 28, 
M. 202. Mother of POTAMTCENA (1). 
Both falsely claimed by Spanish writers 
as belonging to their country. AA.SS. 

St. Quinta (1), CHONTA, COINTA, 
THONNA, or TONITA, M. 249. A Chris 
tian of Alexandria, where, during the 
winter of 249, the mob were excited 
against the Christians by a man who 
united the professions of poet and sooth 
sayer. A few days after the martyrdom 
of the aged St. Metras, Quinta was 
seized, dragged into a temple, and or 
dered to worship the idol there. On her 
refusal she was tied by the feet and 
dragged over the rough pavement of the 
city to a place outside the walls, where 
they stoned her. ST. APOLONIA (1) 
suffered in the same persecution. AA.SS. 
Neale, Eastern Church. Craik. 

St. Quinta (2), May 7, M. in 
Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Quinta (3), April 20, M. in 
Via Nomentana at Eorne. AA.SS. 

St. Quintianilla or CANTIONILLA, 
June 14, M. at Specia. The place 
cannot be identified. AA.SS. 

St. Quintigerna, KENTIGERNA. 



St. Quintilla or QUINTILLUS, March 
19, M. at Sorrento with QUARTILLA. EM. 

St. Quintula, May 10, M. at Tar 
sus, in Cilicia. AA.SS. 

St. Quiriaca (1) or QUIRIACUS, 
April 2, M. AA.S8. 

B. Quiriaca (2), widow. (See SOTEKIS 

St. Quirica, April 6, M. at Nico- 
media, in Bithynia. AA.SS. 

St. Quirilla, May 15, V. M. Her 
body was preserved at Rome with that 

St. Quiteria or QUIHERE, May 22. 
2nd century. Patron of Aire in Gascony ; 
of Gimont ; of dogs and against hydro 
phobia in Spain. 

Represented (1) carrying her head in 
her hands, angels holding a crown over 
it, and blood spouting up from her 
throat; (2) holding a dog on a leash, 
his tongue hanging out to denote hydro 

She was the eldest of nine daughters 
(all SS. and VV.) of Lucius Caius 
Attilius, governor of Lusitania and 
Galicia, under the Romans, more com 
monly called, in the popular legends, 
" King," and the daughters called " In 
fantas." His wife s name was Calfia 
and they lived at Braga in Portugal. 
Calfia expected to have a son, and she 
and her husband were already proud and 
glad in anticipation of the child s birth ; 
but to the horror of the mother, instead 
of one son, she gave birth to nine 
daughters. She thought her husband 
would be angry and all the people would 
laugh at her, so she confided the babes 
to her faithful maid ST. SILA, and bade 
her take them away quickly and drown 
them before the king or any one else 
could discover what had happened. 
Meantime she caused it to be understood 
that she had given birth to a dead child. 
Sila was a Christian, though secretly 
for fear of the Romans, and she thought 
it a great pity that nine little human lives 
should be extinguished on the threshold 
of the world, and a still greater sin 
that nine little souls should perish for 
want of baptism, so she gave them 
to a Christian woman of her acquaint 
ance, and they were brought up piously 
and christened in due time. When they 

were ten years old, they were told who 
they were, whereupon they left their 
foster-mother and lived together in 
one house, and made a vow of celibacy. 
As they were very pretty, they were 
continually besieged by lovers and offers 
of marriage, which they could not accept 
on account of their vow. This soon 
drew attention to them, and on a perse 
cution arising against the Christians, it 
was reported that the nine sisters, who 
would not be tempted by riches or any 
other inducement to marry, must belong 
to this despised sect. They were ar 
rested and brought before Lucius Caius, 
and on being asked in the usual form 
who they were, ST. GINEVRA, speaking 
for them all, answered, " We are your 
daughters." The king believing that he 
had only had one child, which did not 
survive its birth, was quite astonished 
to be told that he had nine beautiful 
daughters, and at first could hardly 
believe it ; but they related the whole 
story of their birth and life, and appealed 
to their mother, who confessed that she 
had had nine daughters at a birth, and 
for fear of ridicule had commissioned 
ST. SILA to drown them all. Lucius and 
Calfia now offered to adopt their own 
children and to give them a little time 
to abandon their religion, previous to 
their reception at court. Meantime 
they were set at liberty. When they 
were out of sight of their parents, they 
took an affectionate leave of each other 
and all went off in different directions. 
After a time, Quiteria was captured 
by some of her father s people and 
brought back. She lived like a nun in 
her father s house and he allowed her 
to exercise her religion without moles 
tation, in the hope that she would re 
nounce it, or at least her vow of chastity. 
Meantime, she was guarded and directed 
by an angel, who took her every day up 
to Mount Oria to pray. Her daily re 
sort to this mountain was made the 
subject of a scandal against her to 
which her father never would listen. 
At last two princes who were for a time 
rival suitors for the hand of the princess, 
united to persecute her. She fled to 
the valley of Aufragia or Eufrasia, and 
thence, still guided by her guardian 



angel, to Mount Columbiano or Pom 
beyro, in the province of Entre Minho e 
Douro, where her head was cut off. 

WILGEFORTIS is said in this story to 
be one of the sisters of Quiteria. 

The account of St. Quiteria given in 
the Flos Sanctorum makes her a native 
of Bayonne, and does not mention the 
extraordinary circumstances of her 
birth and childhood, but relates that 
thirty maidens and eight young men, 
her companions and disciples, were mar 
tyred with her, as well as King Ludivan, 
who had at one time been her bitter 
enemy and persecutor and whom she 
had converted from heathenism and 
avarice. The chief of her fellow-mar 
tyrs was the Infanta ST. COLUMBINA. 
When Quiteria s head was cut off, she 
carried it in her hands to the place 
where she wished to be buried. 

The Bollandists pronounce her story 
to be utterly fabulous. She is wor 
shipped in Gascony and the north of 
Spain. She is not mentioned in the old 

Chastelain says she was martyred, not 
in Spain, but at Aire in Gascony, and 
Cahier says that, at Alenquer in Portugal, 
hydrophobia is cured with bread soaked 
in the oil of the lamp that burns before 
her picture. 

E.M. AA.SS. Vida e Martirio de 
Sa. Quiteria . . . no Monte de Pombeyro 
Interamnense, by Fr. Bento da Ascene 
A.M. abbott of Pombeyro. Lisboa Oc 
cidental, 1722. 

St. Quiteria (2) or QUITTA. Sister 
of ST. DODA (3). Perhaps same as 
QUITERIA (1), or same as QUITTERIE. 

St. Quitterie, May 22, V. M., said 
by Martin to be not the same as QUITERIA, 
but a martyr at Chateaudun in the 
diocese of Chartres. 

St. Quoamalia or QUOAMALIUS, April 
15, M. in Galatia or Galaecia. AA.SS. 

St. Quoronta. A monastery of this 
name, in Albania or the Ionian islands, 
is mentioned by Kavanagh in his Yacht 
ing Tour. Perhaps a corruption of 
Quaranta meaning the Forty Martyrs. 

St. Quorrair, March 8, CORCAIR (1). 

St. Raab or RAABE, EAHAB. 

St. Rabacia, one of the 11,000 VV. 
of Cologne. (See ST. URSULA.) 

St. Rachab, KAHAB. 

St. Rachel (1) or RAHEL, Sept. 2. 
As an ancestor of our Saviour, the wife 
of the patriarch Jacob is honoured with 
her husband and her sister LEAH, not 
withstanding the imperfections that some 
persons remark in the characters of both 
these women. Eachel s tomb was on the 
road between Bethlehem and Rama, on 
the confines of the tribes of Judah and 
Benjamin. The Christians built a large 
chapel over it, and it was among the 
sacred places to which thousands of 
pilgrims resorted. Smith s Dictionary of 
the Bible. Baillet. 

St. Rachel (2), CATHERINE (2). 

St. Rachild, May 2, July 7, Nov. 23, 
V. -f 946, recluse at St. Gall in Switzer 
land, was a native of Frickthal in the 
Aargau, and was related to Count Ekke- 
hard I. and to ST. VIBORADA. As a 
child she was conspicuously pious, and 

when, in 920, she was cured of an inter 
mittent fever, by Viborada, she had 
a cell built for herself beside that of her 
friend, whom she considered as a second 
mother. Here she remained for twenty- 
six years. In 925 the Huns devastated 
the country, the monks fled from the 
monastery, but Viborada advised Rachild 
to stay where she was. She remained 
there unhurt, although- Viborada was 
killed. As Rachild mourned for her 
friend, she saw her happy spirit and 
was comforted. She suffered for many 
years from a dreadful skin disease. She 
was buried beside Viborada in the 
church of St. Magnus, and her grave was 
honoured with many miracles. Stadler. 
Mas Latrie. Guerin. 

St. Radeglind (1), queen of France, 


Sixth century. 

Patron of Poitiers, Peronne, Chinon, 



and La Charite sur Loire, and of the 
Trinitarians or Mathurins, whose charity 
was directed chiefly towards prisoners 
and captives. 

She was the daughter of Berthaire, 
king of Thuriugia, and wife of Clothaire, 
youngest son of (Jlovis, king of France, 
and CLOTILDA (1). 

Clothaire, then king of Neustria, the 
capital of Soissons, in 529, went to the 
assistance of his brother Thierry, king 
of Austrasia, who had been called in by 
the eldest of the three brothers, kings of 
Thuringia, to help to avenge the murder 
of Berthaire, the youngest, and compel 
the second to limit his pretensions to his 
own share of the kingdom. The Thu- 
ringians did not keep their promises 
about the portion of the spoil that 
Thierry was to have, so Clothaire gladly 
joined him in raiding the whole country, 
burning, slaying, looting. They mas 
sacred an untold number of persons, 
including the whole of the royal family, 
with the exception of three children, 
Eadegund, her brother, and Amalfroi or 
Hermalafred, the son of one of the 
other kings. These they brought with 
the rest of their booty back to France, 
and in dividing the spoil, Clothaire 
insisted on keeping the three royal 
children as part of his share. He placed 
Eadegund with attendants and instruc 
tors suitable to her rank, at Athies on 
the Somme, in Vermandois. The mis 
fortunes that had befallen her and the 
horrors she had witnessed had impressed 
a premature gravity on the character 
of the young princess. Spenser, in 
Mother Hublard s Tale, quotes her as 
a pattern of serious piety. She had 
no love of the amusements generally 
welcome to girls of her age, neither had 
she any desire for wealth, power, or 
earthly distinction. She was clever and 
studious, and gladly attended to the 
lessons given her by her Christian 
teachers, one of whom was St. Medard, 
bishop of Soissons. With rapid success 
she mastered all the literature within 
her reach. She knew she was destined 
to be one of the king s wives, but she 
had no wish to be married to the man 
who had deprived her of fu-edom, de 
vastated her country, and massacred her 

relations. She confided to her com 
panions that next to martyrdom she 
considered the quiet of the cloister the 
most enviable lot. When she was 
eighteen, hearing that the king had or 
dered grand preparations to be made for 
the wedding, she determined to escape 
from the unwelcome honour, and fled in 
a boat down the Somme ; but was very 
soon overtaken and enrolled among the 
king s recognised wives, of whom there 
were several. Those who were daughters 
of kings were called queens ; those of 
lower rank were sometimes promoted to 
that title when they had borne the king 
children. Eadegund was his favourite. 
She strove to do her duty to her master, 
although she neither loved nor feared 
him. He was vexed by her coolness 
and frequently complained of her unfit- 
ness for married life and royal state, 
saying she was not a queen but a nun. 
When he summoned her, she would often 
keep him waiting until she had finished 
her prayers and her pious readings ; he 
would reproach her violently and after 
wards apologize and try to atone for his 
conduct by splendid presents. She 
passed her days in the study of religious 
books, in conversation with the clergy 
who frequented the court, and in tend 
ing with her own hands a number of 
poor persons and sick women, for whom 
she founded a hospital at Athies. After 
her marriage she generally lived at 
Braine, near Soissons, which was Cloth- 
aire s favourite residence. One day as 
she was going in royal state to dine with 
a Frankish lady, she made use of her 
retinue to pull down a heathen temple 
which they had to pass. The Franks, 
many of whom were still idolaters, made 
a furious resistance, but Eadegund sat 
quietly on her horse, watching the fight 
between her servants and the populace, 
and would not proceed on her way until 
she saw the antichristian building com 
pletely overthrown. 

When she had been married six years, 
Clothaire killed her promising young 
brother, the companion of her captivity, 
the solace of her uncongenial life. The 
reason is not known. Eadegund, who 
had never loved her husband, now 
looked upon him with horror. What 



passed between the murderer and his 
wife we do not know, but almost imme 
diately afterwards, he allowed her to 
leave the Court. About the same time, 
Amalfroi, to whom as the only survivor 
of her family she was much attached, 
also left Soissons, and after a short 
residence in Italy, found a home at the 
Court of Constantinople. Kadegund, on 
leaving Soissons, went to Noyon and 
demanded that the Bishop should at 
once consecrate her a nun. St. Medard 
had great influence with the king, but 
feared to take so daring a step. While 
he hesitated, some Frankish nobles who 
were present, dragged him from the 
altar and bade him not presume to im 
mure their queen in a nunnery. Kade 
gund then went into the sacristy, and 
finding a religious dress, probably that 
of some deaconess engaged in the service 
of the church, put it on, and returned to 
the altar. Presenting herself before the 
astonished bishop, she asked him whether 
he feared these men who threatened him 
more than God, Who would require at 
his hands the souls of His sheep. He 
hesitated no longer, but laid his hands 
on her and consecrated her a deaconess. 
Confident in the respect always shown 
by Clothaire and his family to the rights 
of the Church, she went from shrine 
to shrine, giving her jewels and royal 
robes as offerings. She visited the 
church of St. Martin at Tours, and must 
have seen her mother-in-law, ST. CLO 
TILDA, the widow of Clovis, who was 
expiating her vengeances and preparing 
for her death at the tomb of St. Martin, 
and who died there about a year after 

Clothaire gave Eadegund the lands of 
Saix in Poitou, and there she fixed her 
residence, living in the severest asceti 
cism and tending lepers with great devo 
tion. No long time elapsed before the 
king repented that he had let her go, 
and she heard that he was coming to 
take her home again. She redoubled 
her austerities and begged the interces 
sion of a holy hermit, that she who had 
given herself to the King of heaven 
might not be again delivered up to this 
king of earth. She claimed sanctuary 
at the tomb of St. Hilary of Poitiers. 

Clothaire pursued her, determined to 
assert his authority, but the barrier of 
coldness and piety that had so often kept 
him at a distance, the charm that fas 
cinated him while it held him off, reas 
serted its empire, and derived new force 
from the fear of violating the sanctuary 
of a saint s tomb, and seizing his wife 
who had now been consecrated to the 
service of God. He allowed her to 
build a monastery at Poitiers, where 
their last interview took place, and to 
take the veil there. The building was 
finished in 550, and she entered it in 
triumph, amid the sympathy of the people 
who crowded the streets and the very 
roofs, to see their queen and her train of 
young disciples and companions enter 
the cloister. She was the first of many 
queens who became nuns, most of them 
in widowhood. Before long, she heard 
that Clothaire was at Tours and would 
proceed to Poitiers to claim his wife. 
She wrote to the venerable St. Germain, 
bishop of Paris, begging him to interfere. 
He went to Tours to meet the king before 
the tomb of St. Martin and implored him 
on his knees not to go to Poitiers. The 
king raised the aged bishop from the 
ground, and kneeling before him, asked 
him to go and beg the holy queen to 
forgive all the vexation he had ever 
caused her. From that time he left her 
in peace. 

In 560, by the death of his brother, 
Clothaire became sole king of France, 
but he had lived very hard during his 
fifty years reign, and although not a 
very old man, having succeeded to his 
quarter of the kingdom at the early age 
of twelve, he had little pleasure or glory 
in his accession of greatness. He had, 
however, something better which came 
to him through the prayers of his clois 
tered wife. He began to desire earnestly 
to repent of his sins. He went to the 
tomb of St. Martin, where he made a 
full confession, and bestowed princely 
gifts on the church. He founded the 
abbey of St. Medard at Soissons. How 
ever, he was still a thorough barbarian, 
and one of the last acts of his life was 
to burn alive, with wife and children, 
one of his -ions who had rebelled against 
him. C othaire died at Compiegne and 



was buried at Soissons by his four sur 
viving sons. One of his grandsons (the 
son of Clothaire s youngest son Sigebert 
and the famous Queen Brunehaut) was 
Childebert II., who, on the death of his 
father and uncles, succeeded to the whole 
kingdom, during the life of Kadegund, 
and was a reverent disciple and dutiful 
friend and patron of that holy woman 
aud her monastery. 

The queen, who had hastily built her 
self a house as soon as she received the 
king s permission to do so, in time made 
important additions to it, and built be 
side it a church and a college for monks 
to attend to the church. This was the 
first of those great double monasteries 
that so soon abounded in France and 
England. It soon became famous as the 
Monastery of the Holy Cross of Poitiers. 
Over two hundred maidens of different 
ranks and nations were gathered in the 
nunnery, among them were Merovingian 
princesses, but the greater number were 
Gallo-Eomans, some of senatorial rank 
and others of less distinction. Kade 
gund, accompanied by AGNES (6) went 
to Aries to learn the rule which St. 
Cesarius had compiled for his sister ST. 
CESARIA (3). They stayed in her monas 
tery, and she had the rule copied for 
them. Eadegund having made over the 
government of the community to Agnes, 
subsided into the rank and file of the 
nuns, and took her turn with them in 
performing all the work of the house 
and attending with redoubled zeal to the 
poor and suffering. She only reserved 
to herself the privilege of passing Lent 
alone and with special asceticism. During 
her whole life she continued her diligent 
study of the Holy Scriptures and the 
writings of the Fathers. 

When the monastery was finished and 
all in order, she sent to the Emperor 
Justin to beg for a piece of the cross of 
Christ, with which to enrich her church. 
The priceless relic arrived in 509. She 
received it with raptures of devotion, 
and Fortunatus, her chaplain, secretary, 
and almoner, composed for the occasion, 
the famous hymns Vexilla Regis and 
Pancje Lingua. St. Gregory records, as an 
eye-witness, the miracles wrought when 
the holy relic was carried through Tours. 


In the stillness of her happy solitude, 
Eadegund did not forget the interests 
of her adopted country. The tragic fate 
of two of the wives of her stepson Chil- 
peric, AUDOVERA and GALSWINTHA, must 
have appealed strongly to her sympa 
thies, for she regarded all the Merovin 
gians as her family. She wrote a poem 
about Galswintha. Time and death had 
softened the memory of her wrongs, and 
from her peaceful cloister, she endea 
voured to make peace between her four 
stepsons who now shared the kingdom 
amongst them. She was universally 
respected and trusted. In cases of con 
flicting evidence, her word was accepted 
and put an end to all uncertainty. 
She received into her monastery the 
wretched Basine, a daughter of Chil- 
peric. Chrodielde, too, another princess 
of the same family, came among the 
peaceful nuns of Ste. Croix as a dis 
turber and firebrand, bringing with her 
an unwilling and worldly heart. After 
the death of Eadegund and AGNES (6), 
these bad nuns gave a great deal of 
trouble in the monastery and caused 
much scandal. A full account of the 
affair is given in Mezeray s History of 

Fortunatus represents Eadegund as 
longing affectionately for tidings of her 
cousin Amalafroi. He was at Con 
stantinople, living in peace and civiliza 
tion, having long abandoned any idea 
of attempting to regain the throne of 
his ancestors. His silence and the death 
of all her other relations only concen 
trated her affections more intensely on 
her nuns. Besides Fortunatus, she had 
a friend named Juuian, a nobleman of 
Poitou who became a monk of the Order 
of St. Benedict. His charity rivalled 
that of Eadegund. His clothing was 
all spun for him by the hands of the 
cloistered queen. On his part, he pre 
sented her with a penitential chain which 
she wore as long as she lived. They 
mutually promised that whichever sur 
vived should pray for the other, but they 
died in the same hour on the 13th of 
August, 587, and the messengers bearing 
the news of each death met half way 
between the houses. St. Gregory of 
Tours, who buried Eadegund, records 



the great grief of her nuns, and their 
regret that the strict rule of St. Cesarius 
forbade their leaving their cloister even 
to follow their beloved mother to the 

The Queen s Will is preserved in 
Pertz Monumenta, vol. XXVII.; it is 
the first of the Diplomcda Regum Fran- 
corum G Stirpe Merovingica. In it she 
leaves property to the monastery and 
says that she built and endowed it by 
the aid of her husband Clothaire the 
king, and his sons Charibert, Gunt- 
chramn, Chilperic, and Sigibert. She 
charges the Holy Cross and the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, St. Hilary and St. Martin 
to prevent any one from persecuting 
Sister Agnes the abbess, or taking away 
the lands or revenues of the monastery. 
She entreats all kings and bishops not 
to allow the rule to be changed or the 
community injured. 

Radegund is one of three very famous 
royal sainted ladies of Thuringia and 
the only one of them who was a native 
of that country. See WALBURGA (1) and 

The ruins of a grand old abbey of the 
Premonstratensian Order, dedicated in 
the name of St. Radegund, may be seen 
at Alkham, near Folkestone. It was 
built in the reign of Richard I. and was 
of considerable strength. She has other 
dedications in England. 

One of the chief authorities for the daily 
life of the good queen within the nunnery 
walls is her secretary and biographer, 
Venantius Honorius Clementianus For- 
tunatns, who has been called the last 
representative of Latin poetry in Gaul, 
and who was for some years an inmate 
of the monastery and eventually became 
bishop of Poitiers. In his Life of Rade- 
gund he speaks with great affection of 
the^ Queen and the Abbess Agnes, qf 
their strictness to themselves and their 
indulgence towards others. He tells us 
that even when their rule compelled 
them to fast, they provided a luxurious 
little dinner for a favoured guest, strew 
ing the table with rose leaves and en 
hancing the pleasures of the repast by 
their charming conversation. Eadegund 
was indulgent to her nuns in the matter 
of recreation. She allowed them to see 

friends from outside the monastery. She 
sometimes permitted those dramatic en 
tertainments which were beginning to 
be introduced into the religious world. 

Miss Eckenstein, in Woman under 
Monasticism, gives extracts from some 
of Radegund s poems. Her life was 
also written by one of her nuns. She 
is mentioned by Gregory of Tours, and 
all the historians of the time. 

EM. AA.SS. Sismondi. Butler. Mon- 
talembert, Moines d Occident. Thierry, 
Recits Merovingiens. Fortunatus. Migne, 
Cursus completus, LXXXVIIL, 506. 
Adams, Cyclopaedia of Female Biography. 
Radegund s whole history is so well 
authenticated and so rational that it is 
almost a pity to add a miraculous legend, 
which is borrowed from the story of the 
flight of the B. V. MARY into Egypt. 
The story told by Cahier is that when 
Radegund s husband was pursuing her, 
she passed through a field where the 
peasants and serfs were sowing corn. She 
said to the workmen, " If any one asks 
you whether I passed through your 
fields, be sure you say it was when you 
were sowing the corn." They promised. 
The corn grew up and ripened in a 
single night, and next day, when the 
king and his men came that way and 
asked whether the queen had been seen, 
they pointed to the ripe corn, and said, 
" Yes, she was here when we were sow 
ing this field." So the pursuers were 
thrown off the track. 

St. Radegund (2) of Chelles, Jan. 
26, Feb. 3, + 670 or 680. A god 
daughter of BATHILDE (1), queen of 
France, who took the child with her 
when she went to live as a nun in the 
monastery of Chelles. Bathilde attended 
carefully to her education and became 
very fond of her, and prayed that Rade- 
gund might not survive her, lest she 
should fall away from holy innocence 
when deprived of her care. She died at 
the age of seven, on the same day as her 
god-mother, or by other accounts, three 
days before her, and they were buried 
together. Radegund is sometimes called 

B. Radegund (3) of Trevino near 



The last nun of the Premonstratensian 
convent of St. Paul near Villa Mayor, 
seven miles from Burgos in Spain. The 
convent fell to ruin and the church of 
St. Michael of Trevino was built close 
to the spot. Eadegund went to Eome 
and on her return shut herself up in a 
cell adjoining that church, and lived 
there in extraordinary asceticism for the 
rest of her days. Her body was pre 
served with great veneration in the 
church until the seventeenth century. 
AA.SS. Cahier. Le Paige. 

St. Radegund (4), KADTANA. 

St. Radegund (5) of Combrailles, 
honoured at Libersac. Guerin. Mas 

St. Radgund, EADEGUND. 

St. Radiana or EADEGUND (4), Aug. 
13, V. of Wellenburg. 14th or end of 
13th century. Patron of Salzburg and 
against wolves, and invoked to grant 
plenty of milk and butter. 

In an old print, in Imagines Sanctorum 
AugtLstinorwn, she is being devoured by 
wild beasts in a forest ; at her feet lies a 
comb, brush, basin and jug upset. In 
another part of the picture, she appears 
inside an open door, a man kneeling at 
her feet, she seems to be blessing him or 
brushing his hair. 

She was born at Wolfratshausen. She 
became a servant in the castle of Wellen 
burg. Wellenburg belonged to a patri 
cian of Augsburg, named Portner, who 
is said to have bought it in 1329. 
Eadiana was very industrious and faith 
ful. When her daily work was done, 
her favourite recreation was to wait upon 
the poor and sick of the neighbourhood 
and give them the food she denied her 
self for their sake. With especial de 
votion did she tend the lepers in the 
neighbouring lazaret. Once her master 
suspected she was carrying out of his 
house something he did not approve of. 
He looked into her apron and saw 
nothing but combs, soap and linen with 
which she was going to dress her lepers. 
On her usual charitable expedition, she 
was attacked by wolves and so badly 
torn and bitten that she died in three 
days. Her master wished to bury her 
in his family vault in Augsburg, but the 

cart which was carrying her body, stood 
miraculously still and became immov 
able. So a pair of oxen were harnessed 
to the cart, and left them to draw it 
whither they would. They went straight 
to her beloved leper-house, and there 
she was buried, and a chapel was built 
near and called by her name. She has 
been a very popular saint in that district 
for centuries and her comb and slippers 
are kept with great reverence in the 
chapel of Wellenburg castle. Stadler 
gives a long account of her worship 
and of the peculiar honours paid her by 
the famous wealthy family of Fugger, 
who became the owners of Wellenburg 
in 1597. She has no day, but Cuper, 
the Bollandist, gives her story, Aug. 13, 
that being the festival of the ;more 
famous St. Eadegund, queen of France. 
AA.SS. Stadler, Lexikon. 

St. Radreime, EADEGUND. 

St. Rafica, Sept. 4, M. in Ethiopia, 
with her five sons. AAJSS. Stadler. 

St. Ragengardis, EAINGARD. 

St. Ragenufla, EAINOFLE. 

St. Raginfledis, EAINFREDE. 

St. Raginfredis, EAINFREDE. 

St. Ragnild (1), EEYNELD. 

St. Ragnild (2) or EAGNHILD, July 
28, -f 1120. Wife of Ingo, king of 
Sweden, 1118-1129. Johannes Magnus, 
Hist. Got., places Ingo s accession in 
1086, and says that there was great 
peace in his time, at home and abroad. 
Eagnild was very devout and ascetic 
from her infancy, and as queen she 
was the mother of the poor and of the 
servants of God. She was buried at 
Telga, where miracles rewarded the 
veneration paid to her. The informa 
tion regarding her is very scanty. She 
was perhaps the mother or grandmother 
of CHRISTINA (8) wife of St. Eric, king 
of Sweden. Vastovius 

St. Ragonde, EADEGUND. 

St. Ragunt, EADEGUND. 

St. Rahab, EACHAB or EAABE, Sept. 
1, called in the Bible "the harlot," was 
an innkeeper, perhaps also a trader and 
dyer of Jericho. She had heard, pro 
bably from other traders and travellers, 
how "the Lord dried up the water of 
the Eed Sea" for the children of Israel, 
and the other wonderful events of their 



journey ; and she perceived that their 
God was the one true God and that He 
had given them the land. She was 
ready to hail the purer religion intro 
duced by them, with the worship of the 
One God. She gladly received and 
concealed the spies whom Joshua sent 
to view the land, and aided their escape, 
letting them down by a cord from the 
window of her house which stood on the 
town wall. In return she and all her 
kindred were spared when Jericho was 
taken by the Israelites, a scarlet line 
being used to distinguish the house. She 
married Salmon of Naason, who is sup 
posed to have been one of the spies. 
She was the mother of Boaz and thus 
an ancestor of the Messiah. Another 
tradition says that she became the wife of 
Joshua and that ST. HULDAH and eight 
other prophets were descended from her. 
Joshua ii. St. James ii. 25. Hebrews 
xi. 31. Mart, of Salisbury. Smith, Diet, 
of the Bible. 

St. Rahel, EACHEL. 

St. Rainfrede, Oct. 8, July 1 
805. Patron of Denain. Bucelinus says 
she is patron of Embrica, Eesia and Hove- 
pelle. Eepresented with a church in her 
hand as a founder, although the house of 
canonesses of which she was first abbess 
was built for her by her mother, ST. 
EEGINA (6), niece of KingPepin. Eain- 
frede was the eldest of the ten daughters 
of St. Adalbert or Aubert, count of Os- 
trovandia. Her sisters were SS. EOSA, 
CAROLA. Eainfrede has a proper office 
in the Breviary of Denain. AA.SS., 
Oct. 8 ; Bucelinus, Oct. 8 ; Stadler gives 
her also July 1. 

St. Raingard or EAGENGARDIS, June 
24, + 1135. Eepresented with a skull 
and a broom. She was of noble birth 
and related to the chief personages of 
Auvergne and Burgundy. She married 
a nobleman, named Maurice, whose estate 
of Montbaussier lay near the lands of 
her family. They were rich and charit 
able. They had eight sons and some 
daughters. Eaingard had a bias towards 
monastic life, and loved to entertain 

every monk and pilgrim who passed 
through or near her property. One of 
these was B. Eobert d Arbrissel, the 
founder of Fontevrault ; he remained 
in the house some days and was much 
edified by the piety and wisdom of his 
hosts. Their devotion received a new 
impulse from his instruction. Eaingard 
decided to take the veil at Fontev 
rault ; Maurice, after much consulta 
tion, consented to this step and 
resolved to become a monk. He died, 
however, before he could carry out his 
intention. During his last illness, his 
wife nursed him with devoted tender 
ness, praying and working earnestly for 
his salvation. When he died, she made 
all equitable arrangements necessary 
for leaving her home and resigning her 
authority there, and waited until Easter 
to take the veil. But by this time 
Eobert d Arbrissel was dead and she 
heard that the nuns of Fontevrault were 
not strict enough in their rule to come 
up to her ideal of cloistered life, so she 
resolved to choose another retreat. 
Meantime, she went to Cluny and com 
mended her husband s soul to the prayers 
of the monks. The last night she spent 
in the outer world, she visited his tomb 
in the dark and there confessed all her 
sins to God ; then she went to a priest 
and confessed first all Maurice s sins, 
and then all her own, and begged him 
to shut her up in the monastery of 
Marsigny to do penance for the rest of 
her life. Marsigny was then very poor. 
It was a double monastery, ruled by B. 
Gerard, under the authority of Dom 
Godfrey of Semur. Gerard had recently 
had a dream that a dove came fluttering 
about him and that he caught it and 
clipped its wings, put it in a cage and 
presented it to Hugh, the superior of the 
Order. So when Eaingard arrived with 
an escort suitable to her rank, he 
thought this was the dove of his dream, 
and at once sent for the prioress and all 
the nuns, of whom there were about a 
hundred. Eaingard addressed them 
humbly, declaring her wish to be ad 
mitted amongst them. They were only 
too delighted to receive her, but the 
gentlemen who had come with her were 
very angry and declared this was no fit 



place for so great a lady, and that if she 
were detained there, they would pull 
down the house. Seeing her determina 
tion was not to be moved by threats, 
they next resorted to tears, but to no 
purpose. Baingard stayed there for the 
remaining twenty years of her life. Such 
was her desire to practise humility that 
she always insisted on serving the others 
and taking her share of all menial 
work. The nuns soon made her cellarer, 
a post which she filled with the greatest 
satisfaction to all. She knew each nun, 
her name and origin, her little ailments, 
her tastes and weaknesses, and remember 
ing that they were highly born and 
delicately brought up, she knew what 
they had need of, and learnt various 
ways of cooking to make variety for 
them. Needy as she found the commu 
nity, she managed so well that she made 
everybody comfortable and always had 
something to give to the poor. She was 
Sara, Martha, Tabitha and Magdalene 
all in one. 

Meantime, her son Peter Maurice, 
abbot of Cluny, called Peter the Vener 
able, travelled much, went to Eome, to 
England, and other places, and when he 
returned to his own country, he always 
went to see his mother. She gave him 
advice as a son, and at the same time 
honoured him as a father and a priest. 
In 1134, he attended the council of 
Pisa, under Innocent II., and was absent 
when his mother died. On his return to 
Cluny he had first to entertain the 
bishops and abbots, who had travelled 
with him. Afterwards, he visited the 
convent where his mother lay dead. He 
thanked the weeping sisters for their 
goodness to her, and made them a most 
touching address. 

She is styled Saint in the calendars of 
the Order of Cluny and by all the local 
chroniclers, but she has not been canon 
ized. Her life, written by her son B. 
Peter, is in Arnauld d Andilly s Vies des 
Saints Peres. Chambard, Saints Per- 
sonnages d 1 Anjou. 

St. Rainild, REYNELD. 

St. Rainofle, July 14 (RAGENUFLA, 
Flemish, RENOFELE). 7th century. She 
was of high rank and related to SS. GER 

TRUDE of Nivelle and BEGGA. She lived 
at Aioncourt in Brabant, supposed to be 
so called from Ayus and Aya, her father 
and mother. A young nobleman, named 
Ebroin, was accepted by her parents as 
her suitor, but as she was bent on devot 
ing herself to religion only, she took the 
opportunity of her mother and all the 
household being intent on the prepara 
tions for her marriage, and when the 
hour had nearly come for that ceremony, 
she fled with one maid, and concealed 
herself in the forest, where she soon 
died. Her parents buried her and built 
a church over her tomb, where miracles 
proved her sanctity. AA.SS. 

St. Rainofre, RAINOFLE. 

St. Rais (1), RHAIS (1). 

St. Rais (2) or RAISSA, IRAIS. 

St. Raphaildis, CRAPHAILDIS. 

St. Rasalana, M. A native of 
Madagascar. Probably modern. One 
of a group of female martyrs represented 
in a window of Eaton Hall, by Mr. 
Shields. The others in the same com 
and AGNES. The next compartment 
contains male martyrs, and includes 
Bishop Patteson. Atlteneum, Feb. 4, 
1882, p. 105, " Fine Art Gossip." 

St. Rasmensoida, honoured at 
Astere, in the dioceso of Narnur. 

St. Rastragena, May 12, V. M. 
honoured at Coincy, between Rheims 
and Meaux, and supposed to be a con 
verted barbarian in the early days of 
the Church, and a martyr of chastity. 
AA.SS.J Appendix. 

St. Ratgunt, RADEGUND. 

St. Rathnata or RATHNOTA, RETHNA. 

St. Ratrude, EPIPHANIA (2). 

St. Raurava. Dec. 3, M. in Ethiopia. 
Mas Latrie. Guerin. 

St. Ravenosa, honoured in Sicily, 
Dec. 8. Mas Latrie. Guerin. 

St. Raynoffle, RAINOFLE. 

St. Rayne. (See ST. WHITE.) 

St. Reata, Sept. 6, V. M., came 
from Spain with Sanctian, Augustin, 
Felix and Aubert. They were all mar 
tyred at Sens, where a church is built in 
their honour. Martin. 

St. Rectinea, Oct. 27, V. Irish. 
Mart, of Donegal. AA.SS., Praetcr. 



St. Rectrude, EICTRUDE. 

St. Redegundis or BEDIGUND, EADE- 

GUND (3). 

St. Redempta, July 23, a disciple of 
ST. HIRUNDO and teacher of ST. KOMULA. 

St. Reducta or NEDUCTA, June 2. 
One of 227 Eoman martyrs commemo 
rated together this day in the Martyr- 
ology of St. Jerome. A A.SS. 

St. Refroie, EAINFREDE. 

St. Regenfledis, EEGENFLEGIS, or 

St. Regenfrith, WILGEFORTIS. 

St. Regensvide or KEGENSWITHA, 

St. Regia, EEGINA (1). 

St. Regina (1), Sept. 7 (EEINE, 
EEGIA), V. M. 251 or 286, or 
5th century, under the Vandals, etc. 
Patron of Alise and against itch and 
other skin diseases. Eepresented : (1) 
with signs of torture and martyrdom 
and with a well near her, being one of 
many saints w r ho either made a well or 
endowed one with miraculous properties; 
(2) with a sheep beside her ; (3) with a 
banner, but this is probably from con 
fusing her with St. Margaret. 

Legend says she was daughter of 
Clement, a heathen nobleman of Alise, 
in Burgundy, once the large town of 
Alexia besieged by Caesar. Eegina was 
brought up at the cottage of her Chris 
tian nurse, and kept her sheep. When 
she was grown up, a young nobleman, 
named Olybrius, was riding by on a 
visit to Clement, and seeing a beautiful 
shepherdess, inquired who she was. 
When he found that she was the daughter 
of his friend, he proposed to marry her 
and was accepted by her father. Eegina, 
however, had made a vow of celibacy, 
and declined to marry. Clement or 
dered her immediately to renounce her 
vow and her religion, and on her re 
newed refusal, carried her off to the 
castle of Grignon, and shut her up in a 
tower. The stone to which she was 
chained, and the chain which bound her 
to it by the waist are still shown in the 
abbey of Flavigny, whither her relics 
were translated in 864. A small town 
near Alise is called Ste. Eeine in memory 
of her. 

Theophilus, who fed her in prison, is 

said to be the writer of her Life. Butler 
says she was beheaded for the faith 
either under Decius, 251, or under Maxi- 
mian Hercules in 286. Her legend is a 
duplicate of that of St. Margaret (1), 
also fabulous. EM. A A.SS. Baillet. 

St. Regina (2), April 2, M. in Africa, 
with St. Marcellenus. 

St. Regina (3), March 1 , M. at Nico- 
meclia, with ST. ANTIGA. AA.SS. 

SS. Regina (4, 5). Two saints of 
this name, perhaps queens whose names 
are lost, were among the companions of 

St. Regina (<>) or EEINE, July 1, 
8th century; translations April 17 and 
March 17. Eepresented wearing a 
crown and holding an abbess staff but 
without the nun s veil. Of royal de 
scent, she married Adalbert or Auberfc, 
count of Ostrovandia or Estrevant, who 
held high office under Pepiu d Herstal, 
the second of the three great Pepins. 
They had ten daughters and built for 
them the monastery of Denain on the 
Scheldt, not far from Valenciennes, 
which they dedicated in the names of 
St. Mary and St. Martin. Their eldest 
daughter, ST. EAINFREDE, was the first 
abbess. AA.SS. Bucelinus. Stadler. 

St. Reginfrede, EAINFREDE. 

St. Reginsidis, EEGENSVLDE, EEGENS- 
15, V. M. 9th century, at Lauffen on 
the Neckar, in the diocese of Wurtz- 
burg. Only child of Ernest, landgrave 
of Leuchtenburg in Swabia, and Fried- 
burg, his wife. When she was seven 
years old, her nurse s brother, who had 
the charge of a drove of horses belong 
ing to the landgrave, neglected them, 
causing great loss to his master. The 
landgrave had him flogged; his sister, 
the nurse, was so angry that no ven 
geance seemed too great for her; she 
killed Eeginsidis and threw her from 
the castle of Lauffen into the river 
Neckar which ran deep and swift below. 
The little girl was drowned but the 
waters would neither cover the innocent 
child nor carry her away. Hubert, 
bishop of Wurtzburg, saw in a vision 
the little princess crowned with lilies 
amongst the heavenly choir following 



the Lamb and singing the praises of her 
crucified Lord. The body was trans 
lated with great pomp and reverence 
into the Church, and wrought miracles. 

St. Reginswindis, EEGINSIDIS. 

St. Reginulfa, EAINOFLE. 

St. Regiola, Feb. 11, Aug. 30, M. 
at Avitina with VICTORIA (2). 

St. Regnach or EEGNACIA, sister of 
the great St. Finnian of Clonard who 
lived in the 6th century. Kegnach was 
abbess of Kilreynagh in Meath, a monas 
tery built for her and devoted to the 
Christian education of women. One of 
her pupils was LASSARA. Lanigan. 

St. Regnisidis, KEGINSIDIS. 

St. Regonde, EADEGUND. 

St. Regula (1 ). (See VICTORIA (2).) 

St. Regula (2) or EIEULE, Sep. 11, 
Oct. 11, V. M. end of 3rd or begin 
ning of 4th century. Patron, with her 
brother St. Felix, of Zurich and Heili- 
genberg. After the massacre of the 
Theban legion, Eegula with her brother 
Felix who was one of the soldiers, wan 
dered through Switzerland, but being 
ambitious of martyrdom, they gave them 
selves up at Zurich, to their pursuers. 
Regula was condemned to swallow melted 
lead ; she told her judge it was sweeter 
than milk and honey. Their trial and 
tortures were attended with divers mira 
cles ; at last they were beheaded, and 
taking i their heads up in their hands, 
they carried them a considerable dis 
tance. AA.SS. King. 

St. Regunfledis, WILGEFORTIS. 

St. Reine, EEGINA. 

St. Reineld, EEYNELD. 

St. Reinfrede, EAINFREDE. 

St. Reingar or EHIENGAR. (See 

St. Reinhild, EEYNELD. Sometimes 

St. Reinila, EELIND. 

St. Reinildis, EEYNELD. Sometimes 

St. Reinula, EELIND. 

St. Relind (1), Oct. 12, Feb. G, 
EENULA, etc.), + c. 750. Joint abbess 
and patron of Maasech, with her sister 

St. Relind (2), Nov. 10. 10th cen 
tury. A recluse at Flemalia, near 
Liege, commemorated with her sisters 
SS. BENEDICTA (13) and CECILIA (11), 
daughters of Zuentibold, son of the 
Emperor Arnulf (887-899) Bucelinus, 
Men. Ben. 

St. Renata, in French, EENEE, M. 
Eelics venerated at Auxerre. Stadler. 

St. Renee, RENATA. 

St. Renelle, EELIND. 

St. Renfroi, EAINFREDE. 

St. Renofele, EAINOFLE. 

St. Renula, EELIND. 

St. Reparata, Oct. 8, 2nd century. 
V. M. at Csesarea in Palestine. Eepre- 
sented carrying a banner. Patron of 
Florence, of Nice in Provence, of Cor- 
reggio, and of Atri (Adria). In the per 
secution under Decius, she was placed 
beside a caldron of boiling lead, into 
which she was to be plunged if she 
would not renounce her Christianity ; 
the lead became cold and solid. Then 
her breasts were cut off; burning torches 
were held against her, and she was 
thrown into a furnace. As none of these 
tortures induced her to apostatize, she 
was led naked round the city, to the 
horror of all the Christians, and finally 
beheaded. Her soul, in the form of a 
white dove, was seen to leave her body. 
Such is the account given by Eabanus 
Maurus in his Martyrology in the ninth 
century. Her body is said to have 
crossed the Mediterranean in a Moorish 
ship without sails or crew, to Cam 
pania, and it then settled at Teano in 

It is supposed that the real Eeparata 
lived and was martyred at Florence, 
where a church bore her name in the 
4th century, and that when her history 
was forgotten, the above wonderful 
legend was manufactured, grounded 
partly on that of ST. ALBINA (1). 

EM. Baillet. Cahier. Mrs. Jameson. 

St. Reposita, Jan. 2l,M. AA.SS. 

St. Respecta, July 20, + c. GOO, 
abbess of the nuns of Monte Cassino. 

St. Responsa, April 23, companion 
of ST. URSULA. Eesponsa s relics were 
venerated in the convent of Minorite nuns 



of St. Antonio de Alcacer do Sal, in 
Portugal. AA.SS., Pr&ter. 

St. Restituta (1), May 17, V. M. 
3rd century. In the time of the Em 
peror Valerian (253-260), Eestituta, 
after undergoing many tortures, was 
condemned, in Africa, by Proculus, to 
be set adrift in a boat with a quantity 
of burning pitch and tow; the flames 
turned upon those who kindled them, 
and Restituta gave up her soul to God ; 
the boat floated to the island of Ischia 
and was received by the Christians with 
great veneration. Afterwards Constan 
tino the Great had a dream about this 
martyr, and on investigation found her 
sacred body shining like snow. He built 
a church in Naples in honour of her. 
E.N. AA.SS. 

St. Restituta (2), May 27, + c. 272, 
time of Aurelian. Patron of Sora in 
Campania (with St. Julian, M., and St. 
Dominic, abbot), and of Pont Arcy, near 
Soissons. Daughter of Ethel and Dabia 
who lived in the part of Eome now called 
Trastevere. Eestituta was young, beau 
tiful, rich and nobly born. During the 
persecution, she made a vow of virginity. 
Desiring to serve Christ, and praying 
for direction, it was revealed to her that 
she must go to Sora and deliver His 
people from the tyranny under which 
they groaned and that she must not be 
deterred by any misgiving on account 
of her age and sex. She prayed again, 
" Lord, I have hardly ever gone out of 
the house for fear of meeting evil com 
panions, or coming to harm; how then 
can I go to a city of which I do not even 
know in what part of the world it is 
situated ? " The Lord answered, " Early 
to-morrow, go to the Lateran gate, and 
there thou shalt find a guide sent by 
Me." There she met an angel, and 
when she had explained her mission, he 
told her it was a long journey, forty 
miles, and she had better sleep and rest 
before setting out; she did so, and he 
transported her during her sleep to the 
outside of the gate of Sora, where she 
found herself when she awoke. She 
entered the city and went to the 
house of a widow whose son Cyril was 
afflicted with leprosy. She cured him 
and converted him, his mother, and forty 

others. Crowds came to see him, and 
he preached Christianity to them. 
Agathius, the proconsul, heard that 
Cyril was neglecting the gods for the 
new religion, sent for him, and asked 
an account of his conversion. Then he 
said, " Where is Eestituta? " Cyril said, 
" She lodges with us." " Bring her 
here," said Agathius. She came, and 
when he saw a beautiful young lady, 
he spoke civilly to her : " It appears 
that you do not know that the honour 
you give to Christ is an insult to 
the emperor, but as you seem to be 
very young, I will treat your ignor 
ance with indulgence. Give up your 
superstitions, offer incense to our gods, 
and I will marry you ; and as you 
seem to be very poor, you shall immedi 
ately be made rich." Eestituta answered, 
" You propose to me three things ; one 
of which I abhor as impious, and the 
others I condemn as frivolous : to re 
nounce the King of Kings and Lord of 
Lords for a mortal king ; to renounce 
an immortal Husband for thee, who art 
in bondage to an earthly lord and wilt 
soon be food for worms ; and as for 
wealth, I utterly despise it ! " Agathius 
was very angry and ordered her to be 
scourged. Under this torture, she sang 
hymns. She was next bound with seven 
iron chains, then kept seven days with 
out food, all the time miraculously sus 
tained. She converted thirty-nine gaolers, 
who were all baptized and then, with 
Eestituta, brought up for judgment be 
fore Agathius, when the guards and 
other attendants were converted also. 
Eestituta and her convert Cyril were 
beheaded with two others, and their 
bodies ordered to be left for the beasts 
and birds of prey; but the Christians 
took them and buried them reverently. 
The heads were not with the bodies, 
but Eestituta appeared in glory, seven 
days afterwards, to the venerable 
Amasius, bishop of Sora, and told him 
where they were to be found. 

After the death of Aurelian, the 
Church had peace. Amasius built a 
church over the bodies of these martyrs. 
In the 9th century, the bodies were 
taken to Eome for fear of the Saracens ; 
that of Eestituta was given by Pope 



Leo IV. to the Emperor Louis II., who 
had helped him against the Lombards 
and whom he anointed Emperor. It 
was brought to France ; miracles oc 
curred at many places along the way. 
Her body and those of two other mar 
tyrs were found at Sora in the time of 
Gregory, bishop of Terracina, who, in 
1G;>2, compiled her Acts from several 

St. Restituta (3), Feb. 11, V. M. 
with ST. VICTOEIA (2), at Avitina. 

St. Restituta (4), June 15, widow. 
M., 311, at Cagliari. Mother of St. 
Eusebius (Aug. 1), bishop of Vercelli. 

or EUTHEXA, V. Aug. 3 or 5, 6th cen 
tury, lived on the banks of the Liffey, 
in Ireland. She had a holy disciple and 
nursling, St. Colommanus, whom she sent 
to be ordained bishop by St. Columba at 
lona. When he returned she said, 
" My son, my dear daughter is very ill ; 
come therefore to ST. ITA that she may 
bless you and that she may help your 
companion." So they harnessed the 
horse to the car and set off, but the devil 
threw many obstacles in their way. 
That day Ita said to her household, 
" Prepare baths and a feast, for to-day 
we shall have holy guests from a long 
way off." When they arrived, she 
asked for the bishop s blessing, although 
no one had told her that he was a bishop ; 
and then before they had time to speak 
of the woman who was ill, she said to 
Eethna, " Your daughter who is ill ; 
choose now ; would you have her well in 
body and let her lose her soul, or would 
you have her suffering pain and have her 
soul saved ? " They chose temporal suf 
fering and eternal life for her ; and it 
was so. Then Eethna told Ita that 
she had a dear friend, a holy virgin, in 
the south of Ireland, and asked if she 
would advise her to go and see her. Ita 
said, " No, for she is on her way to see 
you and you will meet her between 
Momonia and Leinster." And so it 
happened. Colgan calls Eethna s pupil 
Columbanus. AA.SS., " St. Itta." Col 
gan, " St. Itta." 

St. Retrude, EPIPHANIA (2). 

St. Retticula, Aug. 16, V. at Aries. 

Preferring a religious life to a brilliant 
marriage, she entered the convent which 
St. Cesarius had long before founded for 
his sister. Eetticula became prioress. 
Her good works and miracles proved her 
innocence under a cruel persecution. 
French Mart. 

St. Reuma, RUMA. 

St. Revocata or RIVOCATA, Feb G, 
M. at Viana in Portugal, with Theo- 
philus and Saturninus, either in the 
sixth persecution, under Maximianus, 
239, or in the seventh, under Decius, 
200. Some calendars have the names 
Eevocatus and Theophila, and some give 
Achaia as the place of martyrdom, while 
others mention different places in Ga- 
licia and Asturias. EM. AA.SS. 

ILDIS, July 16, 21, Aug. 13, V.M. c. 860. 
Patron of Conde. Represented carrying 
a pilgrim s staff and a martyr s palm. 
Daughter of B. Witger, count, and ST. 
AMALBERGA (1). Sister of St. Emebert, 
bishop of Arras and Cambrai, and SS. 
GUDULA and PHARAILDIS. Her father 
became a monk; her mother, a nun at 
Maubeuge. Eeyneld went as a pilgrim 
to the Holy Land, and on her return 
settled on an estate she had in the 
neighbourhood of Saintes, near Halle in 
the Henegau, and there lived a life of 
charity and self-denial, giving everything 
she had to the poor. About G80, an inroad 
of barbarians from East Friesland and 
Lower Saxony made most of the dwel 
lers in the Henegau take to flight ; but 
Eeyneld shut herself up in the church. 
When the enemy had burnt and plun 
dered all the other houses, they broke 
into the church and tore the saint from 
the altar to which she was clinging, and 
after dragging her about the church by 
her hair, they cut off her head. A priest 
of the name of Grimoald and a servant 
named Gondulph were murdered with 
her, and the three are venerated as 
martyrs. AA.SS. Stadler. 

St. Rhadegund, EADEGUND. 

St. Rhais (1), EALS, or HERA IS, 
June 28, a catechumen, M. with ST. Po- 
TAMICEXA, at Alexandria, in the reign of 
Severus (222-235). EM. AA.SS. 

St. Rhais (2), IRAIS. 



St. Rhiengar. (See ALMHEDA.) 

St. Rhipsime, EIPSIMA. 

St. Rhoda or KOSULA, Nov. 2, M. at 
Cagliari in Sardina, with many others 
who went there from Rome. AA.SS., 

St. Rhodana, one of the martyrs 
of Lyons, beheaded, being a Koman 
citizen. (See BLANDINA.) 

St. Rhothild or EHOTILD, CLOTILDA 

St. Rhuddlad, Sept. 4. Patron of 
Llanrhuddlad in Anglesey. Daughter 
of a king of Leinster. Kees, Welsli 

St. Richa (1), EIXA. 
Yen. Richa (2), July 2, V. 12th 
century. Nun of the Order of Cluny. 
St. Otto was bishop of Bamberg (1139) 
and apostle of Pomerania. On his jour 
ney to Pomerania, he passed through the 
Bohemian forest and rested at Cladrim, 
a Cluniac religious house, where he was 
hospitably received and where he conse 
crated a church by the name of St. 
Nicolas and gave the sacred veil to 
several nuns ; among them, one named 
Eicha. During the ceremony she seemed 
to be overcome with grief, and he com 
forted her, saying, " Weep not, daughter; 
be sure that at the day of judgment I 
will give your soul into the hands of 
your God and Husband, Jesus Christ." 
After many years, on the anniversary 
of his burial, Eicha died, depending on 
his promise. She is commemorated by 
Bucelinus and Menardus, but there is no 
authority for worshipping her. AA.SS., 
St. Otto." 

St. Richarda, EICHGAEDIS or Ei- 
GARDA, Sept. 18,9th century. Empress. 
Eepresented undergoing trial by 
ordeal not walking over the plough 
shares like Cunegund, but handling them 
in the fire. 

She is said by Wion, Bucelinus, and 
others to be a daughter of Gregory, king 
of the Scots ; Stadler says her father was 
Erchangar, count of Alsace. She was 
wife of Charles the Fat, king of France 
and Italy, and emperor. They went to 
Eome in 880 and were crowned by the 
Pope. Eicharda lived ten, twelve or, by 
other accounts, twenty-five years at 
Court, a virgin, and a pattern of every 

virtue. She founded the monastery of 
Andlau or Andelaha in Alsace, on her 
own estates in the Vosges, for twelve 
canons and twelve canonesses, under the 
invocation of SS. Fabian and Felicitas. 

Charles suffered excruciating pains in 
his head, and attributed it to some sort 
of diabolic possession, for which he was 
exorcised, but the pain continued. Then 
he had incisions made in his head to get 
rid of the devil, but the pain only grew 
worse. Among other delusions, he sus 
pected his wife of misconduct with Luit- 
ward, bishop of Vercelli. She demanded 
to clear her character, either by having a 
champion to fight for her or by some 
other ordeal. The trial consisted of the 
accused being wrapped in linen cloth 
soaked with inflammable liquid and set 
on fire at the four corners. It was burnt 
away to nothing, and the innocent queen 
remained unhurt. Thus was her inno 
cence proved. Some say the emperor 
would have no trial. The empress was 
divorced, however, and retired to the 
monastery she had built. There she 
took the veil, and was soon elected 
abbess. Afterwards she went to the 
monastery of St. Felix and St. Eegula 
at Tigurim, in Switzerland. Others say 
she was abbess of Landau and Seckingen. 
Very soon after the divorce, Charles 
was deposed and succeeded by Arnulf. 
Eicharda lived a few years longer. 

Cratepol says she rests in her monas 
tery of Andlau, where also is preserved 
the body of St. Lazarus whom Christ 
raised. In 1049, Leo IX. ordered a 
solemn translation of her body, and she 
is honoured as a saint in France and 
Germany, especially in Alsace. 

AA.S8. Tritheim, Viris Elustris. 
Cratepol, De Sanctis Germanise. Buce 
linus. Mezeray, Hist, de France. Ott, 
Die Legende. Cahier. Encyclopedia 
Metropolitana. Leibnitz. Wion, Lignum 
Vitse. Stadler. 

St. Richella, May 19. Mart, of 
TamlagJit. (See CINNA and CINNENUM.) 

St. Richense, EIXA. 

St. Richeye, EIXA. 

St. Richeza, EIXA. 

St. Richgardis, EICHAIIDA. 

St. Richilda or EICHILDIS, Aug. 23, 
+ 1100, a recluse. She belonged to 



tlie community of nuns in the Benedictine 
monastery of Hohenwart in Bavaria, 
under its first abbess, B. WILTRUDE (2), 
but lived apart in a little cell outside 
the house, as was the custom of recluses 
at that time. She attained to so great 
a reputation for holiness that she was 
buried under the high altar, and by-and- 
by was translated into her cell, which 
was transformed into a chapel, and be 
came a favourite resort of pilgrims. 
Although no decree of Beatification was 
ever pronounced, the popularity of her 
worship continues to the present day. 
AA.SS. Stadlor. 

St. Richinna. (See CINNA and 


St. Richissa, RIXA. 

Ven. Richlind, Dec. 2G, abbess of 
Odilienberg, O.S.B. In 1140 she was 
called from Berg in the diocese of Eich- 
stadt, to reform Odilienberg. Stadler. 

B. Richmera, Oct. 17, mm at Pre- 
montre. AA.SS. 9 Prseter. 

B. Richmunda, Oct. 23, V. Nun in 
the Cistercian monastery of ST. WAL- 
BURGA, near Cologne. She had heavenly 
visions, and is called Saint, Blessed, and 
Venerable by many writers, but there is 
no authority for her worship. Buceli- 
nus, Chalemot, and Henriquez called her 
Blessed. AA.SS. 

St. Ricinne. (See CINNA and CIN- 

B. Ricovera or EICWERA, May 23, 
+ 1136. The first Praemonstratensian 
canoness. She was the wife of Raymond 
de Clastres, who belonged, like herself, 
to the nobility of Vermandois. She had 
a great desire to lead a holier life and 
received the veil from St. Norbert, the 
founder of the Praemonstratensian Order. 
The rule was very severe ; the canonesses 
kept perpetual silence, not even singing 
in church ; their clothing was of the 
coarsest woollen stuff. Having once 
entered the convent, they could never 
leave it, and if they received a visitor, 
even if it were a near relation, the inter 
view was hedged round with so many 
difficulties and precautions that there 
was little temptation to repeat the in 
dulgence. So many women followed 
the example of .Ricovera that before the 
death of the founder, in 1134, there were 

ten thousand canonesses of the Order. 
Ricovera was set over the hospital of the 
poor, where she shone with the combined 
virtues of Martha and Mary. The more 
loathsome the affliction of any patient, 
the more anxious was she to minister to 
it with her own hands. She was buried 
in the cemetery of the poor at Premontre. 
AA.SS. Le Paige, Hist. Ord. Prsem, 

St. Rictrith or RICTHRITH, Sept. 21, 
Abbess, + 786. Queen of Northumber 
land. She was wife perhaps of Egbert, 
king of Northumberland (738-759), who 
after a tolerably prosperous and popular 
reign, resigned the crown and became a 
monk, and died in 768 ; or she may have 
been theiwife of Egbert s son Oswulf, who 
succeeded his father, and was murdered 
by his own servants in less than a year 
after his accession. Hoveden. Strutt. 
Lappenberg. British Mart., supplement. 

St. Rictrude, May 12, c. 614-688. 
Abbess, founder and patron of Marchi- 
ennes in Hainault, and mother of four 
saints. Born in Gascony. Her parents 
Ernold and Lichia, were heathens ; they 
were descended from the Visigothic 
kings who had possessed all that country. 
St. Amandus being banished by King 
Dagobert to the south of France, was 
received by them and converted, and he 
instructed Rictrude. She married St. 
Adalbald, one of the chief nobles at the 
Court of the king of the Franks ; he was 
the son or grandson of ST. GERTRUDE (4) 
and perhaps brother of Sigfried, whose 
wife ST. BERTHA (3), was abbess of 
Blangy. Adalbald had great posses 
sions in Flanders and founded a monas 
tery at Douai, but notwithstanding his 
rank, wealth, and good qualities, some 
of Rictrude s relations did not consider 
him a fit match for a daughter of their 
house, as he came of the hated race of 
Franks who had wrested the power from 
the Visigoths. Accordingly, as he was 
returning from a visit to his estates in 
Flanders, they caused him to be assassi 

Clovis II., king of the Franks, tried to 
insist on Rictrude s marriage with another 
of his nobles, as she was still young and 
beautiful, and her wealth was immense. 
She invited the king to a feast, and when 



lie was in a cheerful mood and well dis 
posed towards his hostess, she asked him 
if he would give her leave to take for 
her own whatever in her house she most 
prized. The king thought she meant 
himself, and was quite ready to marry 
the beautiful young widow, so he gladly 
consented to her wish. To his disgust, 
she took a veil which Amandus had con 
secrated for her and placed it on her own 
head. Clovis was very angry and abruptly 
left the table. 

In 646 she built a nunnery at Mar- 
chiennes, beside the monastery which her 
husband and Amandus had already built 
for men. Here she lived as abbess for 
forty years. 

BEEGA S, all her children were saints. 
She had one son, St. Maurontus, a soldier, 
afterwards a priest and monk, and three 
daughters, ST. CLOTSEND (2), ST. EUSE- 

After ruling her nuns for forty years, 
Eictrude placed the business and care 
of the community in younger hands 
and gave herself entirely to preparation 
for her holy death. Her chief festival 
is May 12, the anniversary of her 
death; but various translations of her 
relics are commemorated on different 

The nunnery was abolished in 1028, 
and Rictrude s body was preserved there 
by the monks who kept possession of the 
place and its revenues. 

The contemporary accounts of her 
life having perished in the devastations 
of the Normans, Stephen, bishop of 
Liege, a man of great age and extra 
ordinary sanctity, in 907 chose Hucbald, 
a pious and learned monk of St. Amand s, 
to write the life of Rictrude from the 
traditions of the elders and from sundry 
other documents. This life is preserved 
in AA.SS.O.S.B. and in AAJSS. 

Baillet. Martin. Wilbert. Butler. 

St. Rictrude (2) RICHTEUDA or 
RECTBTJDE, April 9, + c. 790. An 
English nun of the Order of St. Benedict. 
She and her sister GISLA were nuns at 
Canterbury, famous for their learning 
and piety ; they were disciples of Alcuin, 
who dedicated to them his Commentary 
on the Gospel of St. John. They were 

commemorated in the north of England. 
Menardus. Bucelinus. Ancient British 
Piety, supplement. Smith and Wace, 
Diet, of Christian Biography, says they 
were daughters of Charlemagne. 

St. Ricwera, RICOVEEA. 

St. Ricza, RIXA. 

St. Rieule, REGULA. 

St. Rigarda, KICHABDA. 

St. Rikscha, RIXA. 

St. Rinna, M. with PINNA. 

St. Riparia or RISPAEIA, patron of a 
church in the neighbourhood of Brescia. 

St. Ripsima or RHIPSIME, Sept. 29, 
V. M. c. 301, one of the patrons of 
Armenia. She belonged to a religious 
community under ST. GAIANA, at Rome. 
Her beauty having attracted the atten 
tion of Diocletian, they all fled from 
Italy, about 300, and took refuge in 
Armenia, in the reign of Tiridates III., 
son and successor of Chosroes. They 
built a house for themselves outside the 
walls of Valarshabad, the capital of the 
province of Ararat. When Tiridates saw 
Ripsima, he was no less struck by her 
beauty than Diocletian had been, and 
he had her brought to his palace. She 
escaped, but was pursued and murdered 
with Gaiana and thirty-three nuns, her 
companions. Divine vengeance fell upon 
Tiridates, for he was transformed into a 
wild boar and his people suffered divers 
plagues. At length it was revealed to 
the king s sister that these plagues had 
come upon them for their wickedness 
in rejecting Christianity and persecuting 
the servants of God. 

St. Gregory, called "the Illuminator," 
had been the friend of Tiridates, and 
had endeavoured, fourteen years before 
this time, to dissuade him from wor 
shipping the goddess Anahid and to 
influence him to receive instead the 
faith of Christ. Tiridates, angry and 
obstinate, after putting his friend to 
various horrible tortures, cast him into 
a pit full of loathsome reptiles, where 
malefactors were thrown and left to die. 
Gregory was fed in the pit by a Christian 
woman, and remained there alive for 
several years, but the king s sister an 
nounced that lie must be brought back 
and restored to favour, as a condition of 



the cessation of the plagues. Gregory 
now publicly instructed the people and 
prepared them for baptism. He then 
told them of a vision he had seen of 
Christ appearing from heaven and of 
three pedestals, each surmounted by a 
cross of light. Whereupon they built 
three churches, one at the spot where 
St. Eipsima was murdered, one on the 
site of the martyrdom of Gaiana, and 
the third on that where the thirty-three 
nuns were massacred. The place was 
called Etchmiadzin, tlie descent of tlie 
Only Begotten ; the Turkish name of the 
place is Utch-Kilise, the three churches ; 
on that spot was Gregory s cathedral 
church when he was made first patriarch 
of Armenia. Thus Armenia became 
the first Christian nation, several years 
before the Eoman empire adopted the 
true faith. 

R.M. Neale, Holy Eastern Church. 
Kev. L. Davidson, " St. Gregory the 
Illuminator," in Smith and Wace, Diet, 
of Christian Biography. 
St. Risparia, RIPAKIA. 
St. Ristha, Nov. 1, M. at Terracina, 
end of 1st century, with seven other 
women and seven men. AA.SS. 

St. Rita or KITTA, May 22, of the 
Order of Hermits of St. Augustine, -f 
1443 or 1456. Patron of the town of 
Cascia, and against small-pox, on account 
of a wound in her forehead. 

Represented holding roses and figs, 
sometimes holding three crowns and a 
palm, but this is supposed to be a 

She was born at Rocca-Porena, in the 
diocese of Spoleto. Her parents were a 
very pious old couple, given to good 
works and distinguished particularly by 
the spirit of concord, so that they were 
called the peace-makers of Jesus Christ. 
They had lived to a great age without 
children, when God rewarded their vir 
tues by the gift of a daughter, who was 
to be famous throughout the world for 
her sanctity and miracles. An angel 
appeared to the good old woman and 
bade her be of good courage for her 
daughter would be acceptable to God. 
She was delivered without pain, and 
while they doubted what name they 
should give the child, they were in 

structed in a vision to call her Rita, 
which is a contraction of Margaret, and 
accordingly she was baptized by that 
name. As she lay in her cradle, swarms 
of white bees were seen to go in and 
out of her mouth. She was brought up 
very carefully and married young to a 
man who proved to be extremely cruel 
and ill-tempered ; but Rita influenced 
him so well that his disposition changed 
and he became kind and gentle. They 
lived for twenty years without quarrel 
ling, to the admiration of all their neigh 
bours. Although so gentle to his wife, 
his temper made him some enemies, by 
whom he was murdered. She was not 
more afflicted by his death than by the 
intention of her twin sous to take ven 
geance on his murderers. As she could 
not induce them to give up the project, 
she prayed that God would take their 
lives rather than suffer them to stain 
their hands with blood. Her prayer 
was answered: they died, and their 
death was accepted by God as a sacrifice 
from Rita. Being now free from all 
domestic ties, she applied for admission 
to the Augustinian convent of St. Mary 
Magdalene at Cascia. The abbess re 
fused to receive her, but after three 
refusals, Rita was miraculously conveyed 
into the convent in the night, by St. John 
the Baptist, St. Nicholas of Tolentino, 
and St. Augustine. The nuns convinced 
that this interference was from heaven, 
gladly welcomed the new sister, and 
from this time her life was marked by 
wonderful devotion and mortification ; 
her prayers were efficacious for healing 
the sick and procuring other graces and 
blessings. Once as she was praying 
before a crucifix, she entreated that 
she might feel the pain of one of the 
thorns that pierced the head of Christ. 
Her prayer was granted. The thorn 
pierced her forehead, and left a deep 
wound and a horrible sore for the rest 
of her life ; it was only healed for a 
short time, to enable her to go to 
Rome in the jubilee year. As several 
nuns of her convent were going, she 
besought the abbess to allow her to go 
with them. She answered that she 
could not let Rita go until that sore 
was healed. She put on some ointment 



and it healed immediately, so that she 
fulfilled her pious wish, and on her 
return to Cascia, the wound again be 
came distressing to her neighbours and 
delightful to herself. Once, when she 
lay very ill, in mid-winter, one of her 
loving friends said to her, " Is there 
anything you would like?" "Yes," 
answered Eita, "bring me some roses 
and figs from your garden." The friend 
thought she was wandering in her mind 
from weakness, but went to the garden 
to see what she could bring, and there 
indeed she found amid the snow, one 
beautiful rose and two exquisite ripe 
figs, and brought them to Rita. At 
her death all the bells in the town 
rang without human agency. She was 
beatified by Urban VIII., and was 
canonized in May 1900. 

R.M. Lessons for her day, in the 
Breviary of the Order of St. Augustine. 
AA.SS. The Tablet, May 26, 1900. 

St. Ritta, EITA. 

B. Ritza, Aug. 30, V. Supposed 
10th or llth century. Nothing is known 
of her life. She is buried in the church 
of St. Castor, at Coblentz, where her 
festival used to be kept every year ; but 
notwithstanding hei* numerous miracles, 
her worship, which can be traced to 
the twelfth century, is now somewhat 
neglected. AA.SS. Stadler. 

St. Rivanona, 6th century. Mother 
of St. Herve of Bretagne, who was born 
blind. Hyvarnion, a disciple of St. 
Kadoc, was one of the bards who sat at 
the table of Chilperic, king of the 
Franks (probably 513-517). Wander 
ing through Bretagne, Hyvarnion saw 
a beautiful girl, with a complexion of 
dazzling pink and white, sitting by an 
enchanted fountain, gathering herbs to 
make cures for the ills of life. Having 
already seen her in a vision, he knew 
she was Eivanona, his destined wife. He 
asked what herbs she was gathering, 
and she told him she was looking for 
three more precious than all others - 
Vervain, which is good for a sad heart 
because it sprang at the foot of the cross 
of Christ ; Selage, which will cure blind 
ness because it derives its light from 
the aureoles of the saints and none but 
a saint can find it ; and the Flower of 

Life, which will cure death if you can 
find it. When Eivanona died, a ladder 
of light was seen above her oratory, and 
angels were heard singing up and down 
the ladder. Villemarque, Legcnde 
celtique. (See CHRISTINA (5).) 
St. Rivocata, EEVOCATA. 


EYXA, May 21, queen of Poland, -f- 
1063. Eldest of the seven daughters of 
Herenfried or Ezo, count palatine of the 
Ehine, and his wife, B. MATiLDA,daughter 
of the Emperor Otho II. The marriage 
of her parents had been arranged under 
peculiar and romantic circumstances, 
and her own history was no less out of 
the common. Dlugosch relates that in 
1001 Otto III. was very ill, and hearing 
the fame of the miracles of St. Adalbert, 
archbishop of Gnesen, he vowed that if 
that saint would cure him, he would 
visit his tomb. He recovered and sot 
out for Guesen, intending at the same 
time to pay a visit to Boleslaus, duke of 
Poland, who had redeemed for its weight 
in gold, the body of Sfc. Adalbert from 
his murderers, the heathen Prussians. 
Boleslaus gave the Emperor a magnifi 
cent reception at Posnania, and as Otto s 
vow obliged him to go on foot to Gnesen, 
seven miles, Boleslaus had the whole of 
the road laid with cloth of various 
colours, so that the Emperor and his 
retinue should not step on the ground. 
Boleslaus walked with him and had a 
grand gathering of bishops, nobles, 
and great ladies, magnificently dressed 
and blazing with jewels, to receive them 
in Gnesen. Thus Otto went to the holy 
tomb and returned thanks for his re 
covery. Boleslaus took care to entertain 
him and all his attendants sumptuously 
and hospitably during every day of their 
stay, and presented them with cups of 
gold and silver, hawks, horses, furs, 
jewels, and purple vestments. Otto was 
astonished at the grandeur of this sove 
reign of a people who but yesterday were 
heathen savages ; he was like the Queen 
of Sheba when she beheld the grandeur of 
Solomon. He desired to give the duke 
some reward, and pay him some compli 
ment worthy of such a splendid and hos 
pitable reception, so he ordered him to be 



anointed King. Otto sat on his horse 
that all the people might see him, and 
with his own hands he placed the crown 
on the head of Boleslatis. On the same 
day he gave his niece Bixa for a wife to 
Mieczslaw, the son of Boleslaus. He also 
gave the new-made king a nail of the 
cross of Christ, and the lance of St. 
Maurice of the Theban legion, in order 
that he might vanquish all barbarians. 
Boleslaus, in exchange, gave Otto an 
arm of St. Adalbert. As the emperor 
was returning to Magdeburg, Boleslaus 
escorted him to the frontier, and sent a 
company of his chief men to fetch 
Princess Rixa and to carry rich gifts 
to her parents, the count and countess 

The infant bride lived in Poland with 
her mother-in-law, Queen Judith of 
Hungary, for twelve years, until, in 
1013, she was given to her husband, 
Mieczslaw, who succeeded to the throne 
in 1025. He was very far below his father 
in energy and ability. Dlugosch says 
he was lazy and gluttonous and was 
ruled by women and that the Poles de 
spised him, and many of the newly 
annexed provinces threw off the Polish 
rule. The clergy, however, spoke well 
of him, as he encouraged the spread of 
Christianity. The Gospel was preached 
in Poland in his time in three languages, 
Latin, Greek, and Polish. Wolski says 
he was ruled entirely by his German 
wife, and her influence was prejudicial 
to Poland. He went mad at fifty, and 
Kixa was Kegent during his madness. 
He died in 1034. Half the people 
elected his son Chatimir or Casimir, 
who was twenty years old. The 
coronation was deferred because many 
feared that he would inherit his father s 
madness. Kixa gave offence by increas 
ing the taxes and by trying to ameliorate 
the condition of the lower classes, and 
still more by mistrusting the Poles, 
appointing Germans to all the principal 
offices, and taking Germans for her 
advisers. After a time of great diffi 
culty and anxiety, the nobles deposed her 
and she had to fly from the country with 
her son, and take refuge at the Court of 
her kinsman, the Emperor Conrad IT. 
(Dlugosch, History of Poland.) 

The Life of Kixa, by a monk of Brau- 
willer, says that she was divorced from 
her husband through the intrigues of 
one of his mistresses, and at that time 
fled in disguise, with a very small re 
tinue, to Saxony, to Conrad, taking with 
her the two crowns, her husband s and 
her own. This was a very important gift, 
as the possession of the kingdom was 
always supposed to go with that of 
the crown. Conrad therefore invaded 
Poland, took Mieczslaw prisoner, and 
laid the whole country under tribute. 
When, in 1034, she fled for the second 
time, Conrad was still reigning and she 
gave him the two crowns. 

Casimir studied for two years in Paris, 
and then became a monk at Cluny 
(Wolski says at Liege). 

When the queen and the young king 
were gone, the Poles fell to fighting 
among themselves. The people rose 
against the nobles, the serfs against their 
lords, the laymen against the clergy; 
the towns and churches lay in ruins, 
the fields were untilled, bands of robbers 
infested the country, famine and bri 
gandage were rife. Yaroslav, duke of 
Kussia, attacked Poland, carrying away 
great spoil and many captives. Then 
the Poles knew that anarchy was the 
worst of all conditions. They sent to 
various countries in search of their pro 
scribed king. For a long time his mother 
would not reveal to the messengers the 
place of his retreat. She thought he 
would be happier in a peaceful and 
law-abiding country than on the stormy 
throne of Poland. When at last the 
messengers found him, in 1041, ho 
refused to leave the peaceful cloister 
where he had lived for five years. He 
had renounced the world and was not 
only a Cluniac monk, but also a deacon 
and was intending soon to be ordained a 

The Emperor also, who, before he be 
came a monk, had advised him to be 
content with the rich inheritance of his 
mother and uncles and not to tempt the 
uncertain fortune that awaited him in 
Poland, approved of his remaining in 
the monastery. The abbot, however, 
and Rixa, were both moved to compas 
sion ut the miserable state of Poland, and 



persuaded him to return. Pope Bene 
dict IX. approved of the step, and ab 
solved him from his monastic and clerical 
vows. Casimir kissed every one of the 
monks and begged them all to pray for 
him and his kingdom. He went back to 
Poland, and was set on the throne in his 
habit and cowl. The courtiers shaved 
their heads in compliment to him ; and 
the shaven crown came to be the height 
of fashion and sign of nobility. He drove 
out the Pomeranians, Prussians, and all 
heathen invaders. He married Mary 
Dobrogneva, a good and pious woman, 
daughter of St. Vladimir sister of Yaro- 
slav, grand-prince of Russia, and perhaps 
grand-aunt of ST. MARGARET of Scotland. 
(See ST. ANNA (14).) Casimir was sur- 
named the Pacific. He died in 1058, 
and was succeeded by his son Boles- 
laus II. 

Meantime, Rixa seems to have found 
her chief solace in a religious life and 
in the society of her brother. She 
declined to return with her son, but gave 
him all the jewels that ought to belong 
to him, and begged the Emperor 
Henry III. to restore to him the crowns 
which she had given into the keeping of 
his father Conrad II.; and he did so. 
Eixa nearly died of grief for the death 
of her brother Ofcto, count palatine, and 
duke of Suabia, which occurred in the 
same year as her son s restoration. She 
offered all her jewels and golden orna 
ments on the altar, and took the veil 
from the hands of Bruno, bishop of Toul, 
afterwards Pope Leo IX., and she charged 
all her friends and dependents to bury 
her beside her brother. Her remaining 
brother Herman, archbishop of Cologne, 
died in 1056, and was succeeded by Anno. 

Rixa gave immense estates to the 
Church, subject to- her use of them 
during her life. The monastery of 
Brau wilier, founded by her parents, was 
completed in 1061, and endowed by her 
with the lands of Clotten and other great 
estates. She built another monastery 
near Wurtzburg, on the spot consecrated 
by the martyrdom of St. Kilian and his 
companions, and at the same time she 
gave the lands of Soltz in Henneberg, 
to the bishop of Wurtzburg. 

She died at Salevelt and was buried, 

according to her wish, in the church of 
St. Mary ad Gradus, at Cologne. She 
was represented on her tomb by the 
side of her brother, the archbishop, both 
wearing halos like saints, and in one of 
the windows of the church she is pic 
tured between two of its tutelary saints, 
her uncle Anno and Agilulph, and is 
called in the inscription, Sancta Richeza, 
and her body is exhibited for veneration 
on certain great festivals. 

Ferrarius, Molanus and Cratepol call 
her Saint, but the Bollandists do not. 
No miracles are recorded of her. 

Besides her son Casimir, Eixa had a 
son Boleslaus, who died in childhood, 
and two daughters, one of whom, Rixa, 
married Bela, brother of Andrew I. of 
Hungary, and was the mother of St. 
Ladislaus, king of Hungary. 

Palacky, Gesch.vonBohmen. Karamsin. 
Hist, de Eussie. Salvandy, Hist, de 
Pologne. Dunham, Hist, of Poland. An 
account by a monk of Brauwiller, in 
Leibnitz Scriptores. Kalixt Wolski, 
Poland, her Glories, etc. 

St. Roa or AROA, July 5, M. at 
Cyrene, in Libya. (See CYPRILLA.) 

St. Rodafia, RODALIA, RODAPIA, Ro- 


at Tomis. AA.SS. (See MERONA.) 

St. Rodena, Sept. 22, V. 1st cent. 
Honoured with SS. Silvanus and Silves 
ter, who were sent from Rome by St. 
Peter to preach in Gaul. Silvester died 
at Bethany, a short distance from Rome. 
Silvanus buried him, and being uncertain 
whether he ought to proceed alone on 
his mission, he returned to the blessed 
apostle for further instructions. St. 
Peter seeing how sad he was for the loss 
of his companion, gave him his pastoral 
staff, bidding him touch Silvester with 
it and tell him, in the name of Christ, to 
arise. This being done, the two mis 
sionaries went on their way. One night 
they came to a house where they were 
kindly received by a heathen and enter 
tained for the night. The man had a 
daughter Rodena, betrothed to a young 
nobleman called Corusculus. When she 
heard that her guests were Christians, 
she was inspired with a wish to know 
more about them and their God. She 



went to them in the middle of the night 
and told them to get up and baptize her. 
They said they could not well do it 
there, but they were on their way to 
Gabatum (now Levroux), where she could 
be baptized. One day when they were 
preaching there, Eodena came and was 
baptized, and immediately began preach 
ing with them. A short time afterwards, 
Corusculus discovered where she was, 
and came with forty-four soldiers to 
bring her back. When she heard it she 
took out her scissors and cut off her 
nose, lips and ears, and thus adorned, 
went to meet her fiance. Silvanus in 
presence of Corusculus, put on the nose 
and lips, and left no scar or wound. 
Corusculus was not converted, but he 
and his men mounted their horses 
and went away. When they had gone 
about a mile, their horses began to sink 
into the ground although it was quite 
dry. The men themselves lost the use 
of their feet ; so they turned back, and 
crawling on their elbows and knees, 
humbly begged for baptism and forgive 
ness. A great many people were con 
verted by this miracle. Silvanus and 
Silvester built a church in honour of 
God and St. Peter, and there they wrought 
wonderful cures and taught the people. 
At last Silvanus found he was dying. 
Silvester and Rodena lamented and 
begged him not to leave them. He 
answered, "Do not mourn; you will 
not long be left without me." Two 
hours after his death they also died. 

St. Rodesia, EODAFIA. 

St. Rodilia, June 2. One of two 
hundred and twenty-seven Roman 
martyrs, commemorated together in the 
Martyrology of St. Jerome. AA.SS. 

St. Rodinia, RODAFIA. 

St. Rodofia, RODOLIA, RODOPIA, or 

St. Rodrue, ROTKUDE. 

St. Rogata ( J ), June 2. One of the 
Martyrs of Lyons who, being a Roman 
citizen, was beheaded instead of being 
thrown to the wild beasts of the amphi 
theatre. (See BLANDINA.) AA.SS. 

SS. Rogata. Eleven MM. in sun 
dry places are remembered on different 


St. Rogatiana (1), March 1, M. at 
Nicomedia, with many others. AAJSS. 
(See ANTIGA.) 

St. Rogatiana (2), June 1, M. with 

St. Rogatilla, Feb. 24, M. with a 
great number of Christians at Nicomedia, 
in Bithynia. AA.SS. 

St. Rogatina, May 10, M. at Tarsus, 
in Cilicia. AA.SS. 

St. Roisia, ROYES. 

or DOLENDIS, May 13, V. 7th or 8th cen 
tury. Patron against colic and gravel. 
Daughter of Desiderius, a king or chief 
of the Gauls, supposed by some writers 
to be a king of the Lombards defeated 
and deposed by Charlemagne. An illus 
trious warrior, son of a king of the 
Scots, having heard of the beauty, 
wisdom and piety of this princess, sent 
to offer himself to Desiderius as a son- 
in-law. Desiderius was willing to accept 
the alliance, but Rolendis preferred to 
join herself to the eleven thousand 
Virgins of Cologne, to whom she had a 
special devotion, and set out on a pil 
grimage to the place of their martyrdom, 
poorly dressed and accompanied only by 
three maids and two men-servants. They 
tried to persuade her to rest at Gerpina, 
near Namur, on her way, but such was 
her anxiety to arrive at Cologne that she 
pursued her journey too hurriedly, fell 
ill by the way, and died at a place called 
Villiers La Potterie, after eight days 
illness, in the house of a peasant who 
received the pilgrims hospitably. An 
other tradition says she was taken ill at 
Villiers and lodged there with a peasant, 
but that she went on and- died at Ger 
pina, a village on a stream flowing into 
the Sambre. Others say she died at 
Fosse. She is specially honoured at 
Gerpina, which claims to be her burial 
place, and where her sanctity was at 
tested by many miracles. AA.SS. 
St. Rollande or Rolleinde, Ro- 


St. Romana 0) or ROMAINE, March 
13, V. Martin. 

St. Romana (2), May 10, M. in 
Africa. AA.S8. 

St. Romana (3), April 6, M. at 
Nicomedia, in Bithynia. AAJ38. 




St. Romana (4), April 6, M. at 
Sirmium, in Pannonia. AA.SS. 

St. Romana (5), June 1, M. with 

SS. Romana (6) and Varula, Nov. 
18, MM. 291, at Antioch, under Dio 
cletian. Adam King. 

St. Romana (7) of Beauvais, Oct. 3, 
V. M. in the time of Diocletian. One of 
twelve holy virgins who left Eome to 
teach Christianity in Gaul. Two of them, 
SS. BENEDICTA (7) and LEOBEKIA went to 
Laon, in the diocese of Soissons, and 
Eomana went to Beauvais, where her 
piety pointed her out to the persecutors 
of the faith and she was martyred with 
a sword. AA.SS. from an anonymous 
MS. found in the Abbey of St. Quentin 
at Beauvais. Baillet supposes her to be 
either a duplicate of St. Benedicta of 
Origny or a companion real or imag 
inary of her mission and martyrdom. 
He thinks both stories are borrowed from 
that of ST. SATURNINA. 

St. Romana (8) or CALPURNIA (2) 
of Todi, Feb. 23, V., + c. 324. As a 
child she was instructed in the Christian 
faith unknown to her parents. She went 
to Mount Soracte to look for the Pope 
and was baptized by him. She then 
lived alone in a cave, where two priests 
found her and saw a white dove flying 
round her head while she prayed. She 
died at the age of eleven or twelve. Just 
before her death, her parents discovered 
the place of her retreat, and on hearing 
her story, they were converted. In 1301, 
she was translated into the church of St. 
Fortunatus, where she lies in a marble 
tomb. EM. AA.SS. 

St. Romana (9), an abbess or 
deaconness in Antioch, deputed by St. 
Nonnus, bishop, to instruct ST. PELAGIA 
(9) in the Christian religion, on her 
forsaking her sins. Leyende Doree. 

SS.Romula,EEDEMpTAand Hirundo 
or HEUUNDINES, VV., July 23. 6th cen 
tury. At the time when St. Gregory 
the Great retired from the world and 
became a monk, there was at Borne a 
very old woman named REDEMPTA, who 
lived as a recluse in a hermitage built 
against the church of the Blessed Virgin, 
believed to be that of Santa Maria 
Maggiore. She wore the religious habit 

and practised the piety in which she had 
been educated by another holy virgin 
named Hirundo, who had led a solitary 
life on the mountains near Palestrina. 
Bedempta took two companions to share 
her retreat and her prayers ; one of them 
was BOMULA ; St. Gregory did not know 
the name of the other, although he had 
often seen her and she was still alive 
when he wrote. Bomula attained to 
greater perfection than her friends, but 
it pleased God to afflict her with paraly 
sis. Once in the middle of the night 
she called Kedempta and her other 
companion. When they went to her 
they found her room filled with a bright 
light and a sweet odour, and they heard 
a noise as of a number of people going 
into the room. Komula reassured Be- 
dempta, who was frightened, and told 
her she was not going to die yet. The 
fourth night after this, she called them 
again and begged them to procure for 
her the holy viaticum. Immediately 
afterwards, she died, and they heard the 
heavenly choirs singing to welcome her 
to heaven. AA.SS. and Baillet, from 
St. Gregory the Great. 

St. Rosalie of Palermo, Sept. 4, 
July 15 (BOSOLEE, EOSOLINE), -f- c. 1160. 
Patron of Nice, Palermo, Sicily, and 
against pestilence. 

Eepresented in a cave conversing with 
angels and expelling devils ; cutting an 
inscription on a rock; presenting roses 
to an angel ; receiving roses from angels ; 
conducted by angels from one retreat to 
another ; praying in a cave ; carrying a 
branch bearing roses ; crowned by the 
Infant Christ; crowned with roses; 
carrying a double cross. 

She was descended from Charlemagne, 
and was the daughter of Sinibaldo, lord 
of Quisquina, and Eosas, who belonged 
to a branch of the ancient and powerful 
family of the Counts of Marsi. On her 
mother s side, Eosalie was related to 
Eoger, king of Sicily, and was for some 
time in attendance on his queen, Mar 
garet of Navarre. At the Court of 
Palermo, Eosalie was disgusted with the 
pomps and vanity and the wickedness 
and worldliness which surrounded her. 
The king and queen disapproved of her 
silence and love of retirement. She 



withdrew from the Court and from the 
world, and led the life of a hermit on 
Monte Pellogrino, about three miles 
from Palermo. The place of her retreat 
was not discovered for centuries, but in 
the year of the Jubilee, 1025, her body 
was found in perfect preservation, with 
a crown of roses placed on her head by 
angels. An inscription cut by herself 
in the rock, was as follows 

" Ego Rosalia Sinibaldi QuisquinaB et 
Rosariini Domini filia. amore Domini 
inei Jesu Christi ini hoc antro habitare 

She was translated into the principal 
church of Palermo. A grievous pesti 
lence was raging in that city, and ST. 
CHRISTINA, its patron, had been appealed 
to in vain to stop it, but as prayers were 
now addressed to Rosalie, it ceased. In 
the following year, Rosalie was canonized 
by Urban VIII., and superseded Christina 
as chief patron of Palermo. 

Her festival, which is kept in the 
middle of summer, lasts for four days 
and is very picturesque ; thousands of 
people ascend Mount Pellegrino to visit 
the grotto; a great car, carrying her 
statue, is drawn through the town by 
sometimes as many as fifty oxen and is 
so tall that it has been known to carry 
away balconies from the upper windows 
of the streets through which it passes; 
the wheels sometimes stick, as the weight 
is immense. Fireworks, illuminations, 
and all sorts of amusements make these 
few days a very gay time. The shrine 
of the Saint is often enriched with costly 
gifts from her votaries. 

EM. Her Life by Felix de Lucio 
Espinossa y Malo. Mrs. Jameson. Hare, 
Southern lialtj. 

St. or B. Rosamond (1) or ROSE- 
MUNDA, April :. Wife of John de Vernon. 
They lived at Vernon on the Seine, in 
the diocese of Rouen ; both were emi 
nently pious and good. They had a son 
St. Adjutor, who was a soldier and went 
to the crusades in 1095. He was taken 
prisoner by the Saracens, but was mira 
culously released and brought home by 
St. Bernard, whom he had known in the 
body, but who was then a saint in heaven : 
ST. MARY MAGDALENE assisted in the 
rescue. Adjutor became a hermit. After 

her husband s death and her son s return 
from the crusade, Rosamond became a 
nun at Tyro in Pertois. She was buried 
in the family chapel of St. Mary Magda 
lene at Vernon, beside her son who died 
in 1131, and she is worshipped with him. 
Saussaye says she has no day and is 
remembered on her son s festival, April 
30 ; German folk-lore, however, makes 
April 3 her day. She is mentioned in 
the Life of St. Adjutor, but does not 
seem to have any authorized worship. 
AA.SS., April 30. Gynecseum. Saussaye. 
Swainson, Weather Folk-lore. 

Rosamond (2), 12th century. The 
mistress of Henry II. of England, com 
monly called " Fair Rosamond," was 
canonized by the ecclesiastics of the 
district where she lived, on account of a 
gift to a monastery ; but as her morality 
was not equal to her generosity, her body 
was cast out of the church by St. Hugh, 
bishop of Lincoln, and to honour her as 
a saint was forbidden. Baillet. 

St. Rosana, HUMILITY. 

St. Rosceline, ROSSELINE, 

St. Rose (1) of Sardinia, Sept. 1, in 
the time of Trajan or Hadrian. Patron 
of Sassari in Sardinia. She was mother 
of St. Antiochus, and perhaps of St. 
Platanus, with whom she is honoured. 
AA.SS. Stadler. 

St. Rose (2), Feb. 21, VARDA. 

B. Rose (3), one of the nine sisters 

St. Rose (4), Dec. 13, 13th century. 
Nun at Chelles and first abbess of Ville 
Chasson in Gatinois. Stadler. 

St. Rose (5) of Viterbo, Sept. 4, 7, 
11, March G, 8, V. O.S.F., + 1252. 
She shares with St. Louis of Toulouse 
and ST. ELISABETH (11) the patronage of 
the third O.S.F. 

Represented in the Franciscan habit, 
holding a rose. 

Viterbo, in 1234, when she was born 
there, was a flourishing town on the 
road from Siena to Rome, and was often 
the residence of the Pope. Her parents, 
John and Catherine, were certainly not 
rich. From her earliest years, she 
strove to follow the example of the Lord 
Jesus in His humility, poverty, self- 
denial, His kindness and charity, His 
obedience to His parents, and as far as 



she conld understand His life to follow 
in His steps, in every respect. This 
virtue was after many years rewarded by 
the power of conferring miraculous 
benefits and by the gift of prophecy. 
She joined the Third Order of St. 
Francis, and preached in the public 
places of the town. In the night she 
walked through the streets, singing holy 
hymns. Never had that generation seen 
or heard of so young a girl showing such 
earnestness and devotion, such complete 
abnegation of self. Acting entirely for 
the service of God, asking nothing and 
fearing nothing of the world, she acquired 
a wonderful influence over her fellow- 
citizens. Viterbo took for a time the 
side of Frederick II. in his quarrels with 
the Pope, but she persuaded the people 
to go over to the party of the Church. 
At the same time she got them to give 
up many irregularities and crimes which 
were common amongst them, and to be 
more moral and orderly. Such reforms 
were not universally welcome. The 
governor banished her and her parents. 
They went to Sorano, and there Eose 
soon converted the inhabitants. She 
preached and taught in other places with 
similar results. At Vitorchiano, in par 
ticular, where the people were under the 
baleful influence of a sorceress, she 
emphasized her teaching by speaking 
from a burning pile in the middle of the 
public piazza. The flames made a 
hollow shrine round her as if she had 
been standing between swelling sails, 
swelling, however, in opposite directions 
and leaving her safe between them. She 
went from Vitorchiano, into the neigh 
bouring country, labouring to convert 
sinners and to comfort the poor and the 
sick, and to heal diseases. After the 
death of Frederick II., which she had 
foretold, she was brought back in 
triumph to Viterbo. Being refused 
admittance to the Franciscan nunnery 
there, she spent her life in a hut adjoin 
ing it. 

She died March 6, 1252, and was at 
once honoured and invoked as a Saint. 
On September 4, 1258, Pope Alexander 
IV. had her translated into the church 
of St. Damian, which very soon 
came to be called the church of 

St. Rose. At the same time he com 
manded that her memory should be 
honoured yearly on that day and on the 
anniversary of her death. Succeeding 
Popes approved of the veneration paid 
to her, and Calixtus IV., in 1457, after 
renewed investigation of her life and 
miracles, accomplished her solemn 
canonization. One author says she is still 
shown in the church in perfect preserva 
tion, her face looking as if the five and a 
half centuries that have passed since her 
death had been but so many hours. 

The Roman Martyrology, the Mar- 
tyrologies of the Camaldolese, Vallom- 
brosians, Cistercians and Franciscans 
mark her festival as September 4. The 
Jeronomites commemorate her on March 
6 ; the Dominicans on March 7 ; the 
Hermits of St. Augustine on September 

AA.SS. Butler. Mrs. Jameson. The 
Tablet, Oct. 13, 1900. 

St. Rose (6) of Lima, Aug. 26, 30, 
3rd. O.S.D., 1586-1617, ROSA DI SANTA 
called by Clement IX. the "First 
Flower of Holiness in Western India." 

Patron of Lima, Callao, Peru, South 
America, and the Dominicans. 

Represented : (1) in a cavern or 
grotto, in a grey gown, holding a lily, 
wearing a wreath of roses, nails showing 
amongst the flowers ; (2) with an 
anchor as patron of Callao, the seaport 
of Lima ; (3) holding up on an anchor 
having four points, a walled town sur 
rounded by sea, in allusion to the earth 
quake of 1746; (4) with a cock; (5) 
grouped with four men, canonized by 
Clement X. in 1671, on the same day as 
herself, namely, SS. Francis Borgia, 
Louis Bertrand, Philip Benizzi, and 

Rose was daughter of Gasparo Flores 
and Maria de Oliva, both of whom were 
of good Spanish descent but poor. 
Almost from her infancy she was 
remarkable for an extreme fear of doing 
wrong, for great courage and patience 
in bearing pain, and for an extraordinary 
love of self torture. She was hardly 
weaned when she surrounded herself 
with thorns. When she was only three 
years old, a heavy lid of a box fell upon 



her finger ; she uttered not a cry of pain 
and she dissembled her suffering so well 
that no one knew she was hurt until the 
finger became so sore that surgical treat 
ment, both with knife and fire, was 
necessary ; this also she bore with 
unchanging countenance and in brave 
silence, her hand remaining disfigured 
for life. In the matter of food she 
began her mortifications at a very early 
age, always refusing to eat fruit, although 
she had the same natural taste for it as 
other children. Three days in the week 
she lived on bread and water. At five 
years old she took ST. CATHERINE OF 
SIENA for her pattern ; made a vow of 
perpetual virginity and cut off all her 
hair to consecrate herself to her divine 
Master. She was christened Isabel, but 
her mother soon called her Eose, either 
on account of her bright colour or, 
according to a legend, because a rose 
appeared over her cradle as she slept, 
and miraculously disappeared. As she 
had scruples about being called by a 
different name from that she received in 
her baptism, she applied to the B. V. 
MARY to have her doubts resolved. Rose 
believed that the Virgin answered that 
the name of Eose was particularly 
pleasing to her divine Son, but that she 
should add to it that of His mother and 
call herself Eose of Saint Mary. 

She was scrupulously obedient to her 
parents. Once her mother, who was 
always severe to her, insisted on her 
wearing a wreath of flowers, and she, with 
her plan of perpetual self-torture, wore 
the wreath but pinned it into her head 
with a large strong needle. To please 
her mother, she one night wore gloves 
to make her hands soft, but feeling the 
skin burning, she pulled the gloves off 
and saw flames and sparks on her hands ; 
next morning she showed the marks of 
burning to her mother, who then per 
ceived that she must not bring this child 
up for the vanities of the world. Once 
a neighbour admired the whiteness and 
delicacy of Eose s hands, and she, think 
ing she had sinned in hearing any 
praise of herself and fearing a tempta 
tion to vanity, rushed to some quicklime 
and burned her hands in it until they 
were so ulcerated that she was unable to 

use them for thirty days. She made a 
vow never to taste animal food unless 
expressly commanded by her parents to 
do so. When compelled by excessive 
pains in her sides to which she was sub 
ject, to take soup, she put cinders in it, 
which made her mouth sore and pre 
vented her having any sensuous pleasure 
in this necessary indulgence. On Fridays 
she ate gall with her bread, and that 
only in the evening. These fasts, says the 
Leggendario, did not reduce or disfigure 
her, but she grew fatter and fairer. 
For some time, her habit was to pray 
for twelve hours, during which she 
was obliged to resort to most extraordi 
nary methods to keep herself awake, 
hanging herself up by the hair, so that 
only the tips of her toes rested on the 
ground ; or tying her hands to a cross. 
She worked for her family ten hours and 
slept only two hours, and that upon a 
bed as uncomfortable as stones, bricks 
and thorns could make it. From that 
place of rest, she affirmed that the Virgin 
Mary used to shake her when it was time 
to recommence her prayers. Sometimes 
the Infant Christ appeared to her and 
filled her with such great delight that 
she fainted. She was advised by her 
confessor to take the veil ; she did not 
wish it, but in deference to his advice, 
she went to a convent where the nuns 
prepared with great joy to receive her, 
but she had no sooner entered the Chapel 
of the Madonna del Eosario than she 
found herself rooted to the spot and 
unable to move. She understood that 
she was not to become a nun and resolved, 
in imitation of Catherine of Siena, to 
lead a life of religious retirement in the 
midst of the world, and to take the habit 
of the Third Order of St. Dominic. No 
sooner had she so decided than she found 
herself able to leave the church. As an 
exercise of humility and an opportunity 
of suffering, she submitted to the rudest 
ill-usage from a native servant, often 
throwing herself at her feet and refusing 
to rise from the ground until consoled 
with blows and kicks from the Indian. 

She frequently said if she had been a 
man she would have been a missionary, 
and often exhorted others to go and 
preach Christianity to the Indians, and 



she shed tears when she looked on the 
vast mountains of her country and thought 
of the thousands of unconverted inhabi 
tants whose souls must be lost. She was 
most anxious to suffer martyrdom for 
Christ, her spiritual Husband, and once 
she thought she was about to have this 
ambition satisfied when the Dutch fleet 
approached Lima, in 1615. She placed 
herself in front of the altar, hoping to 
be put to death in defence of the holy 
sacrament, by these heretic Protestants 
who, however, much to her disappoint 
ment, did not even land at Lima. 

When Rose was about thirty, her 
family, who had never been rich, were 
reduced to poverty and wished that she 
would marry, that they might see her 
provided for. They were very angry at 
her refusal. She said she would go out 
as a servant, and that would do as well. 
Their neighbours Don Gonzalez de la 
Massa and his wife, begged her parents 
to let her live with them ; they esteemed 
it a privilege to have her in their house. 
She spent the last three years of her life 
with them. She worked with great as 
siduity for them, both with the spade 
and with her needle. 

She had a crown made of metal with 
three rows of sharp teeth, and with two 
strings, by pulling which she could make 
the teeth run further into her head and 
cause acute pain and effusion of blood ; 
she found it an effectual cure for the 
wicked thoughts with which the devil 
tried to tempt her, sometimes in the form 
of a man and sometimes of a horrible 
monster. This crown was afterwards 
exchanged for a plate of silver about 
two inches broad, concealed in her hair 
and furnished with sharp teeth. Her 
confessor advised her to leave it off, but 
she persuaded him that her wickedness 
required this check. She suffered severe 
pain in her hands and feet from gout, 
and was subject to asthma and inflam 
mation of the throat. For some years 
she was paralysed, and from poverty of 
blood she had other ailments ; but the 
suffering of all these bodily complaints 
and their treatment was not to compare 
with another affliction she had to endure. 
She said it was a spiritual blindness and 
an indescribable torment that oppressed 

her for one hour every day for fifteen 
years. She could give no more intel 
ligible account of it than that it resem 
bled the pains of hell. She used to have 
visions of the Saviour, and in one of 
these, while she was suffering from the 
inflamed throat to which she was subject, 
He came and played a game with her. 
She won, and asked, as the meed of 
victory, to be delivered from this daily 
torment. She was cured. Soon after 
wards they played again. She lost the 
game and had to forfeit her immunity, 
and the same suffering returned upon 

Rose had a pet chicken which grew to 
be a splendid cock as to plumage, but it 
was a large, useless creature, and would 
not crow, and at last her mother con 
demned it to be killed and roasted. Rose 
was very sorry and said to her pet, 
"Crow, and save your life." Immediately, 
he crowed loudly and seemed to awake 
to a sense of his importance. 

Although so willing to endure pain 
herself, she was sympathetic and com 
passionate to other suffering women, and 
used to collect them from all ranks, 
whether Spaniards, Indians, or negresses, 
free or slaves, who were tormented with 
loathsome diseases. She nursed them 
with the greatest kindness in her mother s 
house, and when she had no patients 
there she would go to the hospital and 
bestow her tender care on those whose 
cases might cause the usual attendants 
to turn away in disgust. She had a 
room built there for her as small as the 
one she had at home. Being espoused 
to Christ in a vision in presence of the 
Virgin Mary and angels, she had a ring 
made in memory of the vision and had it 
placed in the pix where the sacrament 
was kept ; this was on Maundy Thurs 
day, and on Easter Sunday the ring re 
turned to her finger without having been 
taken out of the tabernacle by mortal 

She used to perform some of her 
devotions in an arbour or grotto in her 
master s garden. No one else could have 
spent hours there, on account of the 
mosquitoes ; but Rose obtained complete 
immunity from their bites, and procured 
the same privilege for her mother, her 



master, his wife, and Sister Catherine de 
Santa Maria, like herself a member of 
the Third Order of St. Dominic. 

On her death-bed she suffered excessive 
pain, which she described as a burning 
cross inside her, and attributed to her 
earnest desire to share the sufferings of 
Christ. She broke a blood-vessel and 
prayed that Christ would accept this 
bloodshed and remember that she had 
always wished to shed her blood for His 
sake. She died in 1617 and was taken to 
the church of St. Dominic, where an im 
mense concourse of people flocked to see 
her, so that although the church was 
very large there was a dense crowd during 
the three days that she lay exposed there ; 
and such was the anxiety of the people 
to have pieces of her wreath that a guard 
of soldiers had to be placed round the 
bier, and finally the doors were locked 
and she was privately buried in the tomb 
of her family. 

All the religious inhabitants of her 
country and indeed all Christian America, 
immediately after her death, demanded 
her canonization. Measures were taken 
to procure it, but the proceedings were 
stopped by a decree forbidding new de 
votions, and she was not formally cano 
nized until 1761. 

KM. Aug. 26 and 30. AA.SS. Aug. 
26. Legyendario delle Santissime Veryini. 
Butler. Baillet. 

B. Rose (7) Govone, born, 1716, at 
Mondovi in Piedmont, + 1776. Founder 
of the Order of Rosines, still doing good 
work in Italy. An orphan with no means 
of livelihood, she managed to keep her 
self from want by sheer hard work. One 
day she met a girl of her own age, desti 
tute like herself, and giving way to 
despair. Full of sympathy, Rosa took 
her to her own poor dwelling and taught 
her to work for her living. Very soon 
they gathered around them other poor 
girls, whom they instructed and be 
friended until this interesting society 
became so numerous as to attract public 
attention, and as everybody approved of 
the good work, they gave her a house for 
her seventy girls in the plain of Brao ; 
and after a short time, enlarged the build 
ing so that Rose might establish a wool 
factory. She saw so well the need, even 

in the country, for saving girls from 
destitution and all its dangers, that she 
bethought her how much greater was the 
danger to poor girls in towns. So, 
leaving her first associate in charge of 
the establishment at Mondovi, she went 
to Turin in 1755, and started a humble 
branch there. King Charles Emmanuel 
III. heard of the good work and went to 
see it. He gave the workers the name 
of Hosine, and conferred on them a large 
building which had belonged to the 
Brothers of St. Jean-de-Dieu. Thus en 
couraged, Rose set off on foot to other 
towns, invited indigent girls to come and 
learn to live by the work of their hands, 
and founded houses at Novara Fossano, 
Savigliano, and several other places. 
The Government further encouraged the 
Society by ordering from them the cloth 
for the soldiers clothes; at the same 
time, the poorest bought from the 
Rosines the coarse woollen stuff for 
their humble garments. Rose died at 
Turin, Feb. 28, 1776. Her unostentatious 
work survives her. None die Biographic 

St. Rosebie, ROSEBE, or ROSEBIA, 
Nov. 20, V. M. Servant of MAXENTIA 
(2). St. Barbeus, an old man, was 
fellow servant of Rosebie, and put to 
death with her. Mart, of Salisbury. 

St. Roseline, ROSSELINE. 

Rosemunda, ROSAMOND. 

St. Rosette, a corruption of CEND- 


France. Saturday Review, March llth, 
1893, p. 261, "Blunders." 

St. Rosina, RUSINA. 


St. Rossana, HUMILITY. 

B. Rosseline de Villeneuve, 
June 11, Oct. 16 (ROSCELINE, and erro 
neously ROSELINE), c. 1263-1321) ; some 
times incorrectly placed a century earlier. 
Patron of Carthusian monks and of the 
Order of Malta. 

Represented in the dress of her Order : 

1) carrying two eyes in a reliquary; 

2) putting to flight a troop of Moham 
medans ; (3) carrying roses in her lap, 
being one of the many saints who were 
carrying bread to the poor, which turned 
into roses when some grudging master 
looked into the bundle ; it is sometimes 



said that she was christened Jeanne and 
called Roseline from this incident, but 
this seems a confusion with her aunt B. 
DIANA or JEANNE. The arms of Sabran 
sometimes appear in her pictures. 

The name Rosseline or Rossoline is 
common in Provence and is derived from 
Rufa, and those who spell it Roseline 
and make verses about -roses d propos of 
it are mistaken. 

She was the daughter of Armand do 
Villeneuve, baron des Ares ; her mother 
was Sibylla dc Sabran, cousin of St. 
Elzear and of his wife ST. DELPHINE. 
Her family for a time opposed her wish 
to be a nun, until Josselin, bishop of 
Orange, came to visit at the chateau des 
Ares, when she persuaded him to take 
her to the convent of St. Andre des 
Ramieres, between Orange and Vaison. 
Here she was entrusted with the care of 
the kitchen. She entered the Order of 
Chartreuses at thirteen but could only 
make her profession at sixteen and take 
the solemn vows at twenty-five. She 
was then consecrated deaconess, clothed 
with a stole like a deacon, and a crown 
was placed on her head. 

She made her profession at Bertauld, 
the chief Chartreux nunnery in Provence, 
and there she lived until her family 
built a monastery at Celle Roubaud (or 
Sobrives) near les Ares, where she was 
for a time under her aunt B. Jeanne, 
whom she succeeded as prioress in 
1300. A brief of Pope John XXII. 
is addressed to Rosselyne, which proves 
that she was head of that house in 

She died Jan. 17, 1329. Her first 
translation occurred June 11, 1334. 
Her brother B. Elzear, bishop of Digne 
(and in 13(30, of Marseilles), laid her 
body in a shrine near the altar and placed 
her eyes separately in a reliquary, where 
they retained for centuries the bright 
ness of life. A few years after her 
death, her brother Elie or Helion de 
Villeneuve, grand-master of the Knights 
of St. John of Jerusalem, being in great 
danger from a troop of Saracens, invoked 
her aid and straightway the enemy were 
smitten with panic and fled. 

She was never canonized but her wor 
ship and her miracles were persistent. 

There are some discrepancies in the 
accounts of her life. 

AA.SS. Helyot. Cahier. Madame 
d Oppede, Vie de Stc. Delpltine. Oet- 
tinger says that Rosseline s life was 
written by P. J. de Haitze, and published 
at Aix, 1720. Morin, La Petite France 
pontificate, 1889. 

St. Rosula (1) or RHODA, Nov. 2, M. at 
Cagliari, in the time of Trajan, witli 
many others who went thither from 
Rome. AA.SS. 

St. Rosula (2), Sep. 14, M. in Africa, 
under Valerian, with St. Cyprian, bishop 
of Carthage, at a place on the seashoro 
six miles from Carthage. R.M. AA.SS. 

St. Rosula (3), May 15, M. in 304, 
either at Fausina, now Terra Nova in 
Sardinia, or at Filesia in. Wallachia, or 
Phila in Macedonia, with St. Simplicius, 
and a man named Florentius. They 
were tortured in divers ways and finally 
run through with a spear. Henschenius 
commemorates St. Simplicius but seems 
to think the martyrdom of his com 
panions rests on insufficient authority. 

B. Roswitha, ROSWIDA, or HROTS- 
VITH, -f- 927. She was abbess of Gander- 
sheim, and distinguished for literary 
acquirements : she wrote treatises on logic 
and rhetoric, which are lost. She forced 
the devil to return a bond signed with 
blood, by which a youth had pledged 
away his soul. Five years after her 
death, was born the more famous Hrots- 
vith, authoress of several plays and 
poems, including a panegyric on the 
Emperor Otho I. These two Roswithas 
are often confounded together. Only 
the elder is invoked as a saint. Ecken- 

St. Rota, June 2, one of 227 Roman 
martyrs. AA.SS. 

St. Rotheres, May 12, V. M. pro 
bably at Rome, with more than five 
hundred others. AA.SS. 

St. Rothlauga, HADELOGA. 

St. Rotilda or RHOTILDA, SEPT. 1, 
same as CLOTILDA (1). Baillet. 

St. Rotrou, ROTHUDE. 

St. Rotrude, V. June 22 (RODRUE, 
ROTROU, ORTRUDE), Her history is lost. 
Her body, which the French Martyr- 
ology says was brought from England, 



was placed in the Benedictine monastery 
of Andrenses, in Flanders, built in 1084 
by the pious Count of Guines, a relation 
and friend of Charles, count of Flanders. 
Peter, the fifth abbot, wrote a history of 
the saint which used to be read during 
dinner on her festival. In course of time so 
many munificent offerings were made to 
Rotrude and her ministers that Baldwin 
Bochard, lord of the surrounding district, 
fearing that some of his possessions also 
would gradually be absorbed by the 
Church, destroyed the book, hoping 
therewith to destroy the saint and her 
worship, and said so much against the 
monks and the miracles, that at last it 
was agreed that the bones of the saint 
should be tried with fire ; an immense 
concourse of people collected to see the 
trial which turned out greatly to the 
honour of St. Eotrude and of the Church, 
and to the confusion of their enemies, 
for the fire glorified in the sight of all 
the people, the sacred bone that was 
thrown into it, and put the infidels to 
shame. Some of her relics were trans 
lated to the monastery of St. Bertin, 
near ST. Omer, and were attributed to ST. 
RICTRUDE of Marchiennes, who is, there 
fore, sometimes by mistake called 
Rotrude. Bucelinus. AA.SS. 

St. Roxana, HUMILITY. 

St. Royes or KOISIA. An ancient 
subterranean chapel at Royston, on the 
borders of Hertfordshire and Cambridge 
shire, was dedicated in honour of SS. 
Lawrence and Hippolytus. Stukeley 
(Palaeograpia Britcmnica) says this 
chapel, with the famous cross on the 
highway, called Roheys - Cross, was 
founded by Roisia, daughter of Alberic 
de Vere, earl of Oxford, and widow of 
Geoffery de Magneville, earl of Essex 
who died in 1 1 48. After her second 
marriage to Pain de Beauchamp, she 
founded the convent of Chikesand, in 
Bedfordshire, where she afterwards took 
the veil and died ; but Parkin says the 
chapel is much older, and named from 
Koyes, a Saxon or British saint. A 
convent near High Cross in Hertford 
shire was called Roheyney or Roheenia. 
In another church of St. Hippolytus, 
near Royston, horses were blessed at 
the high altar with great devotion. 

The town was called Hippolytes, Eppa- 
lets, Pallets. Butler, " St. Hippolytus," 
Aug. 13. 

B. Ruessella. (See FULCIDE.) 

St. Rufania or RUFINA, Feb. 28, M. 
with many others. AA.SS. 

St. Ruffina, RUFINA. The name in 
Latin is Rufina ; in modern Italian the 
" f " is doubled. 

St. Rufina (1), Claudia (I). 

SS. Rufina (2) and Secunda, or 
Patrons of Porto and of Selva Candida. 
Daughters of Asterius, a Roman senator. 
They were betrothed respectively to 
Armentario and Verino, Christians who, 
in the persecution under Valerian and 
Gallienus, abjured their faith and tried 
to persuade Rufina and Secunda to do 
the same. This proposition filled them 
with horror and they fled from Rome, 
but were overtaken and brought before 
the Prefect, Junius Donatus, to whom 
they were accused of being Christians. 
After torturing them in various ways, 
he had them beheaded in a wood twelve 
miles from Rome. On the site of their 
martyrdom a chapel was soon built, 
which Pope (St.) Julius I. converted 
into a magnificent church. A town 
afterwards arose around it, called Selva 
Candida, which became a bishop s see. 
The JR.if., July 10, says their bodies 
are preserved in the church of St. John 
Lateran, near the font. Moroni, Diz. 

St. Rufina (3), Aug. 31, M. 3rd 
century. She was cast into prison with 
her husband, St. Theodotus, at Cossarea 
in Cappadocia ; while under sentence 
of death and awaiting their execution, 
Rufina gave birth to a son, afterwards 
known as Mamas the Martyr: he was 
at once adopted by a charitable woman, 
commemorated as ST. AMMIA, with SS. 
Theodotus and Rufina. EM. AA.SS. 

St. Rufina (4). (See JUSTA (2).) 

St. Rufina (5), RUFANIA. 

St. Rufina (6), June 1, M. with ST. 


St. Rufina (7), Feb. 28, M. place 

St. Rufina (8), May 3, M. in Africa. 

St. Rufina (9), April 6, M. at 



St. Rufina (10), April 24, M. at 

St. Rufina (11), June 3, M. at 

B. Rufina (12) or KUFFINA of 
Fabriano, in the March of Ancona, 3rd 
O.S.D. In 1607 her picture was to be 
seen in the church of the Order at 
Fabriano, in a Dominican dress, with 
rays of glory round her head. Her 
story and date are unknown, although 
she is believed to be less ancient than 
B. ANNA (23) and B. ANGELA (5), who 
both belong to Ancona. Pio. 

(4), Oct. 24, M. 523. A rich and 
beautiful widow of Negran in Arabia 
Felix, put to death with her daughters, 
by Dedaan or Dhu Nowas, a Jewish 
king or chief, who was tributary to St. 
Elesbaan, the Christian king of Ethiopia ; 
Nowas rebelled and was beaten, but took 
advantage of the winter when Elesbaan 
could not come against him, to plunder 
and massacre the Christians. He took 
the town of Negran, put to death Arethas, 
the ruler of the town, Euma, whom 
some accounts make to be his wife or 
daughter-in-law and about four thou 
sand others of both sexes and all ages ; 
some of the women had little children 
with them; one boy of five was con 
spicuous by his courage and devotion 
to his Church and party. Ten of the 
women were canonesses ; they demanded 
the honour of dying first, but the matrons 
said, " No, we will die first that we may 
not see the sufferings of our husbands and 
children." Dhu Nowas was defeated 
and put to death by Elesbaan in 525. 
Thus ended the kingdom called in the 
Bible, Saba, and by the Greeks and 
Romans, Homeritis. It was at that time 
the oldest in the world, having been 
founded by Saba, the son of Chus, the 
son of Ham, the son of Noah. Elesbaan 
became a monk and attained to great 
sanctity. AA.SS. 

St. Rumetina, April 30, M. AA.SS. 

St. Rusina, July 19, sometimes 
erroneously called ROSINA. 

Once on a time, there was a king of 
Rome, named Auster, who had for his 
wife, Rusina, a beautiful and clever 
woman ; but childless. They were both 

idolaters and cruelly persecuted the 
Christians, thinking by such means to 
propitiate their gods, that they might 
bless them with children. The queen 
in particular was unceasing in her 
prayers, but as they were of no avail, 
she bethought herself of a holy Christian 
Father, for whom she secretly sent. 
She told him that ,if his God proved 
more powerful than her gods, she would 
love and serve Him always. The 
reverend Father gave her a book with 
an account of the miracles wrought by 
Christ on earth, and begged her to read 
and study it, while he meanwhile would 
go and pray that she might be enlightened 
to see the true God. The prayers of the 
holy man were answered, and the queen 
accepted Christianity and was privately 
baptized. By-and-bye, to the great joy 
of the king, Queen Rusina said she hoped 
in some months to be a mother, at the 
same time she confessed to her husband 
that she had become a Christian, and 
related all that the holy man had told 
her. The king read some of the books 
which had been given to Rusina, sent 
for the priest and received baptism at 
his hands. Soon after this, the queen 
expressed a strong desire to make a 
pilgrimage to Jerusalem, in order to 
see the holy places where Christ had 
suffered and died ; and to see the house 
where the VIRGIN MAKY had lived. The 
king was ready to comply with her 
request, but said that the enterprise 
would be attended with great danger, as 
they would have to pass through the 
country of Csesarea, whose king was an 
enemy to Rome; however, he thought 
that by taking a large armed escort 
with them, they might accomplish their 
purpose safely. He summoned his 
Parliament and told the lords and 
barons that he and his wife had become 
Christians, and Rusina standing up in 
their midst spoke so eloquently to them, 
that with one accord they were all con 
verted and received holy baptism. 

Shortly after this, attended by a great 
company of horse and foot, the king and 
queen started for the Holy Land. When 
they got to Cassarea, the king of that 
country sent 500 horsemen, and footmen 
without number, to attack the Romans 



and put them all to death. The 
Crcsarcans fell on the Romans at a 
narrow and dangerous pass, where after 
a desperate struggle, they succeeded in 
defeating them and killing every one 
except Queen Rusina, who was taken a 
prisoner to the Court. The king much 
struck by her remarkable beauty and 
still more by her wisdom and good 
sense, treated her with every kindness 
and consideration, and appointed pages 
and ladies to attend on her. 

She had been but a few days in cap 
tivity when a beautiful daughter was born 
to the queen of Rome, who committed 
her to the care of the king of Caosarea, 
begging him to send her to Rome, so 
that she might enjoy her inheritance. 
She also asked that a Christian priest 
might be sent for, so that she could see 
her child baptized. The king promised 
that her daughter should be brought up 
as if she were his own, and at once 
summoned a priest who baptized the 
child, calling her Rusina after her 
mother. The dying queen took the 
babe in her arms and blessed her, and 
soon after passed away to eternal life ; 
angels were plainly seen bearing her 
soul to Paradise. The news of this 
miracle spread abroad and many people 
hearing of it became Christians. The 
king with universal approbation buried 
Rusina with the highest honours, accord 
ing to the custom of the country. A 
few days afterwards a son was born to 
the king, to the great delight of the 
people, who requested that he might be 
called Elemento. The two children 
were brought up together and treated 
exactly alike until they were fifteen, 
when the queen perceived that Elemento 
could think of nothing but his companion, 
love for whom so completely filled his 
heart that he could neither eat nor drink, 
but was wasting away. She did not wish 
to have Rusina for a daughter-in-law, 
as she was a foreigner, and they could 
derive no benefit from a marriage with 
her ; so she advised her husband to send 
Elemento with a good escort to Paris, 
that he might learn all that became 
a prince, and also might forget this 
boyish love. The king, although very 
fond of Rusina, agreed to his wife s 

proposition, and sending for Elemento 
made known their wishes to him. The 
young prince acquiesced. He said, " Since 
you wish it I will go, but I pray you to 
take great care of Rusina, for she has 
my heart and soul in her keeping." He 
then went to Rusina, and told her, with 
many tears, that his parents wished him 
to go to Paris, adding that he could not 
bear the thought of separation from her, 
and if she wished it he would remain in 
Caasarea. Rusina answered that he was 
a man and therefore not perfect ; three 
things there were which would make 
him good : to love and fear God ; to be 
baptized ; and to obey his father and 
mother. Elemento answered that for 
love of her he would do anything, so 
Rusina sent for a priest and had him 
baptized. She said, * I beg you for love 
of me to be loyal, pure, and innocent, and 
I will be the same for love of you." 

Elemento was kindly received in Paris 
by the king. A palace was given to him 
for as long as he chose to remain in 
France, and there he lived and dili 
gently studied. Near this palace was 
the house of a young and beautiful widow, 
who began to love Elemento, and sent 
him a message to that effect. He replied 
that he had given his love to the most 
beautiful woman in the world, and could 
care for no other. 

About this time Elemento sent letters 
to Rusina, who wrote to him in answer, 
that she trusted he would continue to 
love and fear God, and be honest and 
good. The messenger employed by 
Elemento was a friend of the widow, 
and on his return, he told her of the 
beauty and charm of Rusina, at the 
same time showing the rich presents 
she had given him. The widow, being 
a rich woman and therefore able to 
gratify all her caprices, at once deter 
mined that she would make a pilgrimage 
to Cacsarea in order to see Rusina, and 
invited the messenger to accompany her. 
As he was quite willing, they soon started, 
and in due course reached Caesarea. 

On her arrival there the widow begged 
for the honour of an audience with the 
king, which was granted her. She told 
him she had just come from Jerusalem 
and was on her way back to Paris, where 



she lived near the palace of Prince Ele- 
mento. She said he loved a young lady 
of Caesarea so much that he had wasted 
nearly to death. The king and queen 
were much distressed by this news, and 
when they had given the widow some 
magnificent presents and bidden her fare 
well, they consulted together as to what 
was best to be done. The queen wished 
Eusina to be put to death. The king 
demurred to this and thought he would 
sell her to some Babylonish merchants. 
He accordingly sent for two who were 
then in port, and after seeing Eusina, 
they readily agreed to buy her for a 
large sum of money. The king told 
Eusina that these merchants were going 
to take her to Elemento, but she knew 
instinctively that he was deceiving 
her, and begged for mercy. He, how 
ever, remained obdurate, merely tell 
ing the merchants to gag her, so that 
her screams might not be heard. On 
board ship the gag was soon removed 
from her mouth, and she was kindly 
treated by the men, but nothing could 
console her, and she wept and prayed 
for days, growing so thin that her pur 
chasers became alarmed for her life. On 
their arrival at Babylon, they went to 
the best inn, where they did what they 
could to restore Eusina to health, and 
then went to the Sultan and told him 
they had brought from Ceesarea the most 
beautiful maiden that ever was seen. 
He commanded her to be brought be 
fore him. To please the merchants she 
dressed in her most splendid clothes, 
and commending herself to the protec 
tion of God, was led to her new master 
weeping copiously all the time. The 
Sultan, touched alike by her beauty and 
her distress, promised that she should 
be honoured among the women of the 
Seraglio. He had a magical cup, by 
means of which he could tell when he 
bought a slave for his harem whether 
her virtue was equal to her beauty, for 
unless she was perfectly innocent she 
would certainly spill all the wine when 
she tried to drink it. He sent for the 
cup, which was of gold set with precious 
stones. He filled it to the brim with 
beautiful red wine, handed it to Eusina, 
and bade her drink. She drank the 

wine without spilling a drop. He was 
charmed and gave more money to the 
merchants than they had asked, and told 
the keeper of the Seraglio that Eusina 
was to have the lion-painted room and 
to be treated with every attention. Soon 
after the Sultan had given these orders, 
he was seized with a sudden illness, and 
lay sick for many days. 

In the mean time Elemento had had 
letters sent to him by one of the barons 
of his father s kingdom, telling him that 
Eusina had been sold to the Sultan of 
Babylon. His distress was great. He 
at once determined to rescue her or 
perish in the attempt. All his com 
panions volunteered to go with him and 
render him what help they could. 
Touched by his sad story, the king and 
queen of France promised him an escort 
of a thousand knights. In three days 
they all left Paris for Caesarea. When 
they arrived there Elemento did not go 
to see his father and mother, but re 
mained at the house of his friend the 
baron. The king on hearing of his 
arrival went to see him and reproached 
him for not coming to his own house. 
Elemento answered, "I do not wish it 
ever to be my own house, and I no 
longer consider you and the queen, my 
father and mother, because you have 
been so cruel to Eusina, who was the 
hope of rny life. She loved me better 
than you and my mother, for she loves 
and fears the God of Paradise, which 
you do not. You have sold her for a 
slave, although you know that she is the 
daughter of a greater King than you. 
May the King of Kings give you what 
you deserve ! If it were not that I still 
owe you some consideration as my father, 
I would run this sword through you. I 
will not return evil for evil, but I tell 
you plainly, that you will not see me 
again without her. Since it pleases you 
and my mother that I should go and 
die in Babylon, I see clearly that you 
do not love me much." The king was 
deeply distressed. Seeing this, Elemento 
became reconciled to him, and he there 
upon undertook to give his son money 
and jewels, and recommended Elemento 
to try to effect Eusina s recovery by 
their means sooner than have recourse 



to arms. He arranged that five of his 
wisest barons should go with Elemento 
to help him with judicious counsel ; at 
the same time, he loaded the French 
knights with money and gifts and gave 
them a great entertainment. 

The next day they all set sail and 
soon reached Eiva Doria, a sea-port about 
a hundred miles from Babylon. Here 
it was agreed that four of the barons 
should travel to Babylon with Elemento, 
in the disguise of merchants, the others 
remaining quietly in the ships at Eiva 
Doria. When they had been a few days 
in the inn at Babylon, they saw that the 
host and his wife were honest people, and 
Elemento confided to them the reason 
of his presence there. The innkeeper 
told him that Eusina had stayed in his 
house and had excited his compassion. 
It was arranged that the wife of the inn 
keeper should try to gain admittance to 
the Seraglio, and by some means, tell 
Eusina that Elemento had come to try 
and save her. Taking a piece of em 
broidery to show to some of the ladies, 
the woman was soon in the Seraglio. 
She then asked to see Rusina, as she 
had heard she was so beautiful. She 
was conducted to a room, where Eusina 
sat reading the office of the Virgin Mary. 
So overjoyed was she to hear of her 
lover s arrival that she fainted ; on her 
recovery she sent many messages to him, 
charging him to be prudent. The woman, 
on her return to the inn, was liberally 
rewarded by the prince. Then her hus 
band bethought him of the sultan s 
porter, who was a friend of his and loved 
a good dinner and pleasant company. 
He was invited to the inn and there saw 
Elemeuto, who exerted himself to be 
agreeable, and soon the porter thought 
no day well spent when he did not see 
the young merchant. At last, Elemento 
told him who he was and asked his aid. 
This the porter promised, but stipulated 
that he should be taken away also, as 
otherwise the sultan would put him to 
death. Elemento agreed to this, and 
promised to make the porter a baron and 
give him a town and a castle. Every 
thing was then settled; the landlord 
was paid liberally, the barons were sent 
to the harbour, there to wait in a boat 

with all their goods. At midnight, 
Elemento went alone to the gate of the 
palace, where the porter was waiting 
for him. They went softly to Eusina s 
room, who at the sight of her beloved 
Elemento lost consciousness; so he and 
the porter took her between them and 
carried her to the boat ; their friends at 
once rowed rapidly down the river to 
Eiva .Doria, where the rest of the party 
were still waiting with the ships. They 
all rejoiced greatly when they saw 
Eusina, and heard that she had been 
rescued without drawing a sword. The 
next day they set sail for Csesarea. 

The sultan, meanwhile, hearing that 
Rusina had escaped by the connivance 
of the porter, ordered ten galleys to 
be manned and put to sea, to overtake 
and bring them back. However, after 
a severe engagement, Elemento and his 
knights were victorious and seven of the 
enemy s galleys were sunk. On hearing 
of this loss, the sultan was in despair 
and said, "I made a very bad bargain 
when I bought Eusina. She never was 
of any use to me, and now I have lost all 
these good men and ships through her. 
Alas, it was an evil day for me when she 
came to Babylon ! " 

After a voyage of sixty days, Elemento 
and Eusina arrived at Cassarea, where 
they were received with joy by the 
people and the king. The queen also, 
through the .mediation of the porter, 
was once more reconciled to her son and 
Eusina, and great rejoicings were held. 
The knights of France were handsomely 
rewarded for all they had done. When 
they left for their own country, many 
messages were sent to the king by 
Elemento, assuring him of his readi 
ness to help and serve him in case of 

In course of time, in answer to the 
many fervent prayers of Eusina and 
Elemento, the king and queen became 
Christians. The National Assembly 
was convened, and Elemento and Eusina 
told the barons and people so much of 
the teaching of Christ that they all with 
one accord accepted the Christian faith. 
The king then ordered all the idols to be 
destroyed, and built many churches and 
hermitages throughout the kingdom. So 



they all lived virtuously and happily 
and when they died they went straight 
to heaven. 

Leggendario delle Santissime Vergini. 

St. Rustica, Dec. 31, M. at Rome, 
with several other women. H.M. 

St. Rusticula or MARCIA, Aug. 11, 
555-632, abhess of Aries. She was 
born of an ancient Gallo-Koman family 
on the day of her father s death, and 
was christened Rusticula. Her brother 
died, and she became the sole heiress and 
consolation of her mother. At five years 
old she was carried off by a young noble 
man, named Cheran or Cheraonius, who 
intended to marry her when she was old 
enough. The good Abbess LILIOLA of 
the convent of St. Cesarius at Aries, 
applied to the Bishop of Autun to obtain 
an order from King Gontram, to compel 
Cheran to give up the child, consequently, 
she was placed in the convent at Aries at 
the age of seven. Some years later, her 
mother, Clemence, wanted to get her 
back again, but Eusticula had become 
devoted to the monastic life, in which 
she attained such excellence that on the 
death of her adopted mother Liliola, she 
was chosen abbess in her stead. In 614 
Rusticula was accused to King Clothaire 
II. of sheltering in her convent, the young 
Prince Childebert, the rightful sovereign 
of Aries and Avignon, who had escaped 
when Clothaire murdered the rest of the 
descendants of Brunehault. , St.Maximus, 
bishop of Avignon, was one of her accusers. 
She was pelted with stones by the mob, 
as she was being taken from her convent, 
under an accusation of treason. On the 

way to the king s presence she worked 
miraculous cures. St. Domnolus, bishop 
of Vienne, arrived at Court before her 
and defended her so well that, on her 
swearing that she was not guilty of the 
offence laid to her charge, she was sent 
home again with every mark of respect 
and was enthusiastically received by the 
people of Aries. She governed her 
convent in peace and with great wisdom 
for many years. One of her rules was 
never to impose on her nuns tasks beyond 
their strength, nor to vex or weary them 
without reason; at the same time, she 
took care that they should not lead a life 
of idleness or self-indulgence. AA.SS. 
Her life by Florentius. Baronius. 
Bucelinus. Baillet. 

St. Ruth, Sept. 1, 14, one of the 
four women named by St. Matthew in the 
genealogy of Christ. She was a Moabi- 
tess and the widow of Mahlon, a Hebrew. 
Her attachment to his mother Naomi, 
induced her to accompany her mother- 
in-law when she returned to her own 
country, after the death of her husband 
and sons. There Ruth married Boaz, a 
relation of her late husband. The great- 
grandson of Boaz and Ruth was King 
David. Among the ancestresses of our 
Saviour, she is honoured Sept. 1. Book 
o Ruth in the Old Testament. Mart. 
of Salisbury, Sept. 14. She is styled 
" Saint " by Canisius. (See Judith (1).) 

St. Ruthena, RETHNA. 

St. Rutila. (See CLAUDIA (2).) 

St. Rutilla, June 1, M. with ST. 

St. Ryxa, RIXA. 

St. Sabbatia, SEBASTIA. 

Sabbilina, SABINELLA. 

St. Sabela, Dec. 28, a holy woman 
of Ethiopia, who had the gift of prophecy 
and interpreted dreams. She used her 
power to bring sinners to repentance and 
heathens to Christianity. Migne. 

St. Sabigotho, NATALIA (3). 

St. Sabina (1). (Sec SEUAPIA.) 

St. Sabina (2) of Samos, sometimes 
called of Troyes, V., Aug. 29, Jan. 29. 
2nd century. 

In the beautiful island of Samos, in 
the reign of the Emperor Adrian, or his 
successor Antoninus Pius, lived a weal thy 
citizen, named Sabinus. He had one sou 
and one daughter, Sabinian and Sabina, 
who loved each other with the most 
devoted affection. Some of the books of 
the Christians fell into their hands : 
their lessons of sublime and simple 
morality and unselfishness found a re 
sponse in the young hearts of the brother 
and sister; and although it does not 



appear that either of them had direct 
intercourse with Christians, they began 
to adopt their tenets and follow their 
teaching. Sabinus had allowed his 
children to spend freely on their wants 
and pleasures whatever they chose ; but 
when he found that his son gave his most 
precious possessions to the poor, taking 
for them everything he could lay his 
hands on, and lavishing large sums on 
beggars, he was very angry, and dis 
tressing scenes occurred between the 
father and son. 

One day Sabinian took off his silken 
robe and clothed himself in sackcloth. 
His father, exasperated at this new out 
rage, accused him of intending to ruin 
his family, and threatened to put him to 
death, saying with bitter maledictions, 
" It; is better for me to kill you alone, 
than that you should destroy us all." 
Sabinian fled from his home, and when 
Sabinus s anger had cooled, and he 
wanted to reason with his refractory 
son, the youth could not be found. They 
sought him with ever-increasing anxiety, 
but in vain. Sabina fretted for him, 
and her longing to know at least what 
had become of him left her no rest : she 
neither ate nor slept, nor employed her 
self as before. 

Sabinus was half inclined to curse her 
too, but restrained the cruel words, re 
membering what his violence had cost 
him already, and tried instead every 
means to soothe and amuse the poor girl. 
He brought her jewels and beautiful 
articles of dress and curiosities, but she 
would not look at them. One day, ac 
companied by her faithful servant and 
foster-sister Maximinola, she went ac 
cording to her custom to the temple of 
Juno, that famous Heraeum which ranked 
with the temple of Diana at Ephesus as 
one of the greatest works of the Greeks, 
and of which one solitary giant pillar 
btill stands to tell of the days of its 
grandeur. Sabina, exhausted with fret 
ting and weeping, fell asleep in the 
temple, and saw in a dream a heavenly 
being, who bade her be comforted, for 
she should be delivered from the vain 
and impious religion in which she had 
been brought up, and should meet her 
brother again, and find him promoted to 

great honour. The two girls consulted 
and planned how they could set out in 
search of him. Ships were continually 
leaving the island for all sorts of ports 
far and near, so it was easy to get away 
unobserved ; and this they soon did. 
They wandered by unknown ways, 
through many countries and across 
many waters, led on from day to day 
by the hope of soon finding Sabinian, 
and as " all ways lead to Rome," they 
came there in course of time, and lived 
amongst the Christians with a holy 
woman named Justina, who in due time 
had them baptized. 

They remained at Rome some years, 
always expecting to see Sabinian, or re 
ceive some message from him. During 
this time Sabina acquired a consider 
able reputation for sanctity, and people 
suffering from divers afflictions resorted 
to her that they might be cured by her 
prayers. From time to time, her brother 
appeared to her in her dreams, encourag 
ing her to hope for reunion with him. 
At last a more distinct and decided 
vision showed her Sabinian wearing a 
crown set with dazzling jewels, and 
beckoning her to come to him. She 
therefore determined to set out again in 
search of him. She remembered her 
first dream of him in the Temple of 
Juno at Samos. The Christians loved 
her and wished to keep her amongst 
them. Maximinola urged her to stay 
for the rest of her life in peace; but 
again angels appeared, and told her that 
at Trecas (now Troyes) in Gaul, Sabinian 
was crowned with gold and jewels, and 
raised to the highest honours, and that 
she should go and meet him there. 

Again the two women started on a 
long and difficult pilgrimage. After 
many a toilsome day s journey and many 
an anxious and comfortless night, some 
times accompanied on their way by other 
pilgrims, sometimes alone, sometimes 
finding welcome and shelter in the 
houses of Christians, sometimes lodging 
on the cold ground under the open sky, 
they found themselves getting near 
Troyes. At last, after a night passed in 
a thick wood in considerable danger from 
wild beasts, the rising day revealed to 
them at no great distance the towers and 



battlements of a city. They met a shep 
herd and asked him what town it was. 
He said it was Troyes and the travellers 
gave thanks to God for having led them 
to the end of their journey, and not let 
their strength or their faith fail them by 
the way. Sabina sat down on a stone 
by the wayside and said to Maximinola 
that they would wait a little, and per 
haps when the gates were opened some 
one would come out and give them 
tidings of Sabinian. 

Soon Licerius, the venerable pastor 
of the little Christian flock in Troyes, 
came out of the town and seeing the 
two strangers asked who they were. 
They told him their story and asked 
whether he knew Sabinian. 

"Daughter," said the old priest to 
Sabina, " your brother was indeed here, 
and, for his sake, you are welcome 
among the Christians of Troyes. You 
might well dream that he was promoted 
to great honour, for he has attained the 
highest of all honours that of martyr 
dom. He dwelt among us for a long 
time, but when the Emperor Aurelian 
persecuted the Church a few months 
ago, Sabinian was conspicuous for his 
good works, so the heathen officers 
arrested him and ordered him to re 
nounce the faith and sacrifice to the 
gods, and when he refused to obey he 
was beheaded. We buried him at a 
place on the banks of the Seine, a few 
miles from here and a pious woman has 
built a little chapel over his grave. Go 
thither and say a prayer and return to 
us. You shall be as one of ourselves, 
and all that we have we will share with 

Kind and fatherly as were the words 
of the aged priest, they fell with the 
chill of death on the heart of the dis 
appointed pilgrim. Her stiffening limbs 
would not carry her to the banks of the 
Seine, for she had come to the brink of 
a broader river. When the old man 
had left her, she fell on her face on 
the ground and prayed that she might 
rest from her wanderings and no longer 
drag her weary feet through difficult 
journeys. She commended her faithful 
companion to God and went straight 
from the dust where she lay, to rejoin 

in paradise, the brother she had wandered 
so far to see on earth. 

The venerable Licerius fetched a 
choice robe to wrap round her, and 
summoned all the Christians to bring 
in a pilgrim who had died outside the 
gate. They could not move the body, 
and some of those who tried to lift it 
were cured of blindness and other ills ; 
they buried her where she lay, and 
Licerius gave a funeral feast to all the 
Christians and all the poor. He wished 
to build an oratory over Sabina s grave, 
but an angel told him that this should 
be done by his successor as he was soon 
to rest from his labours. R.M., Jan. 29. 

Sabina and her brother are honoured 
as martyrs, Aug. 29, Jan. 24, in the 
church of Troyes. In the church of 
Treves, which is constantly confounded 
with Troyes in the various records, there 
is a commemoration on Aug. 19, of St. 
Sabina and her maid. 

St. Sabina (3), Oct. 27, V., M. c. 
303, either at Evora or Talavera, with 
her sister ST. CHRISTETA and their 
brother St. Vincent. They are patrons 
of Avila. 

Dacian, prefect of Gaul, under the 
orders of the Emperors Maximian and 
Diocletian, was trying to root the Chris 
tian religion out of Spain. One day 
his men brought him a youth, named 
Vincent. Dacian argued with the 
prisoner on the folly of worshipping a 
God who had been crucified as a male 
factor; at the same time he promised, 
in consideration of Vincent s youth, not 
to punish him, if he would renounce 
his errors and offer sacrifice to the gods ; 
as Vincent remained firm, Dacian ordered 
him to be led away to the place where 
the sacrifices were offered, and com 
manded that if he refused to sacrifice 
he should instantly be put to death. 
As they were leading him across the 
Plaqa, he put his foot on a stone, which 
retained the mark as if it had been wax. 
The soldiers, struck by the miracle, re 
turned immediately to Dacian and begged 
that this wonderful man might have at 
least a few days respite. The governor 
granted him three days. His sisters, 
Sabina and Christeta entreated him, with 



many tears, to flee with them, as they 
had no other protector and would be at 
the mercy of the infidels if they were 
deprived of his care. "If we escape," 
said they, " we will all lead a holy life ; 
and if we are taken, we will die martyrs 
together." So they fled but were over 
taken at Avila, and after being put to 
many tortures, they were made to lay 
their heads on stones to be beaten with 
clubs until they died. Their bodies 
were thrown on the rocks outside the 
gate, to be devoured by vultures and 
wild beasts, and the murderers returned 
cheerfully to Dacian. It happened that 
a great serpent which was in the habit 
of eating people, lived in a cleft in those 
rocks. It came out of its hole and 
looked at the dead bodies and mangled 
heads. A Jew who was passing by also 
looked with so much pleasure on the 
murdered Christians that he did not 
observe the serpent until he suddenly 
found himself tightly clasped in its 
coils. In his terror he called upon the 
God of the Christians, resolving that if 
He would deliver him, he would be 
converted and build a church on that 
spot. The serpent instantly disappeared 
and never was seen again. The grateful 
Jew buried the three martyrs with his 
own hands and built over their grave a 
church which was dedicated in the name 
of St. Vincent. The rock is still shown 
in the crypt below the eastern apse of 
the beautiful church of San Vicente, 
outside the gates of Avila, and whoever 
prays in faith on that rock is straightway 
delivered from his troubles. EM. Flos 
Sanctorum. AA.SS. 

St. Sabina (4) or SAVINA of Lodi, 
Jan. 30, matron. Beginning of 4th 
century. Patron of Lodi and of Milan. 
She visited SS. Nabor and Felix, soldiers, 
in prison at Lodi Vecchio, and after their 
martyrdom took their bodies and buried 
them in her own house there. At night 
a bright light appeared over the place 
where she had laid the martyred soldiers, 
and she understood that they were worthy 
of a more honourable sepulchre ; so she 
took them in a cart to Milan. At Leg- 
nanum. she was stopped by soldiers who 
asked her what she was carrying. She 
answered, " Honey." They did not be- 


lieve her, and stuck their lances into 
the cart. Honey ran out, and she, see 
ing the miracle, confessed what the real 
load was. The soldiers were converted. 
The place is said to have been called 
Mellegnano, in honour of the miracle, 
which name was afterwards corrupted 
into Merignano. Sabina built a tomb 
for SS. Nabor and Felix, and died 
praying there. It.M. AA.SS. 

St. Sabina (5), Oct. 28. Vargas 
makes ST. FAITH (2) (Santa Fe) a native 
of Spain, and says that St. Sabiiia, also 
a Spaniard of Merida, was martyred 
with her at Agen. The Bollandists 
say this is a mere invention, grounded 
on the fact that some relics of ST. SABINA 
(3) were taken to Ager in Catalonia. 

SS. Sabina (6, 7, 8, 9), MM. at 
Eome, Smyrna, Alexandria and Africa 
respectively. AA.SS. 

St. Sabina (10), Nov. 5, 6th or early 
7th century. Grandmother of St. Cuth- 
bert. Ferrarius. Stadler. 

Ven. Sabina (11). (See ALFRIDA.) 

St. Sabina (12), April 30, V.,O.S.B. 
12th century. Nun at Jouarre, in the 
diocese of Meaux. On April 29, 1109, 
she had a vision of the BLESSED VIRGIN 
MARY surrounded by a great number of 
saints, and saw that St. Hugh, abbot of 
Cluny, arrived amongst them. She told 
her vision to the other nuns and soon 
afterwards a messenger arrived to an 
nounce the death of St. Hugh in his 
eighty-sixth year. Sabina soon followed 
him to heaven. Bucelinus. AA.SS., 
Prseter. " St. Hugh/ April 29. 

St. Sabinella (l), CLAUDIA (1). 

St. Sabinella (2), SABBILINA, SAVI- 
NILLA or SIBINELLA, Feb. 14, buried St. 
Valentine on the spot of his martyrdom 
at Rome, about 209, and is mentioned 
in his Life. AA.SS. 

St. Sabiniana (1) or SABINIANUS, 
March 3, M. in Africa, with GAIOLA and 
many others. AA.SS. 

St. Sabiniana (2), a holy deaconess 
of advanced years who followed St. 
Chrysostom into exile and ministered to 
him. Smith and Wace. 

St. Sabitha, NATALIA (3). 

St. Sacculina, SIGOLENA. 

St. Sacra, March 8. Her body was 



kept before the altar of ST. GENEVIEVE 
in the monastery of Royac at Glermont 
in Auvergne. She is mentioned by the 
ecclesiastical historians of that place, 
but Henschenius considers her existence 
doubtful and thinks that the words 
"sacra ossa" sacred bones, have been 
misinterpreted to mean the bones of a 
saint named Sacra. Prseter. 

St. Sacusa, SECUSA, or SECURA, May 

10, M. at Tarsus in Cilicia. AA.SS. 
St. Sadalaberge, SALABERGA. Cahier. 
St. Saethrith, generally means SE- 

DRIDO. Miss Eckenstein gives the name 
as a variant of ST. SYRE. 

St. Salaberga (l), Feb. 6, M. in 
the Vandal persecution. 

St. Salaberga (2), SADALABERGA or 
SALABERNA, Sept. 22, + c. 665. Founder 
and abbess of St. Jean de Laon. Patron 
of Laon. She was a member of one of 
the principal families of the Sicambri 
and was born at Gondrecourt on the 
Meuse, on the borders of Champagne 
and Lorraine. Her father and mother 
were Gondwin and Saretrude. One day 
Gondwin received at his house St. 
Eustasius, second abbot of Luxeuil, who 
had been preaching to the heathen in 
Bavaria ; Gondwin presented to him his 
two sons that he might bless them. 
Eustasius asked if he had no more 
children, and he said he had a daughter, 
Salaberga, but that she had been blind 
for some little time. They sent for the 
child, and Eustasius asked her if she 
would like to serve God ; she said that 
was her greatest desire. After fasting 
for some days and making many prayers 
for her, he anointed her eyes with holy 

011, and so restored her sight. He after 
wards cured her of dysentery. Salaberga 
soon recovered her good looks as well as 
her health, and was married young, to 
Eichran, a young nobleman who died 
two months afterwards. She then wished 
to be a nun under ST. MACTAFLEDE ; but 
her parents, supported by the authority 
of King Dagobert I., obliged her to 
marry B. Blandin, surnamed Bason. 
They were " of one heart and one mind " 
with^ regard to religion and charity. 
Having been childless for some years, 
Salaberga vowed that if God would give 
her children, she would dedicate them to 

His service. She had three daughters 
and two sons in eight years. She con 
sidered she would best fulfil her vow by 
giving them an excellent education. She 
was aided in all her doings by the 
counsels of St. Walbert, who had suc 
ceeded Eustasius as abbot of Luxeuil. 
Her husband being as pious as herself, 
encouraged her to build a monastery in 
the Vosges, and thither, with his consent, 
she withdrew from the world, with about 
a hundred holy virgins ; but reflecting 
that this place was too far from the pro 
tection of large towns and too near the 
boundary between Austrasia and Bur 
gundy, she removed the community, by 
the advice of St. Walbert, to Laon. She 
built a large monastery and six churches 
for her spiritual daughters, and as all 
the large monasteries of those days were 
double, she built a smaller monastery 
and one church for men; she presided 
over both for about ten years. At the 
approach of death, when she was about 
fifty, she made over her authority to her 
daughter ST. AUSTRUDE. 

Salaberga was buried in her own 
church, where also are preserved the 
bodies, in whole or in part, of her 
husband, her daughter, her eldest son 
St. Eustasius who died in childhood, 
her second son and youngest child St. 
Baldwin, and her brother St. Bodo or 
Leudwin. The sanctificatiou of all 
these persons is considered to be in a 
great measure due to the holiness of 

Her Life was written during the lives 
of her children, and bears every appear 
ance of truth. EM. AA.SS. Baillet. 
Montalembert. In the Konigliche Mu 
seum at Berlin, is a beautiful psalter in 
uncial characters, written by the hand of 
Salaberga for the use of her nuns ; it is 
still in perfect preservation. It forms 
part of the precious collection of Manu 
scripts, which belonged to the Duke of 
Hamilton and was sold en masse to the 
German government in 1882. Edinburgh 
Courant, Nov. 8, 1882. 

St. Salaberna, SALABERGA. 

B. Salaphtha, Feb. 20, called in 
Greek IRENE V. 5th century. About 
the year 421, Salaphtha who was four 
teen years old, was living at Gaza, 



working hard to support her infirm 
grandmother. One day there was a 
tumult in the town, and Salaphtha found 
the Bishop, St. Porphyry and one of his 
disciples hiding from the violence of the 
rioters, on the roof of her house. Al 
though she was not a Christian, she knew 
Porphyry to be a holy man, and throw 
ing herself at his feet, asked his blessing. 
The fugitives requested her to bring them 
a mat and let them remain concealed on 
the roof until the city was quiet again. 
She did so and brought them also a share 
of her humble food, which consisted of 
bread, cheese, olives, and cooked vege 
tables, begging them not to despise her 
poverty. They accepted her hospitality 
and in return instructed her in the 
Christian religion. AVhen the insurrec 
tion was over and the bishop had re 
turned to his church, Salaphtha brought 
her aunt to him and he baptized them 
both. He explained to Salaphtha that 
although a Christian, she was at liberty 
to marry and might serve God in the 
world. She wept and said, " If I can be 
the spouse of the King of glory, why 
should I leave Him and marry a poor 
mean man ? " When her grandmother 
died, the bishop gave Salaphtha the 
regular habit, commended her to the care 
of a deaconess, named Manaris, with 
whom she lived an austere and saintly 
life and was a pattern to many. 

Henschenius considers it uncertain 
whether she should be included among 
the saints, but gives the foregoing ac 
count of her from an old Greek Life of 
St. Porphyry, bishop of Gaza, by his 
disciple Mark. AA.SS. 

St. Salbina,probablySABiNA. AA.SS. 

St. Salfa, FALSA or SALSA, May 20, 
M. in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Salla, or SALLOP, July 9, V. 
Abbess. Stadler. 

St. Salla Rua, SCALLERVA or SCAL- 
LKUIA, March io, M. with others at 
Nicomedia. AA.SS. 

St. Sallustia, SALUSTIA. 

St. Salome (1) or SOLOMONIA, Aug. 
1, Oct. 24, M. B.C. 167, mother of the 
Maccabees, seven brothers who were 
carried captives from Jerusalem to An- 
tioch by Antiochus Epiphanes. Salome 
courageously witnessed the tortures and 

death of her sons and then shared their 
martyrdom. After the death of six of 
them, she was exhorted by the persecu 
tors, under Antiochus, to save the life of 
her youngest and only remaining son, by 
persuading him to eat swine s flesh, in 
token of submission to the heathen con 
queror ; but she bade him not grieve 
and shame her by cowardice and apos 
tasy. The history of the persecution is 
in the Books of the Maccabees. These 
martyrs, with the old priest Eleazar who 
was put to death on the same occasion, 
were the first pre-Christian saints 
honoured with a regular worship by 
Christians, and although other Old 
Testament saints are mentioned in Chris 
tian calendars chiefly those of the 
Eastern Church the Maccabees alone 
are honoured with an office or com 
memoration in the Breviary. Their 
relics were deposited in the great church 
of St. Peter ad vincula in Rome, and 
their festival is that of its dedication. 
EM. AA.SS. Baillet. Men. Basil. 
Butler. In the Grseco-Slavonian Calen 
dar this Saint is called " St. Salomonia, 
wife of Eleazar." Her name is not in 
the Books of the Maccabees nor in the 
EM. Marti no v. 

St. Salome (2) called in the EM. 
MARY SALOME, Oct. 22. 1st century. 
Wife of Zebedee. Mother of St. James 
the Greater, and of St. John the Evange 
list. She is said by the Greeks to be 
the daughter of St. Joseph, but there is 
no authority for this. A legend of ST. 
ANNA (3) makes Salome her daughter 
by her third husband. Salome was a 
native of Galilee. Her husband and 
sons were fishermen of the lake of Gen- 
nesaret. It appears that when her sous 
left their nets to follow Christ, Salome 
followed Him also. She prayed Him to 
grant that they might sit next to Him 
in His kingdom. He replied that that 
honour was not His to give, but granted 
that they should share His sufferings. 
(St. Matt. xx.) She ishonoured separately, 
Oct. 22, and on various days, conjointly 
with the holy women who ministered to 
our Lord, witnessed His death, and made 
preparations to embalm Him. (St. Matt, 
xxvii. 5(5. St. Mark xv. 40). A ground 
less tradition says that she migrated to 



DALENE and MARY OF CLOPAS are called 
"lestrois Maries." EM. AA.SS. Baillet. 

St. Salome (3), May 1, an ascetic, 
honoured by the Ethiopians. Stadler. 

B. Salome (4), June 29. 9th, 10th 
or llth century. A recluse at Alteich, 
or Altaha, in Bavaria. Niece or sister- 
in-law, and adopted daughter of a king 
of England. Disgusted with the pomps 
and vanity of the Court, she persuaded 
her two maids to accompany her in dis 
guise on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. On 
her way back, passing through Bavaria, 
she stayed for a short time at Regensburg. 
Here her beauty and dignified manner 
attracted the admiration of a worldly 
young man. Ashamed of herself, she 
went into a forest and prayed that her 
beauty might depart from her. Im 
mediately she was struck with blindness. 
Not knowing where she walked, she soon 
fell into the Danube and was rescued 
from drowning, by some fishermen, who 
took her in their boat to Passau. There . 
she became a leper and lived on alms. 
She was kindly received by a pious 
woman, named Heika, with whom she 
lived for about three years. Then Heika 
mentioned her case to the Abbot of 
Upper Alteich, who built her a cell near 
his church. Meantime, the king of 
England, supposing her to have eloped, 
searched for her through all his own 
country until at last it became known 
that she had gone on a pilgrimage, from 
motives of piety. Her cousin JUTTA (3), 
being a widow and bereaved of all her 
children, went from place to place seek 
ing for Salome, and at last discovered 
and shared her retreat. By other ac 
counts, Jutta settled at Alteich before 
Salome, who joined her there when she 
had recovered from her leprosy. Salome 
died first. Jutta was eventually buried 
beside her. AA.SS. Wattembach con 
siders the story fabulous. 

St. Salome (5), Nov. 10, 17, 1224- 
1268. Queen of Halitscbor Galicia, and 
duchess of Sandonrir. A patron of the 
Order of St. Francis. 

Her Life by Kobielski contains twenty- 
four woodcuts illustrating different scenes 
in her life ; among the most remarkable 
are No. 3, where she appears as a little 

girl in a garden of lilies, attended by an 
old nurse ; a Lamb, amidst clouds, is 
saying to her, " Where is thy treasure ? " 
With one hand she offers Him a flaming 
heart, and in the other she holds a lily ; 
No. 4, in which her parents sit on their 
throne while the child is led away by 
the Hungarian ambassador; No. 13, 
where, after a Tartar raid, she is seen 
kneeling on the ground, wearing the halo 
of a saint ; the ruins of her convent are 
in the background, and all round her the 
heads and decapitated bodies of her 
nuns ; No. 21 shows her with her earthly 
crown overturned at her feet, the Infant 
Christ presenting her with another ; her 
church and convent are in the back 
ground, and underneath is written, St. 
Salomea, Virgin, Queen of Halitsch, of 
the Order of Saint Clara, born 1202, died 
in her convent of St. Mary s Stone, 1268 ; 
Beatified 1673. 

She is also represented in the clouds, 
with the BLESSED VIRGIN MARY, helping 
the Poles to gain the battle of Chotim, 
against the Turks under Husseim Pasha. 

Salome was the daughter of Lestko 
the White, duke of Cracow and king of 
Poland (1194-1227); her mother was 
Grzimislaw, a Russian princess. Salome 
was sister of Boleslas V., surnamed 
Pudicus, whose wife was ST. CUNEGUND 
(4). For some centuries Galicia was 
generally an appanage of one or other 
of the Russian princes. In the continual 
wars and revolts, the combatants appealed 
to their neighbours for help, and thus it 
happened that Andrew II., king of Hun 
gary (father of ST. ELISABETH (11)), and 
Lestko V. of Poland were called upon 
to side with some of the Russian princes 
who were fighting for the possession of 
Galicia. Instead of reinstating either 
of the Russians, they agreed to give the 
kingdom to Koloman, the son of Andrew, 
and marry him to Salome, daughter of 
Lestko. She was then three years old, 
and was taken to Hungary and brought 
up at the Court of her father-in-law. 
She was deeply religious from her in 
fancy ; she took the Third Order of St. 
Francis as soon as possible, and lived 
like a nun, both before and after her 
marriage. Koloman was small, deformed, 
one-eyed, lame ; but clever, enterprising, 



and cunning. He wrote to Pope Inno 
cent III., that Galicia, which was under 
the Russian Church, wished to join that 
of Rome, and had begged Andrew of 
Hungary to give them his son for their 
king. The Pope of course encouraged 
the Hungarian rule. In 1217 the young 
couple went to reign in Galicia ; but as 
soon as the Archbishop of Gnesna, in the 
name of Pope Honorius III., had set 
the crowns on the heads of Koloman and 
Salome, the young king, in obedience to 
his father and the Pope, drove out the 
Russian bishop and priests. At the 
same time, Andrew and Lestko quar 
relled, and the Russian princes took 
advantage of the confusion to forward 
their own ambitions. The war went on 
again with circumstances of gross bru 
tality. The young king and queen shut 
themselves up, with a few followers, in 
the church of our Lady at Lemberg; 
but after three days, being in fear of 
starvation and doubtful as to the loyalty 
of their subjects, they surrendered to the 
Russian Prince Mstislaf, who imprisoned 
them in Tortschesk. Another king and 
queen were chosen, but the Pope would 
not consent to the transfer, saying that 
Koloman and Salome had received the 
crown on apostolic authority. Andrew, 
by threats and promises, induced the 
Russian princes to withdraw from the 
contest; at the same time, the Mongol 
invasion frightened them into suspending 
their private quarrels and personal am 
bitions, that all Christendom might unite 
against the common foe. Thus it hap 
pened that Koloman and Salome were 
reinstated for a time ; again exiled ; a 
second time restored; Koloman was 
finally expelled from Galicia a third 
time ; he returned to Hungary and fell 
in 1240, fighting against the Mongols. 
At his death, Salome transferred herself 
to the Second Order of St. Francis, and 
built a convent at Zawichost, where she 
collected a number of virgins and took 
the solemn vows of the Order of St. 

In 1260, when the Tartars overran 
Silesia and Moravia, they burnt her 
convent and massacred most of the nuns, 
beheading sixty of them at once. Salome 
happened to be absent. When she had 

buried her nuns, she built the convent of 
St. Mary s Stone at Zkamiena, or Skata ; 
she placed the survivors there and filled 
up their ranks with young girls. Hero 
she died Nov. 17, 1208. Her tomb being 
honoured with miracles, her body was 
translated into the cathedral of St. 
Francis at Cracow, built by her brother 
King Boleslas. Clement X., in 167o, 
finding that the Poles had worshipped 
her for four hundred years and were in 
the habit of obtaining miracles through 
her intercession, allowed the whole order 
of St. Francis to celebrate her festival 
with a double rite on the anniversary of 
her death. 

A church was dedicated in the name 
of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin 
and B. Salome, at Skata, in 1642 ; but it 
fell to ruins in thirty-five years. 

Salome is called Saint by the Polish 
and some other historians, Blessed in 
the E.M., O.S.F., and by Hueber and 

Dlugosch. Mailath. Karamsin. Fer 
rarius, Catalotjus. Moroni, Dizionario. 
Lambertini, De Scrvorum Dei. AA.SS., 
11 CUNEGUND, July 24." Kobielski, Florcs 
Vitde B. Salomcse Virginis. Hueber, 
Franciscan Menology. Pertz. 
St. Salomonia, SALOME (1). 
St. Salonica, SALONITA, or SOLONITA. 
June 25, M. with others, in Thessalonica. 

St. Salpurnia, June 2, one of two 
hundred and twenty-seven Roman mar 
tyrs commemorated in the Martyroloyy 
of St. Jerome on this day. AA.SS. 
St. Salsa (1), SALFA. 
St. Salsa (2), Oct. 10, M. Africa, in 
the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or 4th century. AA.SS. 
St. Salustia or SALLUSTIA, Sept. 14, 
M. 252. When St. Cornelius, pope and 
martyr, was led by soldiers to a heathen 
temple where the Emperor Docius had 
ordered that ho should sacrifice, one of 
the soldiers, named Cerealis, asked him, 
by the way, to visit his wife, Salustia, who 
had been paralyzed and helpless for five 
years. He went, and cured her at once. 
She begged him to baptize her, and ran 
to fetch him some water for the purpose ; 
the other soldiers seeing the miracle 
were converted and baptized. Then 
Cerealis and Salustia, with Cornelius 



and all his new converts, were beheaded, 
and ST. LUCINA (2) buried them. AA.SS. 

St. Salvia (I), May 8, M. at Con 
stantinople, with St. Acacius. (See AGATHA 
(2).) AA.8S. 

St. Salvia (2), SILVIA. 

St. Salvina (1), SABINA. 

St. Salvina (2), 4th and 5th century. 
Daughter of Gildo, a Moor, tributary 
king of Mauritania and count of Africa, 
a man of immense wealth and con 
siderable ability, but guilty of great 
crimes : he died by his own hand. 
Salvina became the wife of Nebridius, a 
most amiable and estimable young man, 
nephew of ST. FLACCILLA, after whose 
death the Emperor adopted Nebridius 
and brought him up with his own sons, 
the future Emperors Arcadius and Hono- 
rius. High official dignities were heaped 
upon him, and about 396 he was Pro- 
Consul of Africa. He died young, 
leaving Salvina with one son and one 

St. Jerome s 79th letter is addressed 
to Salvina. He had never seen her, but 
loved her husband. He advises her to 
remain a widow, and to devote herself 
to her children, and to ascetic and pious 
practices ; to have a maiden aunt to live 
with her and a respectable aged man to 
overlook her servants. He says of her 
son, quoting Virgil, " that narrow frame 
contains a hero s heart," and he calls the 
little daughter of Nebridius and Salvina, 
" a basket of roses and lilies, a mixture 
of ivory and purple." In warning Salvina 
against all luxury and splendour, he 
says, " Never let pheasant be seen upon 
your table, nor plump turtle doves nor 
black-cock from lona, or any of those 
birds so expensive that they fly away 
with the largest properties, and do not 
fancy that you eschew meat when you 
reject ... the flesh . . . of quadrupeds. 
It is not the number of feet . . . that 
makes the difference." He says, " Let the 
scriptures be ever in your hands, and 
give yourself . . . frequently to prayer." 
Salvina became a deaconess, and was 
among those devout women who, in after 
years, upheld St. Chrysostom under his 
persecutions. Lebeau speaks of her as a 
Saint, but she does not appear to have a 
day of commemoration. 

Lebeau. Smith and Wace. 
St. Samaritana, PHOTINA (1). 
St. Sambacia, April 24, M. in Africa. 

St. Sambaria, July 19 (translation). 
Probably same as the companion of ST. 
UKSULA, mentioned in Gynecseum, Oct. 22. 
AA.SS., Prsetcr. 

St. Samdyne or SAMTHANA, Dec. 1 9, 
+ 738. " In yrelonde the feest of saynt 
Samdyne a virgyn, borne of noble blode, 
and by her frendes maryed, but for the 
desyre of virginite she was delyuered 
from her spouse by myracle, and so 
entred religion, wherein she came to 
hygh perfeccyon and was abbesse, a grcte 
almes woman and very pyteous, and many 
persons she delyuered from shame and 
rebuke, many also from pryson by my 
racle, and by her prayer she remoued a 
chirche, with many other notable actes." 
(Mart, of Salisbury.) She was abbess of 
Clonbrone or Cluainbronach, co. Long 
ford. Butler, Appendix. 

St. Samina, June 2. One of two 
hundred and twenty-seven Eoman mar 
tyrs commemorated together. AA.SS. 
Mart, of St. Jerome. 

St. Sammata, June 2, M. at Eomc. 

SS. Samo or SAMOS and Guria, 
Nov. 20, MM. at Edessa. They went 
about comforting the Christians and 
converting the heathen. They were hung 
up, starved, and then beheaded. Usuard 
and Molanus. 

St. Samthana, SAMDYNE. 
St. Sanaen, July 4, M. at Maudau- 
rum in Africa, with St. Namphanio and 
others. EM. Ferrarius. 

St. Sancha (1), March 13 (with her 
sister), June 17, -f c. 1230. Daughter 
of Sancho I., king of Portugal (1185- 
1212). Sister of Alfonso II. (1212- 
1223), and of ST. THERESA (5), queen of 
Leon, and B. MAFALDA, queen of Castile. 
Their mother s name was Dulce. King 
Sancho gave Sancha the town of Alen- 
quer, and confirmed it to her by will ; 
but her brother Alfonso the Fat tried to 
deprive her of this and the rest of her 
inheritance ; he invaded her estates and 
killed a number of her people. At last 
peace was restored, and Sancha seeing 
that her sister Theresa ruled over the 





Cistercian convent of Lorvan with great 
success, determined to build another of 
the same Order at Alenquer; but by 
divine revelation she went instead to 
Coimbra and built near that town, her 
monastery of Sfca. Maria das Cellas, and 
into it she removed a number of recluses 
called Muratas who, for want of a nun 
nery had been walled up each in a little 
cell, a very small window only being 
left open at which to pass in food. They 
received the veil from the Abbot of 
Alcobaza. Her brother urged her to 
marry her nephew, the king of Leon 
and Castile, in order to make peace 
between Spain and Portugal; but she 
declined and assumed the Cistercian 
habit. She did not yet, however, give 
up her property and liberty, but returned 
to Alenquer to attend to her estates and 
affairs. At this time, St. Francis, who 
was living in Italy, sent five of his 
friars to preach to the Moors. Passing 
through Portugal, they visited Alfonso. 
Sancha took so much interest in their 
mission that she built at Jerabrica, on 
her own estate, a chapel and cells for six 
or seven brothers of the Order. This 
was the first Franciscan religious house 
in Portugal. The five friars passed on 
to Africa, where they all suffered mar 
tyrdom. Sancha was also a benefactor 
to the Order of St. Dominic. When 
she had settled her affairs, she shut her 
self up, with her nuns, in her convent at 
Alenquer. She died about 1230, and her 
sister Theresa carried off her body by 
stealth and buried it at Lorvan. They 
are commemorated together. AA.SS., 
June 17. Bucelinus, March 13. Henri- 
quez, Lilia. 

B. Sancha (2), surnamed Carillo, 
July 25, Aug. 13, abbess andcommenda- 
trix of the military Order of St. James. 
Daughter of Alfonso IX., king of Leon 
(1188-1214). Sister of (St.) Ferdinand 
III. (1217-1252). Guerin. Stadler. 
Florez says she lies honoured as a Saint 
in Santa Fe di Toledo. 


St. Sancta (1), July 28, M. at Chios. 
AA.SS., Prseter. 

B. Sancta (2). (See FULCIDE.) 

St. Sanctia. (See JULIANA (5).) 


Santillana, SANTA JULIANA. Espana 

B. Santuccia or SANTA, March 21, 
Sept. 8, + 1305. Bora at Gubbio, in 
Umbria, of the ancient and respectable 
family of Terrabotti. She was married 
and had a daughter Julia, who directly 
after her birth, while she was being 
washed, distinctly said, "Jesus. Mary." 
This child died young. 

B. Sperandio and his wife B. GENNAIA, 
nobles of Gubbio, having betaken them 
selves to a monastic life, Santuccia and her 
husband resolved to follow their example: 
he became a monk in the Benedictine 
monastery of St. Peter, and she, with the 
approbation of the abbot, spent her sub 
stance in building a convent on a hill near 
the town; it was placed under the protec 
tion of the B. V. MAIIY, and called Serve 
della Madonna. As soon as it was finished, 
Santuccia took the veil on St. Benedict^ 
day, March 21, and established there the 
Benedictine rule of St. Sperandio. She 
was elected abbess, and her piety and 
good government were so eminent that 
the Templars presented to her the 
church of Santa Maria in Julia at Rome, 
with the adjacent buildings for a con 
vent of her Order. Sperandio gave her 
an oratory at Bolgaviano, outside the 
walls of Perugia, where she founded 
a convent. She founded and was supe 
rior general of twenty-four convents, 
all forming one congregation under the 
name of St. Sperandio. The nuns were 
popularly called le Santuccie. In 12G4, 
John, abbot of St. Peter s at Gubbio, 
pronounced an anathema against her, 
because she said that she and her con 
vents were not subject to him. Pope 
Clement IV., however, annulled the ana 
thema, and made her Order to depend 
immediately on the holy see. 

She is erroneously claimed as a 
member of the Third Order of Servites, 
which was not established until after 
her death. Her rule was Benedictine ; 
that of the Servites Augustine. Helyot. 
AA.SS. Jacobilli, Santi dell Umbria, 
Sept. 8. 

St. Sanula, Feb. 24, M. at Nicome- 
dia, in Bithynia, with sixteen other 
women and about a hundred and forty 
men. AA.SS. 

21 fi 


St. Sanysia, Dec. o(), M. at Thessa- 
lonica. R.M. 

St. Sapida, May 7, M. in Africa. 

St. Sapientia (1), SOPHIA (1). 

St. Sapientia (2). (See BRIGID (1).) 

B. Sapientia (3), March 31, prioress 
of tlie Cistercian nunnery of Mont 
Cornillon, near Liege. She brought up 
ST. JULIANA (21) and her sister Agnes. 
Henriqucz. Bucelinus. 

St. Sara (1), SARAH, or SARAI, 
March 19, wife of the patriarch Abra 
ham and at the age of ninety mother 
of Isaac. Supposed to be the same as 
Iscah, daughter of Haran and sister of 
Milcah, wife of Nahor. This is the 
Jewish tradition and is followed by 
Josephus and St. Jerome. On this 
theory, Lot was the brother of Sarah. 
Jewish tradition also says that she died 
of the shock of the sacrifice of Isaac, and 
that when Abraham returned from 
Mount Moriah he found her dead. She 
died at Hebron at the age of a hundred 
and twenty- seven, and was buried in the 
cave of Macpelah, which was bought by 
Abraham for that purpose and was the 
only spot of ground he had in the land 
promised to his descendants. It is a 
place of pilgrimage to Christians, Jews 
and Mohammedans, and her resting- 
place is pointed out opposite to that of 
Abraham, with those of Isaac and 
Eebekah on one side and Jacob and 
Leah on the other. Smith s Dictionary 
of the Bible. Baillet. 

St. Sara (2) or SARETTE, April 9, 
serving-maid to ST. MARY (5). Sara s 
body was taken to France and there 
hidden ; it was discovered in 1448. 

St. Sara (3), April 24, V. M. in 
Syria. Not found in the oldest mar- 
tyrologies but mentioned by Greven 
and Canisius. 

St. Sara (4), July 13, V. Abbess in 
the desert of Scete, in Libya, towards 
the end of the 4th century. For 
thirteen years she endured perpetual 
persecution from an evil spirit, who 
sometimes appeared visibly to her ; she 
never prayed for his removal, but only 
for fortitude for the struggle. She 
lived for sixty years close to a river 

without ever caring to look at it. 
AA.SS. Sylva AnacJioretica. 

Sara (5), V. Abbess. Commemo 
rated by Witford, de Vitis Patrum prse- 
clarse virtutis. Perhaps SARA (4). 

St. Sara (6). (See BEEN AN.) 

St. Sarachilde, PHARAILDIS. 

St. Sarbilia, DABEBOA (2). 

St. Sarmata (1), Jan. 18, M. One 
of thirty-seven martyrs in Egypt. 

St. Sarmata (2), Oct. 11, M. in 
Thebais. EM. 

St. Sarmatia, SARMITIA, or SERMATIA, 
June 2. One of two hundred and 
twenty-seven Roman martyrs com 
memorated together by St. Jerome. 

St. Sarnata of Dairinis, April 15. 
Irish. AA.SS., Prseter. 

St. Sarta or SATA, Jan. 17, M. in 
Africa. AA.88. 

St. Satira, May 10, M. at Tarsus in 
Cilicia. AA.SS. 

St. Sativola, SIDWELL. 

St. Saturna (1), May 10, M. at 
Tarsus in Cilicia. AA.88. 

St. Saturna (2) or, according to 
St. Jerome, SATURNUS, Feb. 7, M. Com 
memorated with Anatolius and other 
martyrs, Jan. 7, in several old martyr- 
ologies. AA.SS., Feb. 7. 

St. Saturnia or SATURNINA, May 24, 
M. in Syria. 

St. Saturnilla, Feb. 9, M. One of 
many martyrs in Egypt, commemorated 
on this day in the Mart, of St. Jerome. 

SB. Saturnina (1-23), are cited 
by the Bollandists from the ancient 
calendars ; six of these are in a list of 
two hundred and twenty-seven Roman 
martyrs in St. Jerome s Mart., June 2 ; 
two are in the list with ST. AUCEGA, 
June 1 ; one but it is not known which 
is patron of Heerse, whither she was 
translated from Rome with miracles ; 
one was a companion of SS. MARY (10) 
and VICTORIA at Avitina. 

St. Saturnina (24), June 4, V. of 
a noble family in Germany, M. at Arras 
in Artois. At an early age she made a 
vow of celibacy, and fled from her home 
to avoid being compelled to marry. Her 



affianced husband with the approbation 
of her parents, pursued her and overtook 
her in the neighbourhood of Arras, 
where she was hiding among some 
shepherds in a field. He cut off her 
head. She took it in her hands and 
carried it in presence of all the people 
into the church of St. Remi (Remigius), 
which stood in the adjoining village. 
There she was buried with due honour, 
and long afterwards, a portion of her 
relics was carried to Saxony. 

Baillet says the Acts of St. Saturnina 
have been copied to make up those of 
ST. ROMANA (7) and ST. BENEDICTA (7). 
E.M. AA.SS. 

St. Saula. SS. MARTHA (11) and 
SAULA, Oct. 20, VV. MM. with many 
others, at Cologne. Saula is sometimes 
called a companion of ST. URSULA; 
sometimes the same as Ursula ; but it is 
easier, says Baillet, to identify the two 
names than to account for Martha being 
put first of the two saints. E.M. 

St. Saverstia, ANGELINA (5). 

St. Savina, SABINA. 

St. Savinilla, SABINELLA. 

St. Scalleria or SCALLBRVA, SALLA 

St. Scamberg or SCANBERGA, Oct. 2, 
matron. Probably the same as SCARI- 

St. Scaraberd, SCARIBERG. 

St. Scariberg, SCARABERD, or 
SCARRIBERGA, July 18, 6th century, 
V. honoured at Silva Aquilina, near 
Chartres. Niece of Clovis, and said, in 
one legend, to be sister of St. Patrick. 
Wife of St. Arnulf, who preached to the 
Franks after the baptism of Clovis. 
Arnulf is said to have been bishop of 
Tours, but this is not certain. He 
preached in various parts of France and 
Spain, and was murdered it is said, by 
some of his wife s servants about 534, 
while praying at the tomb of St. Remi 
gius. Scariberg found him dying, and 
received his blessing and parting advice. 
She took the veil, and lived some time 
with her brother, St. Patrick ; and after 
his death, she gave herself entirely to 
austerity and devotion. Neither her 
story nor her worship is well established. 
AA.SS. Butler. Mas Latrie calls her 

St. Scariola, June <>, V. at Bourges. 
Mart, of Cologne and Lubeck, written 
1490, and copied by some later writers. 
Supposed to be the same as ST. EUSTA- 
DIOLA. AA.SS., Prsetcr. 

St. Schiria, March 24, 6th century. 
The church of Killskire or Killkire in 
Meath was called after her. She is said 
to have been the daughter of Eugene, 
great-grandson of Fergus, brother of 
Neill Negialliach. She had a sister, 
Corcaria Keann or Caoin, a holy virgin 
whose name is not in the calendars, 
unless she is the same as ST. CORCCAGIA. 

St. Scholastica (l), Feb. or 10, 
Nov. 13, July 11 (SCOLACE, SCOLASSE, 
ECOLACE), V. + c. 543. Patron of 
Le Mans, of Vich or Vique in Cata 
lonia ; of Benedictines, and against 
storms. Represented with her brother, 
St. Benedict, and two turtle doves. 
Scholastica and Benedict were of the 
noble family of the Anicii, and were 
born in Umbria, at Nursia or Norcia. 
She was dedicated to the service of God 
from a very tender age, and as St. 
Gregory says that Benedict governed 
nuns as well as monks, it is inferred 
that the nuns were in the convent of 
Plombariola, under the superintendence 
of Scholastica. It is not, however, 
certain that she ever was a professed 
nun. All that is told of her in the Life 
of Benedict is that she lived in a cell, 
a few miles from Monte Cassino, and that 
she used to visit her brother once a 
year; but as no woman was allowed 
to enter the monastery, St. Benedict 
with a few of his monks, used to meet 
her at a small house near the gate, where 
they passed the day together in singing 
hymns and talking of heavenly things. 
The last time she visited him, when they 
had spent the day as usual and had 
dined together, she besought him not 
to leave her that night. He refused to 
stay as it was contrary to his rule, and 
she laid her head on her hands on the 
table and prayed God to let him stay. 
Although the sky was perfectly clear up 
to that moment, a frightful storm of 
thunder, lightning and rain immediately 
came on, so that Benedict and his 
monks could not stir from the house. 



As soon as Scholastica lifted her head 
from her hands the storm ceased, Benedict 
perceived that God had granted her the 
request which he had refused, so he 
stayed with her. Next day she returned 
to her cell. Three days afterwards, as 
Benedict was praying in his cell, he saw 
his sister s soul ascending to heaven. 
Holy women of the Order of St. Bene 
dict arc commemorated on Nov. 1 3. 
Dialogues of St. Gregory the Great. 
Gregory learned the details he records 
from four abbots, who were monks 
under Benedict at Monte Cassino. 
AA.SS. Butler. Baillet. 

The brother and sister are buried 
together in a subterranean chapel under 
the high altar in Benedict s monastery 
of San Germano, Monte Cassino. 

Some relics of St. Scholastica were 
kept in the church of St. Peter at Le 
Mans ; and on July 11, 1563, while the 
inhabitants were celebrating her fete, a 
sudden panic seized the Protestant 
garrison, and they fled and rid the 
Christians of their presence, leaving 
behind them the registers of their 
consistory. A solemn procession was 
annually held on the anniversary of 
this great deliverance. Cahier. Chaste- 

St. Scholastica (2), V. Wife of 
Injuriosus. When he laid her in her 
grave, he said, " Lord, I give Thee back 
this treasure, stainless as I received her 
from Thee." She opened her eyes and 
smiled, but said, " Why dost thou reveal 
that which was a secret between thee 
and me ? " Some years after, Injuriosus 
died, and they made him a grave beside 
that of Scholastica. Next day the two 
tombs were found to have become one, 
and people called it the grave of the two 
lovers. Les Mystiques, from St. Gregory 
of Tours. 

St. Schwellmerg. (See TRIADS.) 

St. Sciala or STIALA, AIALA. 

Scillitan Martyrs. (See JANUARIA 

St. Scoberia. (See Libaria.) 

St. Scolace, SCHOLASTICA (I). 

St. Scolastica, SCHOLASTICA. 

St. Scoth (1) or SCOTA, July 16, 
5th century. Descended from the first 
Connor, king of Ireland. She was the 

daughter of Cobhtach. Her monastery 
was a few miles from Mullingar and 
thither her nephew St. Senan betook 
himself that he might remain absorbed 
in prayer, in preparation for his ap 
proaching death. O Hanlon. 

SS. Scoth (2), Feammor, Blath 
(1) and Ana, Jan. 18, VV. honoured 
at Cluain Greanach, in Ireland. It is 
probable that some, if not all of them, 
lived in the 5th century. O Hanlon. 

St. Scuriola, EUSTADIOLA. 

St. Scythe, OSITH. 

St. Sebastia or SABBATIA, July 4, 
M. with many others. EM. AA.SS. 

St. Sebastiana (1), Sep. 16. Con 
verted by St. Paul. Tortured and be 
headed at Heraclea in Thrace, under 
the Emperor Domitian. EM. Mas 

St. Sebastiana (2), June 7, hon 
oured in the Greek Church as a worker 
of miracles. AA.8S. 

St. Sebdanna, -f ^27, abbess of 
Kildare in Ireland. Colgan. 

St. Secildis, SICILDIS. 

SS. Secunda (1-16), MM. in the 
various persecutions. Some are sup 
posed to be duplicates. One was mother 
of ST. SEVERA (l); one is honoured as 
a companion of ST. URSULA: relics at 
St. Denis near Paris. Three are in the 
EM. July 10, 17, 30. 

St. Secundella, Feb. 28, M. at 
Alexandria, with many others. AA.SS. 

St. Secundiana, May 7, M. in 
Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Secundilla (1) or SECUNDOLA 
(1), March 2, M. at Porto Komano. 

St. Secundilla (2), March 1, M. in 
Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Secimdina (l), Aug. 1, M. at 
Rome. AA.SS. 

St. Secundina (2), Jan. 13, 15, 
V. M., middle of 3rd century, at Anagni, 
under Decius. St. Magnus, bishop of 
Anagni, was taken and put to death. 
Secundina was also arrested. For five 
months many ways were tried to induce 
her to renounce her religion; but in 
vain. She converted several of her 
keepers and tormentors. At last she 
was beaten to death ; milk flowed from 
her wounds instead of blood, and a 



dazzling light shone from her body, so 
that the executioners could not fix their 
eyes upon her. In the midst of their 
impious cruelty, a great peal of thunder 
was heard, and the angels came and took 
her soul. KM. AA.SS. 

St. Secundina (3), May 8, M. at 
Constantinople, with St. Acacius. AA.SS. 
(Sre AGATHA (2).) 

St. Secundola (1), SECUNDTLLA. 

St. Secundola (2), Aug. i, M. at 
Rome. AA.SS. 

St. Secundula (l), Feb. 2, M. at 
Rome, with many others. AA.SS. 

St. Secundula (2) M. with ANTIGA. 

St. Secundula (8), Sept. 28, M. in 
Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Secura, SACUSA. 

St. Securis, Feb. 24, M. with about 
a hundred and sixty others, at Nicomedia 
in Bithynia. AA.SS. 

St. Secusa, SACUSA. 

St. Sedepha or SEDOPHA, SODEPHA. 

Jan. 10. 7th century. Second abbess 
of Brie (afterwards called Faremoutier). 
Daughter of ST. HERESWITHA by her 
first marriage. Sedrido left England 
and became a nun at Brie, under its first 
abbess ST. FARA, whom she succeeded. 
AA.SS. Brit. Sancta. Butler, "St. 
Fara" Dec. 7. (See ST. ERCONGOTA and 

St. Segeberg, GEGOBERGA. 

St. Segnetia, SEGRETIA. 

St. Segnich, V., abbess of Kill Ailbe. 
Possibly same as SINCHA. Lanigan. 

St. Segoberg, GEGOBERGA. 

St. Segolena, SIGOLENA. 

St. Segrauz, SIGRADA. 

St. Segrete, SIGRADA. 

St. Senve, SEUVE. 

St. Segretia or SEGNETIA, Dec. 18, 
V. said to have been sister of St. Gerald, 
and an abbess in Ireland. She died of 
jaundice, with a hundred of her nuns, 
when that pestilence ravaged Ireland in 
064. Lanigan. 

St. Sellaris, Feb. 24, M. with many 
others at Nicomedia in Bithynia. AA.SS. 

St. Sellenais, June 5 or 8, M. 
in Egypt, under Galerius Maximianus. 
Stadler und Heim. 

St. Semibaria, Oct. 22, V. M., 
companion of ST. URSULA. Specially 

honoured at St. Denis. The body was 
probably brought there from Cologne 
and named afterwards. Martin. Gyne- 


B. Semina, Jan. 25, a Carthusian V. 
AA.SS., Prsetcr. 

St. Sempronia or SEMPRONIANA. 
(See JULIANA (15).) 

St. Sena, Feb. in the calendar of 
the monastery of St. Cyriacus at Rome, 
is probably ST. XENA or EUSEBIA (4) or 
else ST. SERENA (4). AA.SS. 

St. Senarde. A chapel is dedicated 
in her name at St. Gilles de Soulans, in 
the diocese of Lucon. Chastelain. 

St. Senentia, V. Invoked in a 
litany used in England in the 7th cen 
tury. Migne, PcUrologtCB Cursus Com- 
pletns, vol. 72. Mabillon, Analecta 
Vetera. English Mart. 1761. 

St. Senorina, April 22, V. 924-982. 
Abbess of the convent of St. John of 
Vieira at Basto, in Entre Minho y Douro, 
Portugal. Patron of Vieira. Repre 
sented with a large jar of water ; some 
times with a frog beside her. Senorina 
is said to have been of the noble family 
of Sousa. She was the daughter of 
Ilufes or Adolphus, count of Belfajal 
and lord of the territories of Vieira and 
Basto. She lost her mother while still 
an infant, and was brought up by her 
aunt B. GODINA, whom she eventually 
succeeded as abbess of the Benedictine 
convent of St. John of Vieira. Her 
father built her a new monastery at 
Basto. St. Rodesind (March 1) was 
her dear friend and near relation ; one 
day when he paid her a visit at her 
convent, two workmen, who were mend 
ing the roof, were so wicked as to mis 
construe the friendship of the two saints : 
hardly had this impious thought arisen 
in their minds when they both fell from 
the roof and were killed on the spot: 
the holy abbess and bishop then raised 
them to life. Once Senorina sent a 
servant to bring water from a fountain ; 
when she put it to her lips, it was wine. 
Thinking it was a trick, she sent for 
another jug of water, and this time sent 
another woman to watch the first one. 
The same thing happened, and then she 
knew it was a miracle, and assembled 
her household to share this divine gift 



of wine. Sitting at a table reading, 
with shelves full of books near her, she 
stopped a storm which was going to 
destroy the corn that was ready to be 
reaped. AA.SS., from her Life by 
Salazar, extracted from a MS. Leygen- 
dario of Coimbra. 

St. Sentia, companion of ST. URSULA. 

St. Sentiana, M. with JULIANA (5). 

St. Sepaca, June 2, M. at Lyons, 
but not with BLANDINA. AA.SS. 

St. Septemna, SEPTIMA. 

St. Septima, SEPTIMIA, SEPTEMNA, or 
SEPTIMINA, May 7, M. in Africa. AA.SS. 

St. Septimia (l) or SEPTIMIA SE- 
VERINA, Dec. 1 11, M. Wife of St. Ca- 
tervus, M. They, with the help of St. 
Bassus, converted the people of Tolen- 
tino to Christianity. She built a tomb 
for her husband and herself. They are 
commemorated together. Ughelli calls 
her Septimia Severina, V. Ferrarius. 

SS. Septimia (2-6), MM. Some- 
times same as SEPTIMA or SEPTIMUS. 

St. Septimina (1), May 10, M. at 
Tarsus in Cilicia. AA.SS. 

St. Septimina (2), SEPTIMA. 

St. Serafina, SERAPHINA. 

St. Serant. Perhaps a misprint for 

St. Seraphina (1), July 29, is said 
to have been an inhabitant of Galicia 
in Spain, converted by St. James the 
apostle. It is, however, believed that 
this is a mere legend and that the real 
Seraphina lived in Asia Minor, in the 
5th century. AA.SS. 

St. Seraphina (2) of Monte Feltre, 
COLONNA), 1434-1478, O.S.F. Abbess 
of Corpo di Cristo at Pesaro. Daughter 
of Guido Antonio, count or duke of 
Urbino and of Monte Feltre. She was 
christened SUEVA. Her parents died 
when she was a child, and she was 
brought up by the Colonna, her mother s 
relations at Kome ; hence the supposi 
tion that she was born there of the 
Colonna family. She married Alex 
ander Sforza, lord of Pesaro, constable 
to the king of Sicily. He had, by his 
first wife, Constanza Varana, two sons, 
Galeazzo and Costanzo, whom Sueva 
loved as if they were her own. Alex 
ander went to help his brother Philip 

in his wars. During his absence he 
committed the care of all his affairs and 
dominions to Sueva ; she managed every 
thing very well. On his return he fell 
in love with a doctor s wife, named Paci- 
fica, and began to ill treat Sueva who, 
although very amiable, was small and 
not pretty. He tried to poison and to 
strangle her, and at last ho dragged her 
by her hair through the hall where many 
of his servants were standing, and strik 
ing her brutally, pushed her out of the 
door and bade her go and keep company 
with the Clarissans: which she meekly 
did, in the convent of Corpo di Cristo. 
(See B. FELICIA (11) B. FRANCES (4) 
of Fano was a nun of the same con 
vent). Her Roman relations were very 
angry. Alexander, to excuse himself, 
said he had treated her in this way, 
because she was unfaithful to him, and 
promised that she should confess her 
guilt to them. They came to the con 
vent, accompanied by Alexander and a 
scribe, hoping to hear her cleared of the 
calumny ; but she declined to answer 
any of their questions, and they believed 
her guilty and went away ashamed. Her 
innocence was not hidden, for a young 
ass bit the scribe who had fabricated the 
whole story, and would not cease from 
biting the hand that had written the 
falsehood, until he openly confessed his 
guilt and proclaimed the innocence of 
Sueva. She took the veil and with it 
the name of Seraphina. Alexander de 
manded Seraphina s wedding ring; she 
would not give it up for harlots to wear 
and to encourage men to put away their 
wives. After a time he ill used Pacifica 
as he had done Sueva, and when she left 
him she repented and did penance and 
died piously. Seraphina never ceased 
to pray for her husband s conversion and 
at last he repented and spent the re 
maining nine years of his life in good 
works. He died in 1473. 

Seraphina was beloved by the nuns, 
and after fifteen years of conventual life, 
was unanimously elected abbess. At 
her death a great concourse of the 
citizens came to see the corpse of one 
whom they had long regarded as a 
saint. She was worshipped from that 
time and her worship was approved as 



immemorial by Pope Benedict XIV. 
A.R.M. Romano Serapkicwn, Sept. 9. 
AA.SS., Sept. 8. Franciscan Breviary, 
Paris, 1760. 

SS. Serapia, V. and Sabina (l) or 

SAVINA, Aug. 29, Sept. 3, MM., Serapia 
in 125, Sabina, 126. Sabina is patron 
of Rome. Serapia is represented with 
torches and scourges in her hand or near 
her. She was a native of Antioch in 
Syria, and was brought very young to 
Italy, apparently as a slave. In the 
time of the persecution under the Em 
peror Adrian, she was living in a little 
town in Umbria, with a Eoman widow of 
high rank, named Sabina, whom she had 
converted to Christianity, and who had, 
besides Serapia, several Christian maidens 
in her house. Beryllus, governor of the 
province, hearing that they were all 
Christians, requested Sabina to send him 
all the girls she had in her house. She 
excused herself and forbade any of them 
to go out. Serapia, however, offered to 
go to him, hoping thus to appease him 
and not bring down his wrath on them 
all. Sabina understanding better than 
Serapia the dangers to which she would 
be exposed, tried to dissuade her, but 
finding her bent on going, she ordered 
her litter and went with her. Beryllus 
heard that Sabina was at the door, and 
having more respect for her rank than 
for the virtue of her maids, he went out 
to meet her and remonstrated with her 
for taking so much trouble about a 
miserable sorceress, for so he called 
Serapia. After some argument, Sabina 
was allowed to take Serapia home 
again ; but three days afterwards, Beryl 
lus sent lictors to bring Serapia to the 
Court to be publicly tried. Sabina fol 
lowed her on foot, and said all she 
could to Beryllus to persuade him not 
to do any harm to her protegee. As she 
could obtain nothing, she went home in 
tears. Beryllus having examined Se 
rapia as to her worship and belief, and 
finding that the Christians attached 
great importance to purity of life, gave 
her into the power of two wicked 
Egyptians, but they could not even look 
at her, for when she prayed to be pro 
tected from them, they were struck 
blind and when they attempted to 

approach her, they fell down helpless. 
Next day Beryllus condemned her to 
sundry tortures and ordered her to be 
beaten ; a splinter of one of the sticks 
flew into his eye and blinded him. She 
was then beheaded. 

Sabina buried her in a handsome tomb, 
which she had prepared for herself. In 
consideration of her position, she was 
left without further molestation until 
the following year, when Elpidius was 
deputed by Beryllus to get rid of her. 
He brought her to trial and on her 
steadfast refusal to sacrifice to the gods, 
had her beheaded. The bodies of the 
two martyrs were afterwards removed to 
Rome, which has given occasion to 
some collectors of Lives of the martyrs 
to say that they lived and died at Rome. 

Some of the most interesting of all the 
ancient churches in Rome are on the 
Aventine ; one of them is St. Sabina s. 
It existed in 423 and is said to be on the 
site of her house; it was given to St. 
Dominic in the twelfth century, with a 
part of the adjoining Savelli palace for 
a cloister. Although much spoilt by 
restoration, it is still beautiful ; the 
altar-piece by Zucchero represents Sa 
bina being dragged up the marble steps 
of a temple, by an executioner, with a 
drawn sword in his hand. 

E.M. AA.SS. Butler. Baillet. Ca- 
hier. Mrs. Jameson. Hemans. 

St. Seraute, SICILDIS. 

St. Sereine, SERENA. 

St. Seremione, HEKMIONB. 

St. Serena (1), May 8, M. at Byzan 
tium, with St. Acacius. AA.SS. (See 
AGATHA (2).) 

St. Serena (2), Feb. 21, M. AAJSS. 

St. Serena (3), Aug. 16, + 2i>8. 
Wife of the Emperor Diocletian. She 
secretly favoured the Christians and 
encouraged her friend SUSANNA (8) in 
refusing the marriage proposed for her 
by the emperor. After her martyrdom, 
Serena buried her in the catacombs near 
St. Alexander. Serena and her daughter 
AKTEMIA (1), were converted by St. 
Cyriacus. Serena grieved and fretted 
about her husband s persecution of the 
Christians, to such an extent, that she 
fell ill of fever and died. 

Her story is not true. Diocletian 



never had a wife Serena, Prisca was the 
name of the Empress in the time of St. 
Susanna. Serena is mentioned in the 
Acts of St. Susanna and those of St. 
Cyriacus, neither of which are authentic. 

EM. AA.8S. (SW3 ST. ALEXANDRA (1).) 

St. Serena (4), Jan. 30, translation 
June 25. M. under Diocletian. She is 
said by Saussaye to have been put to 
death for her kindness to the martyrs at 
Cordova, and her body translated to 
Metz. By another account, she was an 
inhabitant of Spoleto, who spent the 
thirty-three years of her widowhood in 
acts of piety and charity. When St. 
Sabinus, bishop of Assisi, had his hands 
cut off by the persecutors she tended 
him, dressed his wounds, and preserved 
his hands in a glass case. He rewarded 
her by placing the stumps on the eyes of 
her beloved blind nephew Priscian, and 
thus restoring his sight. Sabinus was 
put to death soon afterwards, and Serena 
buried him. AA.SS. Jacobilli, Santi 
dell* Umbria. She is probably the same 
whom Stadler gives as M. at Spoleto, 
Dec. 7. 

St. Serena (5), or SYRENA, IKENB (8). 

St. Sermata, Feb. 9, M. in Egypt. 
Mart, of St. Jerome. AA.SS. 

St. Sermatia, SARMATIA. 

St. Serolde, SICILDIS. 

St. Seronne, Nov. 15, V. inlePerche. 

St. Serote, SICILDIS. 

St. Serotina, Dec. 31, M. at Rome, 
with DONATA and others, in the cemetery 
of ST. PRISCILLA, on the Via Salaria. 

St. Servilia (1), Feb. 28, M. with 
many others. AA.SS. 

St. Servilia (2), ORBILIA. 

St. Sesaute, SICILDIS. Chastelain. 

St. Sethrid or SETHRYTH, SEDRIDO. 

St. Seuve, SEVA or SENVE of Lobi- 
ncau, Nov. 30. Daughter of ST. COPAGIA 
and sister of St. Tugdnal, British Piety, 

B. Seve or S-aEVA, July 26, nun at 
Langoal in Bretagne. Guerin. Perhaps 
same as Seuve. 

St. Severa (l), Jan. 29, V. M. 1st 
or beginning of 4th century. One of a 
family of martyrs commemorated together. 
Her parents were S3. Maximinus and 

SECUNDA ; her brothers, SS. Mark and 
Calendine. Maximinus commanded a 
thousand soldiers, many of whom he 
converted. He was condemned by the 
Emperor Maximian, to work in the mines, 
and as he continued to make converts, 
he and they were put to death and buried 
by Pope (St.) Marcellus, in 308. On 
the accession of a new emperor, whom 
the story calls Claudius although there 
was no emperor so named at that time 
Secunda and her children were arrested 
and brought to trial : Secunda then and 
there died. Her sons and daughter were 
scourged to death at Pyrgum (now called 
St. Severa), on the seashore thirty-five 
miles from Rome. AA.SS. Peter 

St. Severa (2), June 3, Roman 
martyr. AA.SS. 

St, Severa (3), Oct. 17, M. in Mauri 
tania, probably 304. AA.SS. 

St. Severa (4), July 20, V. + c. 
660. Sister of St. Modoald, bishop of 
Treves (May 12), who built a convent 
on the Moselle, in honour of St. Sym- 
phorian, M. Severa presided over it. 
She was aunt or cousin of ST. GERTRUDE 
(5). AA.SS. 

St. Severiana. (See FUSCINA.) 

St. Severina, May 3. 2nd century. 
Erroneously called by Greven and 
Ferrarius, wife of the Emperor Aurelian ; 
but according to Papebroch, her hus 
band was an officer of the same name, 
who, in 119, killed Pope (St.) Alexander 
and two holy priests. Aurelian heard 
a voice warning him that these martyrs 
had gone to heaven, but that he should 
go to endless torment. He was seized 
with fever and delirium and begged 
Severina to pray to her God for him. 
She said she would go and bury the 
saints, lest the same fate should overtake 
her; she did so, and on her return, 
found her husband in a raging fever, 
of which he presently died. AA.SS. 

SS. Sewara and Sewenna. (See 

St. Sexburga, July 6, queen of 
Kent. 7th century. Daughter of Anna, 
king of the East Angles (of the family 
of the Uffings) and perhaps of ST. HERES- 
WITHA. Wife of Ercombert, king of 
Kent (640-664), son of Eadbald, king 




of Kent, and Emma, daughter of Clothaire 
II. king of the Franks. 

Sexburga was sister of SS. ETHELREDA, 
half-sister of ST. SEDRIDO. She was 
and grandmother of ST. WEKEEURGA of 
Chester. She was sister-in-law of ST. 
EANSWITH, and aunt by marriage of ST. 


Sexburga began in her husband s life, 
to build a religious house at Sheppey in 
Kent, that holy virgins might attend 
divine service for her, day and night. 
Ercombert died of the " yellow plague," 
that desolated England in 66-L Of those 
seized with the malady it is said only 
about 30 recovered. After his death, 
she ruled for a time for her son Egbert, 
and when he had no further need of her, 
she retired to her nunnery and assembled 
seventy-four nuns there ; but hearing of 
the great sanctity of her sister Ethel- 
reda of Ely, and desiring to live in 
greater obscurity than she could enjoy 
as head of her own monastery, she became 
a nun under Ethelreda, before 079, and 
eventually succeeded her as abbess of 
Ely, where she lived to a considerable 
age. Her two sons Egbert and Lothaire 
were successively kings of Kent. Her 
daughter Ermenilda, queen of Mercia, 
succeeded her as abbess, first at Sheppey 
and afterwards at Ely. Her convent of 
Le Minster, in Sheppey, was destroyed 
by the Danes, but restored in the twelfth 
century. AAJ38. Butler. Capgrave. 
Smith and Wace. Mabillon. British 

St. Sibillina or SIBYLLA of Pavia, 
March 19, 3rd O.S.D. 1287-1367. 
Daughter of Hubert dei Biscossi and 
Honor de Veci or Verio, his wife. At 
twelve years old Sibillina became blind. 
She was then placed under the care of 
certain venerable ladies who were Sisters 
of the Penitence of St. Dominic, i.e. 
Third Order of Preachers. She tried in 
vain to learn to spin well, in spite of her 
blindness. She prayed continually and 
fervently for the restoration of her sight, 
in order that she might gain her liveli 
hood by her own labour. She firmly 
believed that on the feast of St. Dominic, 
whose aid she had specially implored, 

she should recover her sight : as the 
day passed without her being cured, she 
patiently trusted that her prayer would 
be granted next day ; but when three 
days had passed, she reproached her 
patron saint, saying : " Is this the way 
you cheat me, blessed Dominic, after I 
have prayed so long and so fervently to 
you for so reasonable an object ? Give 
me back the prayers and praises and 
the other things I have offered you in 
vain." Immediately, St. Dominic ap 
peared to her and took her from her 
room to the cathedral, where he showed 
her in a vision, the worfchlessness of 
human life and worldly enjoyment and 
the blessedness of holiness and ever 
lasting life ; from that moment she no 
longer wished to receive her sight. 

Close to the church of the Friars 
Preachers was a cell inhabited by a 
sister of the Penitence of St. Dominic. 
When Sibillina was fifteen and had been 
three years under the care of the above- 
mentioned ladies, this cell became vacant 
by the death of the recluse, and Sibilliua 
went to live there. She remained there 
the rest of her life, namely sixty-four 
years, only coming out once to take the 
sacrament and once to visit a nun in the 
convent of Josaphat. The first seven 
years of her stay in this cell were de 
voted to almost incredible excesses of 
penance. She had no fire and wore the 
same clothes in winter as in summer. 
Her hands were so swollen and sore 
with cold that she could not break her 
dry bread without making them bleed. 
But she attained great charity and other 
spiritual advantages, especially a won 
derful discernment between good and 
evil, and between true revelations and 
mere illusions. She had the gift of 
prophecy, revealed secret things, and 
had visions in which Christ and the 
saints appeared to her. 

AA.SS. Pio. Hernandez. Helyot. 
Hernandez says that she had a com 
panion in her cell for the first three 
years, and for the rest of her life had 
a maid who served her. Her imme 
morial worship was confirmed by Pius 
IX. in 1854. Analecta. Dominican 

St. Sibinella, SABINELLA. 



B. Sibylla or SYBILLA de Gages, 
Oct. 8, 9, + 1240. Daughter of Giles 
de Gages, a nobleman of Aywieres in 
Brabant. She was equally celebrated 
for her learning, virtue and miracles, 
and was the friend of ST. LUTGARD. 
She was translated in 1611, by the 
bishop of Namur. Invoked as a Saint 
with SS. LUTGAHD and ELISABETH (13). 
Henriquez. Bucelinus. Stadler. Re 
jected by the Bollandists. 

St. Sicaria, SICHABIA. 

St. Siccidis. Probably SICILDIS. 

St. Sicharia, Feb. 2 and 16 (SicAitiA, 
leans, commemorated in several old 
martyrologies. All that is known of 
her is that she lived before the rule of 
St. Benedict was generally established 
in France, and that the names Sicharius 
and Sicharia were not uncommon in 
Gaul about the time of Dagobert, 7th 
century. AA.SS. Saussaye. Bucelinus, 
who quotes Bede. Martin. 

St. Sichild, THEODECHILD. 

St. Sicildis, June 22 (SEROLDE or 
etc.). Supposed 8th century. V. hon 
oured at Le Mans, where she was re 
presented, over the altar in her own 
church, in a nun s dress. Her history 
is lost but she is supposed to be the 
same as SICCIDIS, daughter of Asquarius 
and ST. ANEGLIA ; they built a church 
at Alciacum (Auxy-le-Chateau) : Siccidis 
took the veil there and made a splendid 
tomb and ornamented the whole church 
with lights and flowers to honour the 
funeral of their friend St. Silvinus. 
AA.SS. Chastelain. 

St. Sicula, DOMINICA (1). 

St. Sid, SIDWELL. 

St. Sidora, Aug. 10, M. AAJSS. 



740. Sister of SS. Eadwara, JUTHWARA, 
and WILGITH. Patron of Exeter and 
titular saint of a church in Cornwall. 
She was martyred and buried near St. 
Sidwell s church, Exeter. Near to this 
church exists an ancient well supplied 
by a fine spring named St. Sid s well, 
beside which, according to tradition, she 
lived the life of a recluse. There is a 
representation of her in the east window 

of Exeter cathedral, with a scythe in 
her hand and a well behind her : this 
is probably only a rebus upon her name. 
On one of the columns of Exeter cathedral 
she is represented carrying her severed 
head in her hand. Butler, " St. Maw, 
May 18," says that Sidwell was born 
at Exeter and beheaded by Finseca, 
through the machinations of her step 
mother. Her legend is said to be given 
amongst others, abridged for the use of 
the church of Exeter, by Bishop John 
of Grandeson, in 1336. British Piety. 
Cahier. Bees, Welsh SS. (See WELVELA). 

St. Sigaria, SICHARIA. 

St. Sigillenda or SIGILINDIS. (See 

St. Sigillendis, a British widowed 
princess, who was standing on the bank 
of the Rhine to welcome ST. URSULA 
when she arrived. Sigillendis built a 
monastery at Greesburg, near Cologne. 

St. Signaria, SICHARIA. 

St. Sigolena, July 24 (SACCULINA, 
SEGOLENA, SIGOULENE), 7th or 8th cen 
tury. Abbess of Troclar. Patron, with 
St. CECILIA, of Albi in Aquitaine. Hon 
oured at Clermont. Daughter of a 
nobleman of Aquitaine. She had two 
brothers, Sigebald, bishop of Cahors, 
and Babo, governor of Albigeois. She 
was married very young to a nobleman 
who encouraged her in piety and charity. 
After his death she became a deaconess. 
After some time, her father, lest she 
should leave him and take the veil in 
some distant convent, built a monastery 
for her, on his own land at Troclar, 
near Albi, where she led a holy and 
very ascetic life, sleeping on cinders 
with a stone for a pillow. Sacculina 
is incorrectly claimed as a Spaniard 
by Tamayo. AA.SS. Mrs. Jameson. 

St. Sigrada, Aug. 4, SEGRETE, SE- 
century. Mother of St. Leger (Leod- 
garius) bishop of Autun, 616-678 (Oct. 
2). She was shut up in the monastery 
of Notre Dame de Soissons, by Ebroin, 
who was persecuting all her family. 
Her goods were confiscated; her son 
Guerin or Guarin was stoned. St. Leger 
was ill treated. She took the veil at 



Soissons and was honoured there as a 
saint. AA.SS. Guerin. 

Chastelain says she was a nun of 
Notre Dame do Soissons whom St. Leger 
regarded as his spiritual mother. He 
adds that there is a village of her name 
in the diocese of Autun, two leagues 
from Thye-en-Auxois (Thyle in Alexi- 

St. Sila or CYTA, Nov. 1, V. M. 
Nurse of the holy Queen Calfia and 
her nine children. (Sec QUITEKIA). 
Their names were : GENEBRA, VITTOEIA, 
or UVILGEFOHTE. Nobody need doubt, 
says the Portuguese Life of St. Quiteria, 
that Calfia had nine children at a birth, 
because there was once a German woman 
named Dorothea, who had twenty-one 
children at two births, eleven and ten ; 
also a Portuguese woman named Branca 
da Rocha had fourteen at once ; all alive. 
Immediately after the expulsion of the 
Moors from Spain, a church of St. Cyta 
was found at Thomar, where this saint s 
body was preserved with veneration. 

St. Silissa, Oct. 25, V. commemorated 
annually at Toulouse. Unknown to the 
Bollandists. Gi/nccseuiu. AA.SS. 

St. Silla, V. M. Henschenius thinks 
she is the same as ZITA of Lucca. 

St. Sillesia, June 1, M. with ST. 


St. Sillica, June 1, M. with ST. 

St. Silvana (l;, Juno l, M. with 

St. Silvana ( -), June 3, Roman 
Martyr. AA.SS. 

St. Silvana (3), Feb. 28, M. with 
many others. AAJ38. 

St. Silvania, SILVIA. 

St. Silvia (1) Rufina, Dec. 15, 
-f- between 395 and 409. Represented 
with a little earthen dish beside her, 
probably in allusion to her wonderful 
parsimony in the use of water. She was 
sister of Rufinus, the clever, unscrupu 
lous, favoured minister of Theodosius 
and Arcadius, to the latter of whom he 
was also guardian, but was murdered in 
395, by the soldiers. No doubt his rank 
and power had something to do with the 

VOL. n. 

great consideration with which Silvia 
was everywhere treated on her travels. 

Silvia was born at Elusa (modern 
Eauze) in Gascony ; she spent some years 
of her life in the Thebaid and journey 
ing in Egypt and Palestine. She was 
probably consecrated to the religious 
life from her birth, as she speaks of 
never having used any of the luxuries 
or conveniences in which the ladies of 
her time so lavishly indulged ; but al 
though consecrated, she was not clois 
tered : she seems to have had entire 
liberty to go where and when she chose, 
and to stay as long as she chose. 

Palladius, Historia Lausiaca, " Vita 
Sanctae Silvanise," says, " We went from 
^Elia [Jerusalem] to Egypt, taking with 
MIS B. Silvania, V., sister of Rufinus, who 
was ex Prrcfectis. " The pious and 
learned Jubinus, afterwards bishop of 
Ascalon, was with them. It was exces 
sively hot. He washed his feet and 
hands with very cold water, and then 
spread a skin on the ground and reposed. 
Silvania reprehended him for his eifemi- 
nacy. She said she was in her sixtieth 
year and had never washed but the tips 
of her fingers, and that only when about 
to receive the Holy Communion, and 
that although she had had serious ill 
nesses and physicians had prescribed 
baths as absolutely necessary, water had 
never touched her face or her i eet, neither 
had she ever gone about in a litter nor 
slept on a bed. Palladius further says 
that she was very learned and spent her 
nights in reading the Holy Scripture, 
tta best commentaries, or Origen, Gre 
gory, Basil, and others, not superficially, 
but reading each book several times, and 
some as many as seven or eight times. 

In 1883, part of an eleventh century 
MS., a copy of Silvia s account of her 
travels in the Holy Land, was discovered 
in a library at Arezzo ; it is bound with 
part of a book by St. Hilary and is ex 
tremely interesting. Her story is re 
produced in English by Mr. Bernard 
(Palestine Pilgrims Society). 

Mart, of Salisbury. Blommaert. Smith 
and Wacc. Le Beau. Mrs. Lewis, How 
the Codex teas found (1893), testifies to 
the accuracy of Silvia s description, and 
says that, "the whole diary throws a 




flood of liglit on the state of Eastern 
Christendom before the fall of the Roman 

St. Silvia (2), Nov. 3, March 12. 
Gth century. She was of the great 
Roman family of the Anicii. Wile of 
Gordian, and mother of Pope (St.) 
Gregory the Great. AA.SS. 

St. Silvina, Nov. 9, M. at Antioch 
with ST. POLLENTIA. Mart, of Reichenau. 

St. Simia. April 26, M. in Africa. 

St. Simplicia (l), Nov. 1, M. at 
Terracina end of 1st century, with six 
women and seven men. AA.SS. 

St. Simplicia (2), M. with her 
daughter Orsa and another. Their sacred 
remains were found with a vase of blood, 
in the cemetery of St. Ciriacus in Rome, 
early in the 19th century. Diario di 
Roma, March 22, 1820. 

St. Simplicia (3), April 12, V. M. 
Body preserved in the monastery of San 
Ponzio at Nice. Ferrarius. Saussaye. 

St. Simpliciola, Sept. 4, V. M. in 
Africa. Daughter of GALLA (4). Greven. 
German Mart. 

St. Sincha or SEGNIE, V. + 597. 
Colgan, AA.SS. Hibernise, says there 
were seven holy virgins of the name of 
Sincha, and that there was a church in 
Meath called Teagh-Sinche, the house of 
Sincha. He conjectures that it was the 
same as Kill Ailbe in East Meath, where 
St. Abban is said to have established a 
nunnery and to have placed over it a 
virgin named SEGNICH : Lanigan calls this 
a loose and groundless conjecture. Cahier 
says ST. SINCHA is the same as SYNECA. 

St. Sinclita or SINCLITICA, V. Her 
name is in an ancient Anglican litany. 
Migne, Patroloaise Cursus Completus, vol. 
Ixxii., p. 620. 

St.Sindone. (See ST. VERONICA (1).) 

St. Sinevo, SUNNIVA. 

St. Sinney, SUNNIVA. 

St. Sinnidia, April 3, M. at Tomis in 
Scythia. AA.SS. 

St. Sinoyslawa, WOYSLAWA. 

St. Sira, May 18, M. 558. Repre 
sented lying dead, surrounded by dogs. 
A native of Chircaseleucus in Mesopo 
tamia. Daughter of a great magician, 

who would not allow her to associate 
with her neighbours, because some of 
them held intercourse with the Chris 
tians. He brought a woman to teach 
her from a distant place, where the 
doctrines of the Persians were held more 
strictly. Notwithstanding these pre 
cautions, when Sira arrived at the age 
of eighteen, she was dissatisfied with the 
religion in which she had been brought 
up. She had no pleasure in the assem 
blies of women of her class, and tried to 
make friends with those of lower rank 
but of greater virtue ; and when she 
found that they were Christians, she 
questioned them eagerly and went se 
cretly to their church to hear the scrip 
tures read. She resolved not to be given 
in marriage, and gradually disfigured 
herself with fasting and vigils. Still 
she was too much afraid of the Magi to 
confess her faith openly. She was seized 
with a dangerous illness. When neither 
medicine nor the fire and water of the 
heathen rites brought her relief, remem 
bering the woman of Cana, who said that 
the dogs might eat of the crumbs from 
the children s table, she sent and asked 
one of the Christian priests to let her 
have some dust from the church, trusting 
that would suffice to heal her. He an 
swered that she could not be partaker of 
the table of the Lord and of the table of 
devils. She seized hold of the priest s 
robe hastily as he passed her. She 
was healed immediately. Seeing such 
virtue in the mere garment of His ser 
vant, she thought how great must be the 
power of the Lord Himself, and what 
vast benefit she would derive from holy 
baptism. The devil made her believe 
that he was the God who had healed her, 
and immediately her disease returned ; 
but on her repentance, she again re 
covered. In consequence of several 
visions in which her own future sanctity 
was revealed, she applied to the bishop 
to baptize her. He required that she 
should first avow her conversion to her 
own family. While she wavered, she 
had a vision of an angel of God, striking 
her with a rod of iron and bidding her 
take courage and keep her promise. Next 
morning she was summoned by her step 
mother to attend the Magian religious 



rites as usual. She obeyed the call. As 
soon as she had taken the firewood which 
was used by the Magi, she saw herself 
surrounded by a splendid flame. En 
couraged by this sign, she broke the 
wood, interrupted the sacrifice, spat 
upon the fire and put it out, saying, " I 
am going to the Church of the Christians, 
and no one shall hinder me from adopt 
ing their faith." Hearing this, her 
brothers and other relations held her 
and ordered the gates to be shut. She 
requested them to call her father, that 
she might declare her resolution in his 
presence. She was kept in fetters with 
out food or drink for many days. As 
she persevered in spite of the persuasions 
of her friends, the leader of the Maviptas 
was informed. He called the Magi to 
gether, brought Sira before them in the 
Temple of fire, and asked her why she 
had departed from their customs. She 
answered that each person was born with 
intelligence and that it was only fit for 
an animal to go on doing what he saw 
the others do, without considering 
whether it were right or wrong ; that 
therefore she had used her reason, and 
had come to the conclusion that the 
Christian faith was better than that 
taught by her parents. The Mavipta 
threatened her with tortures and death, 
which she said did not frighten her, and 
she began to sing. He asked her what 
words she was saying. As some of the 
bystanders said they were Christian 
words, he sent for the bishop. He came. 
Sira perceiving that he was in great fear 
of the Magi, said, "Fear not, Father, 
but remember the words of the Scrip 
tures," and she quoted Psalm cxix. 46 
and St. Matt. x. 28. Then the bishop 
said that Sira was speaking the words of 
the Christians. The prince of the Magi 
ordered her to be struck on the mouth ; 
but a great crowd of Christians took 
her back to her father s house. The 
Mavipta not wishing to bring disgrace 
on so illustrious a family, advised her 
father to persuade her by gentle means 
to give up her fancy for Christianity. 
The Dar (king of Persia) sent messen 
gers to threaten her with death if she 
did not renounce her errors, and to 
promise a royal reward if she returned 

to the religion of her family. She said 
she would like to be taken before the Dar 
and to give him an account of her faith. 
After this it was ordered that the fetters 
were to be made heavier, and that she 
was to be thrown into a well : the smiths 
and guards were unable to fasten the 
fetters until Sira herself made the sign of 
the cross over them. After being mira 
culously delivered, she was baptized, but 
the contemporary author says that, how, 
and by whom this was managed, he was 
not at liberty to say. 

At -this time the Koman legate was 
about to return to his own country. 
The Magi feared he would send a re 
quest to the king to liberate Sira, so 
they determined to anticipate such re 
quest, by sending her to the king at 
once. They put a seal on her neck 
which could only be removed by cutting 
off her head. Fruitless attempts were 
made to induce her to apostatize. At 
last she was condemned to death. She 
fell ill and was much afraid that the 
honour of martyrdom would not be 
granted to her. She recovered, how 
ever, and was ordered to be strangled. 
A rope was put round her neck, and when 
she was nearly strangled, it was loosened 
and she was asked if she would purchase 
her life by renouncing her faith. She 
refused and the same thing was done 
again. On her second refusal she was 
strangled to death. She was denied the 
honour of burial and her body was 
thrown to the dogs, but they would not 
touch it and the Christians buried her 
and erected an oratory over her grave. 
Other Christians were martyred with her. 

St. Siria, SYEA (1). 

St. Siriana, July 1 7, M. AA.SS. 

St. Sirilla, SIETILLA, or SYTILLA, 
April 1 2, M. AA.SS. 

St. Sirtilla, SIRILLA. 

St. Sirude, or SITEUDE, Sept. 30, 
abbess. 7th century. Sister of St. 
Donatus (Aug. 7), bishop of Besanc,on 
in Burgundy. They were children of 
Waldelen and Flavia who begged St. 
Columbanus to pray that they might be 
blessed with children ; then they had a 
son and two daughters. When Walde 
len died, Flavia built a convent for 



herself and her daughters in the town of 
Besangon, where she ruled over many 
holy women. Afterwards Donatus built 
two other monasteries, with his mother s 
help ; one of which seems to have been 
double, and over it Sirude presided. She 
and Flavia were buried there. Sirude 
does not appear to be worshipped. Do 
natus has long had local but not general 
worship. AA.SS., Prseter. 

St. Sisetrude, SISINTRUDIS, or Sis- 
SETRUDE, Dec. 7, May 5, -f c. 65-5. Nun 
under ST. FARA at Brie, and sister of 
ST. ERCONGOTA. Sisetrude was cellarer 
of the convent. She was warned by a 
heavenly vision that she would die in 
forty days, which time was granted her 
to repent of all her sins. She spent 
thirty-seven days in prayer, repentance, 
and the strictest attention to all her 
duties. Then two angels came and took 
her soul to heaven, leaving her body as 
if dead. They brought her back and 
gave her strict injunctions to be quite 
ready in three days for her final depar 
ture. When she found herself returned 
to her body, she called the abbess and 
begged that she might have the prayers 
of the whole community. The third day, 
as they all stood about her praying, she 
told Fara that she saw the two angels 
coming for her ; they did not see them, 
but they heard the angelic choir rejoic 
ing as Sisetrude entered into paradise. 

St. Sissetrude, SISETRUDE. 

St. Sithe (l), ITA (1). 

St. Sithe (2), OSITH. 

St. Sithefulla, SIDWELL. 

St. Sithewella, SIDWELL. 

St. Sitisberg, IDABERG (3). 

St. Sitrude, SIRUDE. 

St. Sitta, ZITA. 

St. Smaragdus or SMARIDANUS, 


St. Smarve, honoured in Poitou, a 
corruption of St. MARVE, who is perhaps 

St. Snandulia or ISNANDUL, Nov. 3, 
M. 4th century, in Persia, with ST. PHER- 
BUTHA and many others. Snandulia is 
mentioned in the Acts of the venerable 
Bishop St. Acepsima. She was put to 
death for refusing to join in stoning a 
Christian priest named Joseph. AA.SS., 

April 2. Gneco-Slavonian Calendar, 
Nov. 3. 

St. Sodelbia. (See ETHNBA.) 

St. Sodepha. (See MERONA.) 

St. Sodera, SODEPHA. 

St. Soderina, or SODHINA, Sept. 1, a 
Servite at Florence. Mas Latrie. 

St. Soffonia, a virgin invoked in an 
ancient Anglican litany. Migne, vol. 
Ixxii. p. 620. 

St. Solange or SOLONGIA, May 10, 
V. M. supposed 9th century. Patron of 
Berri, and especially of Bourges. In 
voked for rain and against rain. 
Daughter of a poor peasant of Villemont. 
The field where she generally led her 
sheep and where she prayed and medi 
tated on the sufferings of Christ is still 
called the Champ de Stc. Solange, and 
is thought to produce a better crop than . 
any other in the neighbourhood. She 
was guided by a star which always ap 
peared day and night just above her 
head in the sky. She had a wonderful 
gift of miracles, dispelling disease and 
all sorts of blight and tempests. 

Bernard, the son of the count of 
Bourges, tried to induce her to re 
nounce her vow of virginity and share 
his rank and wealth. He was very 
angry at her refusal as he thought 
he was doing her a great honour. 
He carried her off on the neck of his 
horse, but crossing a little river she 
threw herself down. The count en 
raged, sprang from his horse, and cut 
off her head. The next moment he was 
horrified at his own barbarity and wept 
for his crime for the rest of his life. 
She continued standing and held her 
head in her hands. 

She was buried with great honour in 
the church of St. Martin du Cros, where 
she wrought many miracles. The first 
translation of her body was made in 
the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
when Michael de Bussy was archbishop 
of Bourges. AA.SS. Martin. 

St. Soleine or SOLENNE, SOLINE. 

St. Soline, Oct. 17; translations, 
Feb. 11 and March 3, M. 3rd century. 
The French names SOLEINE, SOLENNE, 
rived from that of SOLINE, and are not 
to be confounded with SOLANGE or 



SOLONGIA. Soline was a native of Aqui- 
taiue and proved her zeal as a Christian 
by making many converts. To avoid 
being given in marriage by her parents, 
she fled to Chartres, where a persecu 
tion of the Christians was raging and 
where she was tortured and put to death. 
Cahier, from her lessons in the Abbey 
of St. Pierre-en- Vallee, where her relics 
were kept in a gilded shrine. Martin. 

St. Solomonia, SALOME (1). 

St. Solongia, SOLANGE. 

St. Solonita, SALONICA. 

St. SombergTie, SUMBERGA. Cahier. 

St. Sommine, French for SUNNIVA. 

St. Sopatra or SOSIPATRA. (See 

St. Sophia (1) or SAPIENTIA, Sept. 17 
in the Byzantine Church ; Sept. 30, July 1 , 
Aug. 1, -f c. 120. Represented with 
three little girls, her daughters, FAITH, 
HOPE, and CHARITY. R.N., Sept. 30. 
Cahier, Saints Enfants. 

St. Sophia (2), Sept. 3, V. M. Her 
Acts in the breviary at Minden in West 
phalia are so like those of ST. SERAPIA 
that Pinius thinks the relics translated 
there from Rome in the time of Charle 
magne are those of Serapia and that she 
has been erroneously called Sophia. 

St. Sophia (3), June 4, mother of 
SS. DIBAMONA and BlOTAMONA ; all mar 
tyred in Egypt with ST. WARSENOPHA 
and her mother. AA.SS. 

St. Sophia (4), Oct. 31, 3rd century. 
Abbess of a convent near Rome. (See 

B. Sophia (5) of Ancyra in Galatia, 
Nov. 5. 3rd century. When St. Clement 
(afterwards bishop) was deprived of his 
holy mother, the pious Sophia adopted 
him. She also loved and buried his 
friend St. Agathangelue. Gynecseum. 
Stadler calls her Saint. 

St. Sophia (6), matron. Her young 
daughters having suffered great torments 
and been put to death for the Christian 
faith, she died praying at their tomb. 
Their relics were translated from Italy 
to Strasburg in Alsace. Cratepoleus, 
De Germanise Bpiscopis, etc., and his De 
Sanctis Germanise. Perhaps same as 
SOPHIA (1) or (3). 

St. Sophia (7), April 30, V. M. at 
Firmo in Italy, under Decius, or Dio 
cletian. EM. AA.SS. Butler. 

St. Sophia (8), July 20, M. at 
Damascus. Stadler. 

St. Sophia (9), July 27, queen, wor 
shipped by the Ethiopians. AA.SS. 
Perhaps Sophia, queen of Cachetia, con 
verted by St. Nino. 

St. Sophia (10) Medica, May 22, 
M. probably not later than the time of 
Diocletian. She was skilled in medicine 
and put to death with a sword. 

" Sophia pridom corpora medica, facta est 
Medica animarum, csesa cum capite fuit." 


St. Sophia (11), May 15, V. M. at 
Rome. Represented with a bundle of 
rods, a trough, and an axe. AA.SS. 

SS. Sophia (12) and Irene (2), Sept. 
18, MM. honoured in the Greek Church. 
They were beheaded,perhaps in the island 
of Cyprus. R.M. AA.SS. 

St. Sophia (13), ^Sept. 23, V. M. 
Patron of Sortino in Sicily. Local tra 
dition says that she was the only daughter 
of an emperor of Constantinople, a great 
persecutor of Christians ; the inhabitants 
of Sortino have been preserved from 
every pestilence and infectious disease 
through her aid, and that a well near her 
church daily restores health to numbers 
of sufferers : she was beaten with sinews 
of bulls, and cast into prison; when 
liberated, she fled to Sicily ; from there, 
was sent back to her father, and by his 
order, placed on the rack ; she was set